[Seite 82↓]

7. Literatur

Addington J, Addington D (2000) Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia: a 2.5 year follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research 44:47-56

Addington J, Addington D, Maticka-Tyndale E (1991) Cognitive functioning and positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 5:123-134

Albus M, Hubmann W, Wahlheim C, et al. (1996) Contrasts in neuropsychological test profile between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and first-episode affective disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 94:87-93

Aleman A, Hijman R, de Haan EH, Kahn RS (1999) Memory impairment in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 156:1358-66

Allen HA, Liddle PF, Frith CD (1993) Negative features, retrieval processes and verbal fluency in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 163:769-775

Anderson SW, Damasio H, Jones RD, Tranel D (1991) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance as a Measure of Frontal Lobe Damage. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 13:909-922

Andreasen NC (1989) The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS): Conceptual and Theoretical Foundations. British Journal of Psychiatry 155:49-52

Andreasen NC, Paradiso S, O Leary DS (1998) Cognitive dysmetria as an integrative theory of schizophrenia: a dysfunction in the cortikal-subcortikal-cerebellar circuitry? Schizophrenia Bulletin 24:203-218

Andreasen NC, Rezai K, Alliger R, Swayze YW, Flaum M, Kirschner P, Cohen G, O’Leary DS (1992) Hypofrontality in neuroleptic-naive patients and in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 49:943-958

Asarnow RF, McCrimmon DJ (1982) Attention/information processing, neuropsychological functioning, and thought disorder during the acute and partial recovery phases of schizophrenia: a longitudinal study. Psychiatry Research 7:309-319

Baddeley A (1986) The central executive and its malfunction. In: Working memory. New York. Oxford.

Bäumler G (1985) Farbe-Wort-Interferenztest (FWIT) nach J.R. Stroop. Handanweisung. Hogrefe, Göttingen.


[Seite 83↓]

Barnes TR, Hutton SB, Chapman MJ, Mutsatsa S, Puri BK, Joyce EM (2000) West London first-episode study of schizophrenia: clinical correlates of duration of untreated psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 177:207-211

Berman KF, Ostrem JL, Randolph C, et al. (1995) Physiological Activation of a Cortikal Network During Performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: A Positron Emission Tomography Study. Neuropsychologia 33:1027-1046

Bilder RM (1997) Neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia and how it affects treatment options. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 42:255-264

Bilder RM, et al. (1992) Methylphenidate and neuroleptic effects on oral word production in schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology 5:262-271

Bilder RM, Lipschutz-Broch L, Reiter G, Geisler SH, Mayerhoff DI, Lieberman JA (1992) Intellectual deficits in first-episode schizophrenia: evidence for progressive deterioration. Schizophrenia Bulletin 18:437–448

Bilder RM, Goldberg E (1987) Motor Perseverations in Schizophrenia. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 2:195-214

Bilder RM, Goldman RS, Robinson D, Reiter G, Bell L, Bates JA, Pappadopulos E, Willson DF, Alvir JMJ, Woerner MG, Geisler S, Kane JM, Lieberman JA (2000) Neuropsychology of First-Episode Schizophrenia: Initial Characterization and Clinical Correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry 157:549-559

Bilder RM, Turkel E, Lipschutz-Broch L, Lieberman JA (1992) Antipsychotic medication effects on neuropsychological functions. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 4:353-366

Black KJ, Gado MH, Perlmutter JS (1997) PET measurement of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated changes in striatopallidal function. Journal of Neuroscience 17:3168-3177

Blanchard JJ, Neale JM (1994) The neuropsychological signature of schizophrenia: generalized or differential deficit? American Journal of Psychiatry 151:40-8

Blyler CR, Gold JM (2000) Cognitive effects of typical antipsychotic treatment: another look. In: Cognition in Schizophrenia: Impairments, Importance, and Treatment Strategies. Edited by Sharma T, Harvey P Oxford University Press pp. 241-265

Braff DL, Heaton R, Kuck J, Cullum M, Moranville J, Grant I, Zisook S (1991) The generalized pattern of neuropsychological deficits in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia with heterogeneous Wisconsin Card Sorting Test results. Archives of General Psychiatry 48: 891-898

Breidt (1973) Are perserverations explained by brain damage? Psychiatrica Clinica (Basel) 6:357-69

Brickenkamp R (1981) Test d2 - Aufmerksamkeits-Belastungs-Test. Handanweisung. 7. Auflage, Hogrefe, Göttingen.


[Seite 84↓]

Buchanan RW, Strauss ME, Kirkpatrick B, Holstein C, Breier A, Carpenter WT (1994) Neuropsychological impairments in deficit vs. nondeficit forms of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 51:804-811

Buchsbaum MS, Haier RJ, Potkin SG, Nuechterlein K, Bracha HS, Katz M, Lohr J, Wu J, Lottenberg S, Jerabek PA, Trenary MM, Tafalla R, Reynolds C, Bunney WE (1992) Frontostriatal disorder of cerebral metabolism in never-medicated schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry 49:935-942

Calev A (1984) Recall and recognition in chronic nondemented schizophrenics: use of matched tasks. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 932:172-7

Calev A, Berlin H, Lerer B (1987) Remote and recent memory in long-hospitalized chronic schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry 22:79-85

Calev A, Fennig S, Jandorf L, et al. (1995) Factors associated with neuropsychological performance in first-admission psychotic patients. Schizophrenia Research 15:111

Calev A, Preston T, Samuel S, Gorton G (1999) Clinical neuropsychological assessment of psychiatric disorders. Ed. Calev A: Assessment of neuropsychological functions in psychiatric disorders. American Psychiatric Press, Inc Washington DC

Capleton RA (1996) Cognitive function in schizophrenia: association with negative and positive symptoms. Psychological Reports 78:123-8

Carpenter WT, Gold JM (2002) Another view of therapy for cognition in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 51:969-971

Carpenter WT, Heinrichs DW, Wagman AM (1988) Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: the concept. American Journal of Psychiatry 145:578-83

Cassens G, Inglis AK, Appelbaum PS, Gutheil TG (1990) Neuroleptics: Effects on neuropsychological function in chronic schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin 16:477-499

Chapman LJ, Chapman JP (1973) Problems in the measurement of cognitive deficit. Psychological Bulletin 796:380-5

Clare L, McKenna PJ, Mortimer AM, Baddeley AD (1993) Memory in schizophrenia: what is impaired and what is preserved? Neuropsychologia 31:1225-41

Conklin HM, Curtis CE, Katsanis J, Iacono WG (2000) Verbal Working Memory Impairment in Schizophrenia Patients and Their First-Degree Relatives: Evidence From the Digit Span Task. American Journal of Psychiatry 157:275-277

Cornblatt B, Obuchowski M, Robert S, Pollack S, Erlenmeyer-Kimling L (1999) Cognitive and behavioral precursors of schizophrenia. Development and Psychopathology 113:487-508


[Seite 85↓]

Cornblatt BA, Lenzenweger MF, Erlenmeyer-Kimling L (1989) The continuous performance test, identical pairs version: II. Contrasting attentional profiles in schizophrenic and depressed patients. Psychiatry Research 291:65-85

Cornblatt BA, Erlenmeyer-Kimling L (1985) Global attentional deviance as a marker of risk for schizophrenia: specificity and predictive validity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 944:470-86

Crawford JR, Obonsawin MC, Bremner M (1993) Frontal lobe impairment in schizophrenia: relationship to intellectual functioning. Psychological Medicine 23:787-90

Crider A (1997) Perseveration in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 23:63-74

Crider A, Blockel L, Solomon PR (1986) A selective attention deficit in the rat following induced dopamine receptor supersensitivity. Behavioral Neuroscience 100:315-319

Cuesta MJ, Peralta V, Zarzuela A (2001) Effects of olanzapine and other antipsychotics on cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia: a longitudinal study. Schizophrenia Research 48:17-28

Davidson M, Harvey P, Welsh KA, Powchik P, Putnam KM, Mohs RC (1996) Cognitive functioning in late-life schizophrenia: a comparison of elderly schizophrenic patients and patients with Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 153:1274-9

Davidson M, Harvey PD, Powchik P, Parrella M, White L, Knobler HY, Losonczy MF, Keefe RS, Katz S, Frecska E (1995) Severity of symptoms in chronically institutionalized geriatric schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 1522:197-207

De Visser SJ, van der Post J, Pieters MSM, Cohen AF, van Gerven MA (2001) Biomarkers for the effect of antipsychotic drugs in healthy volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 51:199-132

Elvevag B, Weickert T, Wechsler M, et al. (2002) An investigation of the integrity of semantic boundaries in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 53:187-98

Fannon D, Chitnis X, Doku V,Tennakoon L, O`Ceallaigh S, Soni W, Sumich A, Lowe J, Santamaria M, Sharma T (2000) Features of structural brain abnormality detected in first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 157: 1829-1834

Farmer ME, Kittner SJ, Rae DS, Bartko JJ, Regier DA (1995) Education and change in cognitive function. The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Annals of Epidemiology 5:1-7

Fleming K, Goldberg TE, Binks S, Randolph C, Gold JM, Weinberger DR (1997) Visuospatial Working Memory in Patients with Schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 41:43-49

Flyckt L, Sydow O, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Rydin E, Wiesel FA (1999) Neurological signs and psychomotor performance in patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research 86:113-29


[Seite 86↓]

Franke P, Maier W, Hardt J, et al. (1993) Assessment of Frontal Lobe Functioning in Schizophrenia and Unipolar Major Depression. Psychopathology 26:76-84

Franke P, Maier W, Hardt J, Hain C (1993) Cognitive functioning and anhedonia in subjects at risk for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 10:77-84

Friedman JI, Adler DN, Davis KL (1999) The role of norepinephrine in the pathophysiology of cognitive disorders: potential applications to the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Biological Psychiatry 46:1243-52

Frith CD (1992) The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia. Hillsdale

Fromm-Auch D, Yeudall LT (1983) Normative data for the Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological tests. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology 5:221-38

Fuller R, Jahanshani M (1999) Concurrent performance of motor tasks and processing capacity in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Neurolology, Neurosurgery,and Psychiatry 66:668-71

Gallhofer B, Bauer U, Lis S, Krieger S, Gruppe H (1996) Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: comparison of treatment with atypical antipsychotic agents and conventional neuroleptic drugs. European Neuropsychopharmacology 6:2-20

Geddes J, Freemantle N, Harrison P, Bebbington P (2000) Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: systematic overview and meta-regression analysis. BMJ 321:1371-6

Gold JM, et al. (1997) Auditory Working Memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance in Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 54:159-163

Goldberg E (1986) Varieties of Perseveration: Comparison of two Taxonomies. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 8:710-726

Goldberg E, et al. (1989) A reticulo-frontal disconnection syndrome. Cortex 25:687-695

Goldberg TE, Berman KF, Mohr E, Weinberger DR (1990) Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in Huntington's disease and schizophrenia. A comparison of patients matched for performance on a prefrontal-type task. Archives of Neurology 47:418-22

Goldberg TE, Bigelow LB, Weinberger DR, et al. (1991) Cognitive and behavioral effects of the Coadministration of Dextroamphetamine and Haloperidol in Schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 150:1355-1362

Goldberg TE, Gold, JM, Greenberg R, et al. (1993) Contrasts between Patients With Affective Disorders and Patients With Schizophrenia on a Neuropsychological Test Battery. American Journal of Psychiatry 150:1355-1362

Goldberg TE, Kelsoe JR, Weinberger DR, Pliskin NH, Kirwin PD, Berman KF (1988) Performance of schizophrenic patients on putative neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe function. International Journal of Neuroscience 42:51-8


[Seite 87↓]

Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR (1994) Schizophrenia Training Paradigms, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Redux. Schizophrenia Research 11:291-296

Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR (1995) Thought disorder, working memory and attention: interrelationships and the effects of neuroleptic medications. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 10:99-104

Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR, Berman KF, Pliskin NH, Podd MH (1987) Further evidence for dementia of the prefrontal type in schizophrenia? A controlled study of teaching the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Archives of General Psychiatry 44:1008-14

Golden CJ (1981) A standardized version of Luria´s neuropsychological tests. In: S. Filskov & T.J. Boll (eds.), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology, New York

Golden CJ, Hammeke TA, Purisch AD (1978) Diagnostic validity of standardized neuropsychological battery derived from Luria´s neuropsychological tests. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 46:1258-1265

Goldman-Rakic P (1994) Working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 6:348-357

Goldstein G, Zubin J, Pogue-Geile MF (1991) Hospitalization and the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. The influences of age and education. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 179:202-6

Green MF, Marder SR, Glynn SM, McGurk SR, Wirshing WC, Wirshing DA, Lieberman RP, Mintz J (2002) The Neurocognitive Effects of Low-Dose Haloperidol: A Two-Year Comparison with Risperidone. Biological Psychiatry 51:972-978

Gruzelier J, Seymour K, Wilson L, et al. (1988) Impairments on Neuropsychologic Tests of Temporohippocampal and Frontohippocampal Functions and Word Fluency in Remitting Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:623-629

Guttmann G, Kranner H (1960) Verfahren zur Registrierung von Ereignisfolgen und Berechnung ihres Ordnungsgrades. Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie 7:401-408

Hagh-Shenas H, Toobai S, Makaremi A (2002) Selective, sustained, and shift in attention in patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia. Perceptual and Motor Skills 95:1087-95

Hartwich P (1980) Schizophrenia and attention disorders. Psychopathology of cognitive processing of attentional tasks. Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiet der Psychiatrie 24:1-124

Harvey PD, Lombardi J, Leibman M, White L, Parrella M, Powchik P, Davidson M (1996) Cognitive impairment and negative symptoms in geriatric chronic schizophrenic patients: a follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research 22:223-31


[Seite 88↓]

Heaton R, Paulsen JS, Mc Adams LA, et al. (1994) Neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia: relationship to age, chronicity, and dementia. Archives of General Psychiatry 51:469-476

Heaton RK, et al. (1993) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Revised and Expanded Version. Psychological Assessment Resources

Heckers S, Curran T, Goff D, Rauch SL, Fischman AJ, Alpert NM, Schacter DL (2000) Abnormalities in the thalamus and prefrontal cortex during episodic object recognition in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 48:651-7

Hegarty JD, Baldessarini RJ, Tohen M, et al. (1994) One hundred years of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the outcome literature. American Journal of Psychiatry 151:1409-16

Heinrichs DW, Buchanan RW (1988) Significance and meaning of neurological signs in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 145:11-18

Heinrichs RW, Zakzanis KK (1998) Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology 12:426-445

Hemsley DR, Richardson PH (1980) Shadowing by context in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 168:141-5

Ho BC, Alicata D, Ward J, Moser DJ, O`Leary DS, Arndt S, Andreasen NC (2003) Untreated Initial Psychosis: Relation to Cognitive Deficits and Brain Morphology in First-Episode Schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:142-148

Hoff AL, Riordan H, O'Donnell DW, Morris L, DeLisi LE (1992) Neuropsychological functioning of first-episode schizophreniform patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 149:898-903

Hoff AL, Sakuma M, Razi K, Heydebrand G, Csernansky JG, DeLisi LE (2000) Lack of association between duration of untreated illness and severity of cognitive and structural brain deficits at the first episode of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 157:1824-1828

Hoff AL, Shukla S, Aronson T, Cook B, Ollo C, Baruch S, Jandorf L, Schwartz J (1990) Failure to differentiate bipolar disorder from schizophrenia on measures of neuropsychological function. Schizophrenia Research 3:253-60

Hokama H, Shenton ME, Nestor PG, et al. (1995) Caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus volume in schizophrenia: a quantitative MRI study. Psychiatry Res 61:209-29

Holthausen EAE, Wiersma D, Sitskoorn MM, Hijman R, Dingemans PM, Scheene AH, van den Bosch RJ (2002) Schizophrenic patients without neuropsychological deficits: subgroup, disease severity or cognitive compensation? Psychiatry Research 112:1-11

Horn W (1983) Leistungsprüfsystem L-P-S. Handanweisung. Hogrefe, Göttingen

Huber G, Gross G, Schuttler R (1975) A long-term follow-up study of schizophrenia: psychiatric course of illness and prognosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 52:49-57


[Seite 89↓]

Ichikawa J, Ishii H, Bonaccorso S, et al. (2001) 5-HT(2A) and D(2) receptor blockade increases cortical DA release via 5-HT(1A) receptor activation: a possible mechanism of atypical antipsychotic-induced cortical dopamine release. Journal of Neurochemistry 76:1521-31

Jernigan TL, Zisook S, Heaton RK, et al (1991) Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in lenticular nuclei and cerebral cortex in schizophrenia. Archives of General of Psychiatry 48:881-90

Kahn JP (1996) Tolerance of neuroleptics, deficit syndrome and cognitive functions. Encephale 22:49-54

Kahn RS, Harvey PD, Davidson M, Keefe RS, Apter S, Neale JM, Mohs RC, Davis KL (1994) Neuropsychological correlates of central monoamine function in chronic schizophrenia: relationship between CSF metabolites and cognitive function. Schizophrenia Research 11:217-24

Kay SR, Fiszbein PS, Opler LA (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:261-276

Keefe RS, Silva SG, Perkins DO, Lieberman JA (1999) The effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 25:201-22

Kenny JT, Meltzer HY (1991) Attention and higher cortical functions in schizophrenia. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 3:269-75

King DJ, Wilson A, Cooper SJ, Waddington JL (1991) The clinical correlates of neurological soft signs in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 158:770-5

Klonoff H, Fibiger CH, Hutton GH (1970) Neuropsychological patterns in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 150:291-300

Kolb B, Whishaw IQ (1996) Neuropsychologie, 2. Auflage. Spektrum Akademie Verlag

Kraepelin E (1919) Dementia praecox and paraphrenia.

Krausz M, Moritz SH, Naber D, Lambert M, Andresen B (1999) Neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms are accompanied by cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. European Psychiatry 14:84-88

Krausz M, Moritz SH, Lambert M, Naber D (2000) Dosage of conventional neuroleptic medication and subjective cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 15:77-81

Kremen WS, Seidman LJ, Faraone SV, Toomey R, Tsuang MT (2000) The paradox of normal neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109:743-752

Kuperberg G, Heckers S (2000) Schizophrenia and cognitive function. Current Opinion of Neurobiology 10:205-10


[Seite 90↓]

Lehrl S (1991) Manual zum MWT-B. 3 überarbeitete Auflage. Perimed-spitta, Balingen

Lehrl S, Triebig G, Fischer B (1995) Multiple choice vocabulary test MWT as a valid and short estimate premorbid intelligence. Acta neurologica Scandinavica 91:335-345

Lezak MD (1995) Neuropsychological Assessment. 3rd Edition. NY, Oxford University Press

Liddle PF, Friston KJ, Frith CD, Hirsch SR, Jones T, Frackowiak RSJ (1992) Patterns of cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 160:179-186

Liepmann K (1905) Über Störungen des Handelns bei Gehirnkranken. Karger, Berlin

Luria AR (1965) Two kinds of motor perseveration in massive injury of the frontal lobes. Brain 88:1-10

Luria AR (1980) The higher cortikal functions in man. 2 nd edition, New York

Lyon N, Gerlach J (1988) Perseverative structuring of responses by schizophrenic and affective disorder patients. Journal of Psychiatric Research 22: 261-277

Mancuso G, Lejeune M, Ansseau M (2001) Cigarette smoking and attention: processing speed or specific effects? Psychopharmacology 155:372-8

Mancuso G, Warburton DM, Melen M, Sherwood N, Tirelli E (1999) Selective effects of nicotine on attentional processes. Psychopharmacology 146:199-204

Manschreck TC ( 1993) Psychomotor abnormalities. In: Costello CG, ed. Symptoms of Schizophrenia. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp.261-290

Martin PJ, Friedmeyer MH, Sterne AL, Brittain HM (1977) IQ deficit in schizophrenia: a test of competing theories. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33:667-72

McKenna PJ, Lund CE, Mortimer AM, Biggins CA (1991) Motor, volitional and behavioural disorders in schizophrenia. 2: The 'conflict of paradigms' hypothesis. British Journal of Psychiatry 158:328-36

Medalia A, Gold J, Merriam A (1988) The effect of neuroleptics on neuropsychological test results of schizophrenics. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 3:249-271

Meltzer HY, McGurk SR (1999) The effects of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 25:233-255

Meltzer HY, Sumiyoshi T (2003) Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 53:265-270

Mesulam MM (1990) Schizophrenia and the brain. New England Journal of Medicine 322: 842-5

Milner B (1971) Interhemispheric Differences in the Localization of Psychological Process in Man. British Medical Bulletin 27:272-277

Milner B (1963) Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting. Archives of Neurology 9:100-110


[Seite 91↓]

Mittenecker E (1958) Die Analyse zufälliger Reaktionsfolgen. Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie 5:45-60

Mittenecker E (1960) Die informationstheoretische Auswertung des Zeigeversuchs bei Psychotikern und Neurotikern. Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie 7:392-400

Möller HJ (2000) Current assessment of new/atypical neuroleptic agents. Nervenarzt 71:329-344

Mohamed S, Paulsen JS, O’Leary D, Arndt S, Andreasen N (1999) Generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: a study of first-episode patients. Archives of Generalized Psychiatry 56:749-54

Montag C (2000) Psychomotorische Umstellfähigkeit, Perseveration und psychomotorisches Tempo bei Depressionen. Dissertation der Medizinischen Fakultät Charité der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Morice R (1990) Cognitive inflexibility and prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia and mania. British Journal of Psychiatry 157:50-54

Moritz S, Woodward TS, PERSIST Study Group, Krausz M, Naber D (2002) Relationship between neuroleptic dosage and subjective cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenic patients treated with either conventional or atypical neuroleptic medication. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 17:41-44

Morrison-Stewart SL, Williamson PC, Corning WC, Kutcher SP, Sbow WG, Merskey H (1992) Frontal and non-frontal lobe neuropsychological test performance and clinical symptomatology in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 22:353-359

Mortimer AM (1997) Cognitive function in schizophrenia - do neuroleptics make a difference? Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 56:789-95

Murray RM, Jones P, O’Callaghan E, Takei N, Sham P (1992) Genes, viruses and neurodevelopmental schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 26:225-235

Nelson HE, Pantelis C, Carruthers K, Speller J, Baxendale S, Barnes TR (1990) Cognitive functioning and symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 20:357-65

Norman RM, Townsend L, Malla AK (2001) Duration of untreated psychosis and cognitive functioning in first-episode patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 179:340-345

Nuechterlein KH (1977) Reaction time and attention in schizophrenia: a critical evaluation of the data and the theories. Schizophrenia Bulletin 3:373-428

Nuechterlein KH, Dawson ME (1984) Information processing and attentional functioning in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 10:160-203

Nuechterlein KH, Edell WS, Norris M, Dawson ME (1986) Attentional vulnerability indicators, thought disorder, and negative symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12:408-26


[Seite 92↓]

Okubo Y, Suhara T, Suzuki K, Kobayashi K, Inoue O, Terasaki O, Someya Y, Sassa T, Sudo Y, Matsushima E, Iyo M, Tateno Y, Toru M (1997) Decreased prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in schizophrenia revealed by PET. Nature 385:634-636

Oscar-Berman M, Bonner RT (1985) Matching and delayed matching-to-sample performance as measures of visual processing, selective attention, and memory in aging and alcoholic individuals. Neuropsychologia 23:639-51

Overall JE, Gorham DR (1962) The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychological Reports 10:799-812

Palmer BW, Heaton RK, Paulsen JS, Kuck J, Braff D, Harris MJ, Zisook S, Jeste DV (1997) Is it possible to be schizophrenic yet neuropsychologically normal? Neuropsychology 11:437-46

Pantelis C, Barnes TRE, Nelson HE (1992) Is the concept of fronto-subcortikal dementia relevant to schizophrenia? British Journal of Psychiatry 1 60:442-460

Pantelis C, Barnes TRE, Nelson HE, Tanner S, Weatherley L, Owen AM, Robbins TW (1997) Fronto-striatal cognitive deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Brain 120:1823-1843

Park S, Holzman PS (1992) Schizophrenics show spatial working memory deficits. Archives of General Psychiatry 49:975-982

Patel JK, Salzman C, Green AI, Tsuang MT (1997) Chronic schizophrenia: response to clozapine, risperidone, and paroxetine. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:543-6

Paulsen JS, Heaton RK, Sadek JR, Perry W, Delis DC, Braff D, Kuck J, Zisook S, Jeste DV (1995) The nature of learning and memory impairments in schizophrenia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 1:88-99

Pedro BM, Pilowsky LS, Costa DC, Hemsley DR, Ell PJ, Verhoeff NP, Kerwin RW, Gray NS (1994) Stereotypy, schizophrenia and dopamine D2 receptor binding in the basal ganglia. Psychological Medicine 24:423-9

Posner MI, Petersen SE (1990) The attention system of the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13:25-42

Powell DH, Kaplan EF, Whitla D, Weintraub S, Catlin R, Funkenstein HH (1993) Microcog Assessment of Cognitive Functioning (Manual). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.

Purdon SE (1999) Cognitive improvement in schizophrenia with novel antipsychotic medications. Schizophrenia Research 35:S51-S60

Purdon SE, Labelle A, Boulay L (2001) Neuropsychological change in schizophrenia after 6 weeks of clozapine. Schizophrenia research 48:57-67


[Seite 93↓]

Purdon SE, Jones BD, Stip E, Labelle A, Addington D, David SR, Breier A, Tollefson GD (2000) Neuropsychological change in early phase schizophrenia during 12 months of treatment with olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidol. The Canadian Collaborative Group for research in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 57:249-258

Radant AD, Claypoole K, Wingerson DK, Cowley DS, Roy-Byrne PP (1997) Relationships between neuropsychological and oculomotor measures in schizophrenia patients and normal controls. Biol Psychiatry 42:797-805

Raine A, Lencz T, Reynolds GP, Harrison G, Sheard C, Medley I, Reynolds L, Cooper JC (1992) An evaluation of structural and functional prefrontal deficits in schizophrenia: MRI and neuropsychological measures. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 45:123-137

Randolph C, Gold JM, Carpenter CJ, Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR (1993) Implicit memory in patients with schizophrenia and normal controls: effects of task demands on susceptibility to priming. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology 15:853-66

Reitan RM (1955) The relationship of the Trail Making Test to organic brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology 19:393-394

Reitan RM, Davison LA (1974) Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and application. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Reitan RM, Wolfson D (1995) Category Test and Trail Making Test as Measures of Frontal Lobe Functions. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 9:50-56

Reitan RM, Wolfson D (1993) The Halstead Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and Clinical Interpretation. Tucson, Neuropsychology Press

Remschmidt H (1972) Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Perseverationsverhalten von Epileptikern. Archiv für Psychiatrische und Nervenkrankheiten 215:315-324

Remschmidt H (1971) Redundanz und Regression – informationstheoretische Gesichtspunkte zum Verständnis psychopathologischer Phänomene. Psychiatrica Clinica 4:65-81

Rey MJ, Schulz P, Costa C, Dick P, Tissot R (1989) Guidelines for the dosage of neuroleptics. I: Chlorpromazine equivalents of orally administered neuroleptics. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 4:95-104

Robbins TW (1990) The case for frontostriatal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 16:391-402

Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (1983) Behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs: Clinical and neuropsychological implications. In: Creese I, ed. Stimulants: Neurochemical, Behavioral, and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Raven Press pp. 301-338

Robinson DG, Woerner MG, Alvir JM, Geisler S, Koreen A, Sheitman B, Chakos M, Mayerhoff D, Bilder R, Goldman R, Lieberman JA (1999) Predictors of treatment response from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 156:544-9


[Seite 94↓]

Rollnik JD, Borsutzky M, Huber TJ, Mogk H, Seifert J, Emrich HM, Schneider U (2002) Short –Term Cognitive Improvement in Schizophrenics Treated with Typical and Atypical Neuroleptics. Neuropsychobiology 45:74-80

Rossi A, Mancini F, Stratta P, Mattei P, Gismondi R, Pozzi F, Casacchia M (1997) Risperidone, negative symptoms and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia: an open study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 95:40-43

Rubin P, Holm S, Madsen PL, Friberg L, Videbech P, Andersen HS, Bendsen BB, Stromso N, Larsen JK, Lassen NA, Hemmingsen R (1994) Regional cerebral blood flow distribution in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. Psychiatry Research 53:57-75

Ruff RM (1985) San Diego Neuropsychological Test Battery (Manual). San Diego

Rund BR, Landro NI (1995) Memory in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 36:37-46

Ruser I (1988) Klinische und testpsychologische Untersuchungen zur Psychopathologie der Epilepsien. Psychiatrie, Neurologie, Medizinische Psychologie 42:394-405

Sackeim HA, Freeman J, McElhiney M, et al. (1992) Effects of Major Depression on Estimates of Intelligence. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 14:268-288

Salokangas RKR, Honkonen T, Stengard E, Koivisto AM, Hietala J (2002) Negative symptoms and neuroleptics in catatonic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 59:73-76

Sandson J, Albert M (1984) Varieties of Perseveration. Neuropsychologia 22:715-732

Sarfati Y (2000) Deficit of the theory-of-mind in schizophrenia: clinical concept and review of experimental arguments. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 45:363-368

Sarfati Y, Hardy-Bayle MC, Brunet E, Widlöcher D (1999) Investigating theory of mind in schizophrenia: influence of verbalization in disorganized and non-disorganized patients. Schizophrenia Research 37:183-190

Sawaguchi T, Goldman-Rakic P (1991) D1 Dopamine Receptors in Prefrontal Cortex: Involvement in Working Memory. Science 251:947-950

Saykin AJ, Gur RC, Gur RE, Mozley PD, Mozley LH, Resnick SM, Kester DB, Stafiniak P (1991) Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. Selective impairment in memory and learning. Archives of General Psychiatry 48:618-24

Saykin AJ, Shtasel DL, Gur RE, Kester DB, Mozley LH, Stafiniak P, et al. (1994) Neuropsychological deficits in neuroleptic naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 51:124-131

Sbordone RJ, Saul RE (2000) Neuropsychology for health care professionals and attorneys. CRC Press


[Seite 95↓]

Schellig D, Hättig HA (1993) Die Bestimmung der visuellen Merkspanne mit dem Block-Board. Zeitschrift für Neuropsychologie 4:104-112

Schmale H, Schmidtke H ( 1984) Berufseignungstest BET, Tabellenband, Bern

Schröder J, Buchsbaum MS, Siegel BV, Geider FJ, Lohr J, Tang C, et al. (1996) Cerebral metabolic activity correlates of subsyndromes in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 19:41-53

Schuhfried G ( 1987) Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS). Hogrefe Testsystem (HTS). Göttingen: Hogrefe

Schwartz BL, Rosse RB, Deutsch SI (1992) Toward a neuropsychology of memory in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacological Bulletin 28 : 341-51

Schwartz F, Carr A, Munich R, Bartuch E, Lesser B, Rescigno D, Viegener B (1990) Voluntary motor performance in psychotic disorders: a replication study. Psychol Rep 66:1223-34

Seeman P (2002) Atypical antipsychotics: mechanism of action. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 47:27-38

Segal DS, Geyer MA (1985) Animal models of psychopathology. In: Judd LL, Groves PM, eds. Psychobiological Foundations of Clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott, pp. 1-21

Silver H, Shlomo N, Hiemke C, Rao ML, Ritsner M, Modai I ( 2002) Schizophrenic patients who smoke have a faster finger tapping rate than non-smokers. European Neuropsychopharmacology 12:141-4

Smith EE, Jonides J (1999) Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science 283:1657-61

Spitzer M (1997) A cognitive neuroscience view of schizophrenic thought disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 23:29-50

Spohn HE, Strauss ME (1989) Relation of neuroleptic and anticholinergic medication to cognitive functions in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98:367-80

Spreen O, Strauss E (1991) A compendium of neuropsychological test: Administration, norms, and commentary. New York: Oxford University Press

Stefansson SB, Jonsdottir TJ (1996) Auditory event-related potentials, auditory digit span, and clinical symptoms in chronic schizophrenic men on neuroleptic medication. Biological Psychiatry 40:19-27

Stone M, Gabrieli JD, Stebbins GT, Sullivan EV (1998) Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 12:278-288

Stratta P, Daneluzzo E, Bustini M, Prosperini P, Rossi A (2000) Processing of context information in schizophrenia: relation to clinical symptoms and WCST performance. Schizophrenia Research 44:57-67


[Seite 96↓]

Stratta P, Daneluzzo E, Prosperini P, Bustini M, Mattei P, Rossi A (1997) Is Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance related to “working memory” capacity? Schizophrenia Research 27:11-19

Stroop R (1935) Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18:643-662

Sturm W, et al. (1999) Functional anatomy of intrinsic alertness: evidence for a fronto-parietal-thalamic-brainstem network in the right hemisphere. Neuropsychologie 27:797-805

Stuss DT, Benson DF (1983) Frontal lobe lesions and behavior. In: Kertesz (Hrsg.) Localization and Neurophysiology, pp. 429-454

Stuss DT, Benson DF (1984) Neuropsychological studies of the frontal lobes. Psychological Bulletin 95:3-28

Sumiyoshi, T Jayathilake K, Meltzer HY (2002) The effect of melperone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research 59:7-16

Sweeney JA, Keilp JG, Haas GL, Hill J, Weiden PJ (1991) Relationships between medication treatments and neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 37:297-308

Tamlyn D, McKenna PJ, Mortimer AM, Lund CE, Hammond S, Baddeley AD (1992) Memory impairment in schizophrenia: its extent, affiliations and neuropsychological character. Psychological Medicine 22:101-15

Tewes U (1991) Hamburg-Wechsler-Intelligenztest für Erwachsene, Rev. 1991. Handbuch und Testanweisung. Verlag Hans Huber

Toone BK, Okocha CI, Sivakumar K, Syed GM (2000) Changes in regional cerebral blood flow due to cognitive activation among patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 177:222-228

Townsend LA, Norman RMG, Malla AK, Rychlo AD, Ahmed RR (2002) Changes in cognitive functioning following comprehensive treatment for first episode patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Psychiatry Research 113:69-81

Verdoux H, Magnin E, Bourgeois M (1995) Neuroleptic effects on neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 14:133-9

Von Zeersen D (1976) Paranoid-Depressivitäts-Skala. Manual. Beltz Test Gesellschaft, Weinheim

Weinberger DR (1988) Schizophrenia and the frontal lobe. Trends in the Neurosciences 11:367-370

Weinberger DR, Berman KF, Zec RF (1986) Physiologic dysfunction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: I. Regional cerebral blood flow evidence. Archives of General Psychiatry 43:114-124


[Seite 97↓]

Weinberger DR, et al. (1994) The Frontal Lobes and Schizophrenia. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 6:419-427

Weitbrecht (1968) Psychiatrie im Grundriss. Berlin

Wexler BE, Hawkins KA, Rounsaville B, Anderson M, Sernyak MJ, Green MF (1997) Normal neurocognitive performance after extended practice in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 26:173-80

Wilk CM, Gold JM, Bartjo JJ, Dickerson F, Fenton WS, Knable M, Randolph C, Buchanan RW (2002) Test-Retest Stability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status in Schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:838-844

Williams GV, Goldman-Rakic PS (1995) Modulation of memory fields by dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex. Nature 376:572-5

Woelwer W, Gaebel W (2002) Impaired Trail Making Test-B performance in patients with acute schizophrenia is related to inefficient sequencing of planning and acting. Journal of Psychiatric Research 36:407-416

Wolfram H, Neumann J, Wieczorek V (1989) Psychologische Leistungstests in der Neurologie und Psychiatrie: Methoden und Normwerte. Beiträge zur klinischen Neurologie und Psychiatrie 54. Georg Thieme, Leipzig

Wyatt RJ (1991) Early intervention with neuroleptics may decrease the long-term morbidity of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 5:201-2


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am:
11.05.2004