|Breitenbach, Edda: Phytosanitäre Qualitätsbeurteilung von gewerblich hergestellten Komposten anhand ihres Pilzspektrums |
The study is a contribution to the knowledge of the antiphytopathogenic properties of biogenic waste compost used in gardening and agriculture.
The fungal species community of commercially composted organic household waste was recorded. The decomposition process of two different composting methods (as an open heap or rotting in a box) was monitored.
A total of 960 compost samples with a dry weight of 6,9 g were studied. 1187 isolates representing 99 species out of 43 genera were identified. The fresh and matured composts contained mostly saprophytic and apathogenic fungi or species with antiphytopathogenic properties.
In the case of the compost, rotted in a heap, the fungal species community dropped during the maturing process. By contrast to that, the fungal species community of the compost rotted in a box increased twice to threefold during the maturing process.
The known pathogen Pythium irregulare could be isolated out of a single sample. 15 fungal species were found to be dominating the community of all investigated compost heaps. Almost 70 % of all isolates belonged to this group. The dominating fungal species and an isolate of Pythium oligandrum were checked by the biotic series method at 10 °C and 20 °C against the following four fungal pathogens: Pythium ultimum, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. Significant antagonistic properties at both temperatures were shown to varying degrees by Trichoderma atroviride, Pythium oligandrum, Penicillium expansum, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor circinelloides and Mortierella stylospora.
To prove the results, several biotests on seedlings of wheat and pea with these selected species, with the exception of Mucor circinelloides, were also made. Fusarium redolens was chosen as an additional pathogen. The antagonistic properties of the above listed fungal species taken from compost could be confirmed in vivo.
It can be concluded that the fungal species community of compost can be influenced in quality and quantity by controlling the rotting process. Besides, the fungal community spectrum can be used as an indicator for the phytosanitary quality and the antiphytopathogenic properties of compost.
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