[Seite 44↓]

Literaturverzeichnis

1 Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, Levine BE: Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet. 1967; 2: S.319-323

2 Zapol WM, Snider MT: Pulmonary hypertension in severe acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 1977; 296: S.476-480

3 Sibbald WJ, Driedger AA, Myers ML, Short AI, Wells GA: Biventricular function in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest. 1983; 84: S.126-134

4 Marshall BE, Hanson CW, Frasch F, Marshall C: Role of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in pulmonary gas exchange and blood flow distribution. 2. Pathophysiology. Intensive Care Med. 1994; 20: S.379-389

5 Vlahakes GJ, Turley K, Hoffman JI: The pathophysiology of failure in acute right ventricular hypertension: hemodynamic and biochemical correlations. Circulation. 1981; 63: S.87-95

6 Villar J, Blazquez MA, Lubillo S, Quintana J, Manzano JL: Pulmonary hypertension in acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 1989; 17: S.523-526

7 Fowler AA, Hamman RF, Good JT, et al.: Adult respiratory distress syndrome: risk with common predispositions. Ann Intern Med. 1983; 98: S.593-597

8 Hudson LD, Milberg JA, Anardi D, Maunder RJ: Clinical risks for development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 151: S.293-301

9 National Heart and Lung Institute: Task Force on Problems, Resarch Approaches, Needs: The Lung Program.. Band Publication No. (NHI) 73-432. Washington DC, Department of Health, Education and Welfare 1972, S.165-180

10 Villar J, Slutsky AS: The incidence of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989; 140: S.814-816

11 Thomsen GE, Morris AH: Incidence of the adult respiratory distress syndrome in the state of Utah. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 152: S.965-971


[Seite 45↓]

12 Lewandowski K, Metz J, Deutschmann C, et al.: Incidence, severity, and mortality of acute respiratory failure in Berlin, Germany. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 151: S.1121-1125

13 Sloane PJ, Gee MH, Gottlieb JE, et al.: A multicenter registry of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Physiology and outcome. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992; 146: S.419-426

14 Milberg JA, Davis DR, Steinberg KP, Hudson LD: Improved survival of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): 1983-1993. Jama. 1995; 273: S.306-309

15 Zapol WM, Snider MT, Hill JD, et al.: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in severe acute respiratory failure. A randomized prospective study. Jama. 1979; 242: S.2193-2196

16 NHLBI Divison of Lung Diseases: Extracorporeal support for respiratory insufficiency. A colloborative sytudy in response to RFP.. Band 73-20. NHLI, 1979

17 Zobel G, Rodl S, Urlesberger B, Dacar D, Trafojer U, Trantina A: The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure during partial liquid ventilation in acute lung injury in piglets. Crit Care Med. 1999; 27: S.1934-1939

18 Colton DM, Till GO, Johnson KJ, Dean SB, Bartlett RH, Hirschl RB: Neutrophil accumulation is reduced during partial liquid ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1998; 26: S.1716-1724

19 Rotta AT, Gunnarsson B, Hernan LJ, Fuhrman BP, Steinhorn DM: Partial liquid ventilation influences pulmonary histopathology in an animal model of acute lung injury. J Crit Care. 1999; 14: S.84-92

20 Steinhorn DM, Leach CL, Fuhrman BP, Holm BA: Partial liquid ventilation enhances surfactant phospholipid production. Crit Care Med. 1996; 24: S.1252-1256

21 Radermacher P, Huet Y, Pluskwa F, et al.: Comparison of ketanserin and sodium nitroprusside in patients with severe ARDS. Anesthesiology. 1988; 68: S.152-157

22 Wagner PD, Saltzman HA, West JB: Measurement of continuous distributions of ventilation-perfusion ratios: theory. J Appl Physiol. 1974; 36: S.588-599


[Seite 46↓]

23 Radermacher P, Santak B, Becker H, Falke KJª: Prostaglandin E1 and nitroglycerin reduce pulmonary capillary pressure but worsen ventilation-perfusion distributions in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology. 1989; 70: S.601-606

24 Ichinose F, Adrie C, Hurford WE, Bloch KD, Zapol WM: Selective pulmonary vasodilation induced by aerosolized zaprinast. Anesthesiology. 1998; 88: S.410-416

25 Mitchell HH, Shonnle H, Grindley H: The origin of nitrate in the urine. J Biol Chem. 1916; 24: S.461

26 Norman V, Keith CH: Nitrogen oxides in tabacco smoke. Nature. 1965; 205: S.915-916

27 Higenbottam T, Borland C: NO yields of contemporary UK, US and French cigarettes. Int J Epedemiol. 1987; 16: S.31-34

28 Furchgott RF, Zawadzki JV: The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine. Nature. 1980; 288: S.Nature

29 Ignarro LJ, Buga GM, Wood KS, Byrns RE, Chaudhuri G: Endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced and released from artery and vein is nitric oxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987; 84: S.9265-9269

30 Palmer RM, Ferrige AG, Moncada S: Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature. 1987; 327: S.524-526

31 Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA: Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev. 1991; 43: S.109-142

32 Brenner BM, Troy JL, Ballermann BJ: Endothelium-dependent vascular responses. Mediators and mechanisms. J Clin Invest. 1989; 84: S.1373-1378

33 Frostell C, Fratacci MD, Wain JC, Jones R, Zapol WM: Inhaled nitric oxide. A selective pulmonary vasodilator reversing hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Circulation. 1991; 83: S.2038-2047

34 Ignarro LJ, Lippton H, Edwards JC, et al.: Mechanism of vascular smooth muscle relaxation by organic nitrates, nitrites, nitroprusside and nitric oxide: evidence for the involvement of S-nitrosothiols as active intermediates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1981; 218: S.739-749


[Seite 47↓]

35 Forstermann U, Closs EI, Pollock JS, et al.: Nitric oxide synthase isozymes. Characterization, purification, molecular cloning, and functions. Hypertension. 1994; 23: S.1121-1131

36 Radomski MW, Palmer RM, Moncada S: The anti-aggregating properties of vascular endothelium: interactions between prostacyclin and nitric oxide. Br J Pharmacol. 1987; 92: S.639-646

37 Hibbs JB, Jr., Taintor RR, Vavrin Z, Rachlin EM: Nitric oxide: a cytotoxic activated macrophage effector molecule. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988; 157: S.87-94

38 Dupuy PM, Shore SA, Drazen JM, Frostell C, Hill WA, Zapol WM: Bronchodilator action of inhaled nitric oxide in guinea pigs. J Clin Invest. 1992; 90: S.421-428

39 Pison U, Lopez FA, Heidelmeyer CF, Rossaint R, Falke KJ: Inhaled nitric oxide reverses hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction without impairing gas exchange. J Appl Physiol. 1993; 74: S.1287-1292

40 Rossaint R, Falke KJ, Lopez F, Slama K, Pison U, Zapol WM: Inhaled nitric oxide for the adult respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: S.399-405

41 Iotti GA, Olivei MC, Palo A, Galbusera C, Veronesi R, Braschi A: Acute effects of inhaled nitric oxide in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Eur Respir J. 1998; 12: S.1164-1171

42 Troncy E, Collet JP, Shapiro S, et al.: Inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998; 157: S.1483-1488

43 Olivei MC, Palo A, Galbusera C, et al.: Inhaled nitrous oxide (NO) for the treatment of ARDS Minerva Anestesiol. 1997; 63: S.61-68

44 Borelli M, Lampati L, Vascotto E, Fumagalli R, Pesenti A: Hemodynamic and gas exchange response to inhaled nitric oxide and prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Crit Care Med. 2000; 28: S.2707-2712


[Seite 48↓]

45 Adrie C, Holzmann A, Hirani WM, Zapol WM, Hurford WE: Effects of intravenous Zaprinast and inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange in an bovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology. 2000; 93: S.422-430

46 Murray JF, Matthay MA, Luce JM, Flick MR: An expanded definition of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988; 138: S.720-723

47 Levy B, Bollaert PE, Bauer P, Nace L, Audibert G, Larcan A: Therapeutic optimization including inhaled nitric oxide in adult respiratory distress syndrom in a polyvalent intensive care unit. J Trauma. 1995; 38: S.370-374

48 Gerlach H, Rossaint R, Pappert D, Falke KJ: Time-course and dose-response of nitric oxide inhalation for systemic oxygenation and pulmonary hypertension in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest. 1993; 23: S.499-502

49 Lowson SM, Rich GF, McArdle PA, Jaidev J, Morris GN: The response to varying concentrations of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesth Analg. 1996; 82: S.574-581

50 Demirakca S, Dotsch J, Knothe C, et al.: Inhaled nitric oxide in neonatal and pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: dose response, prolonged inhalation, and weaning. Crit Care Med. 1996; 24: S.1913-1919

51 Rossaint R, Gerlach H, Schmidt-Ruhnke H, et al.: Efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe ARDS. Chest. 1995; 107: S.1107-1115

52 Michael JR, Barton RG, Saffle JR, et al.: Inhaled nitric oxide versus conventional therapy: effect on oxygenation in ARDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998; 157: S.1372-1380

53 Roberts JD et al.: Inhaled nitric oxide and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. The inhaled nitric oxide study group. N Engl J Med. 1997; 328: S.399-405

54 Cannon RO, Schechter AN, Panza JA, Ognibene FP, Peas-Fye ME, Waclawik MA, Shelhamer JH, Gladwin MT: Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on regional blood flow are consistent with intravascular nitric oxide delivery. J Clin Invest. 2002; 108: S.279-287


[Seite 49↓]

55 Rassaf T, Preik M, Kleinbongard P, Lauer T, Heiß C, Strauer BE, Feelisch M, Kelm M: Evidence for in vivo transport of biactive nirtic oxide in human plasma. J Clin Invest. 2002; 109: S.1241-1248

56 Lundin S, Mang H, Smithies M, Stenqvist O, Frostell C: Inhalation of nitric oxide in acute lung injury: results of a European multicentre study. The European Study Group of Inhaled Nitric Oxide. Intensive Care Med. 1999; 25: S.911-919

57 Rossaint R, Slama K, Steudel W, et al.: Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on right ventricular function in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 1995; 21: S.197-203

58 Frostell CG, Blomqvist H, Hedenstierna G, Lundberg J, Zapol WM: Inhaled nitric oxide selectively reverses human hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction without causing systemic vasodilation. Anesthesiology. 1993; 78: S.427-435

59 McIntyre RD, Moore Fa, PiedalueF, Haenel JS, Fullerton DA: Inhaled nitric oxide variably improves oxygenation and pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrom. J Trauma. 1995; 39: S.418-425

60 Fierobe L, Brunet F, Dhainaut JF, et al.: Effect of inhaled nitric oxide on right ventricular function in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 151: S.1414-1419

61 Dellinger RP, Zimmerman JL, Taylor RW, et al.: Effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: results of a randomized phase II trial. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in ARDS Study Group. Crit Care Med. 1998; 26: S.15-23

62 Gerlach H, Rossaint R, Pappert D, Knorr M, Falke KJ: Autoinhalation of nitric oxide after endogenous synthesis in nasopharynx. Lancet. 1994; 343: S.518-519

63 Lundberg JO, Settergren G, Gelinder S, Lundberg JM, Alving K, Weitzberg E: Inhalation of nasally derived nitric oxide modulates pulmonary function in humans. Acta physiologica Scandinavica. 1996; 158: S.343-347


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am:
07.01.2005