[1] Schiff, E.; Sorell, MF. and Maddrey, WC. (2003): Schiff´s diseases of the liver, 9. ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.

[2] Karhunen, PJ. (1986): Benign hepatic tumors and tumorlike conditions in men, J Clinical Pathology, (vol. 39), No. 2, pp.183-188.

[3] Erhardt, A.; Theobald, I.; Petry, W. and al., et (2002): Hepatozelluläres Karzinom: Steigende Inzidenz der Hepatitis-C-bedingten Fälle einer Universitätsklinik in Deutschland, Deutsche Med Wochenschr, (vol. 127), No. 50, pp.2665-2668.

[4] Blumgart, L.H., Fong, Y. (2000): Surgery of the liver and billiary tract (vol. 2), 3. ed., W.B. Saunders, London, ISBN 0-7020-2501-1.

[5] Minagawa, M. and Makuuchi, M. (2003): Surgical treatment of colorectal liver metastasis, Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi, (vol. 104), No. 10, pp.721-9.

[6] Llovet, J. M.; Burroughs, A. and Bruix, J. (2003): Hepatocellular carcinoma, Lancet, (vol. 362), No. 9399, pp.1907-17.

[7] Braunwald, E.; Fauci, A.; Kasper, D.; Hauser, S.; Longo, D. and Jameson, L. (2001): Harrison´s principles of internal medicine (vol. 1), 15. ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, ISBN 0-07-007272-8.

[8] Gerard, B. and Bleiberg, H. (2004): Treatment of hepatocarcinoma, Curr Oncol Rep, (vol. 6), No. 3, pp.184-91.

[9] Graham, E.; Cohen, A. W.; Soulen, M. and Faye, R. (1993): Symptomatic liver hemangioma with intra-tumor hemorrhage treated by angiography and embolization during pregnancy, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 81), No. 5 ( Pt 2), pp.813-6.

[10] Wanless, I. R.; Albrecht, S.; Bilbao, J.; Frei, J. V.; Heathcote, E. J.; Roberts, E. A. and Chiasson, D. (1989): Multiple focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver associated with vascular malformations of various organs and neoplasia of the brain: a new syndrome, Mod Pathol, (vol. 2), No. 5, pp.456-62.

[11] Mathieu, D.; Kobeiter, H.; Cherqui, D.; Rahmouni, A. and Dhumeaux, D. (1998): Oral contraceptive intake in women with focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, Lancet, (vol. 352), No. 9141, pp.1679-80.

[12] Rooks, J. B.; Ory, H. W.; Ishak, K. G.; Strauss, L. T.; Greenspan, J. R.; Hill, A. P. and Tyler, C. W., Jr. (1979): Epidemiology of hepatocellular adenoma. The role of oral contraceptive use, Jama, (vol. 242), No. 7, pp.644-8.

[13] Grazioli, Luigi; Federle, Michael and Tomoaki, Ichikawa (2000): Liver adenomatosis: Clinical, histopathologic, and imaging findings in 15 patients, Radiology, No. 216, pp.395-402.

[14] Ferrell, L. D. (1993): Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in a focus of multilobular adenoma. A case report, Am J Surg Pathol, (vol. 17), No. 5, pp.525-9.

[15] Hosten, N.; Steger, W.; Bechstein, W. O. and al., et (1997): Vaskularisationsmuster in fokalen Leberläsionen: Vergleich der nativen und signalverstärkten amplitudenmodulierten Farbduplexsonographie, Fortschr Röntgenstr, (vol. 166), No. 6, pp.507-513.

[16] Albrecht, T.; Hoffmann, C. and Stephan, A. (2001): Phase-Inversion Sonography During the Liver-Specific Late Phase of Contrast Enhancement, AJR Am J Roentgenol, No. 176, pp.1191-1198.

[17] Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, JW; Park, JH and Han, MC (1996): Power Doppler versus conventional color Doppler sonography: comparison in the depiction of vasculature in liver tumors., Radiology, No. 200, pp.55-58.

[18] Hosoki, T.; Mitomo, M.; Choi, S.; Miyahara, N.; Ohtani, M. and Morimoto, K. (1997): Visualisation of tumor vessels in hepatocellular carcinoma: power Doppler compared with color Doppler and angiography, Acta Radiol, No. 38, pp.422-427.

[19] Vilanova, J. C.; Barcelo, J.; Smirniotopoulos, J. G.; Perez-Andres, R.; Villalon, M.; Miro, J.; Martin, F.; Capellades, J. and Ros, P. R. (2004): Hemangioma from head to toe: MR imaging with pathologic correlation, Radiographics, (vol. 24), No. 2, pp.367-85.

[20] Gramiak, R. and Shah, P. M. (1968): Echocardiography of the aortic root, Invest Radiol, (vol. 3), No. 5, pp.356-66.

[21] Albrecht, T.; Blomley, M. J.; Heckemann, R. A.; Cosgrove, D. O.; Jayaram, V.; Butler-Barnes, J.; Eckersley, R. J.; Hoffmann, C. W. and Bauer, A. (2000): Stimulierte akustische Emission mit dem Ultraschall-Kontrastmittel Levovist: Ein klinisch nutzbarer Kontrasteffekt mit leberspezifischen Eigenschaften, Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr, (vol. 172), No. 1, pp.61-7.

[22] Bertolotto, M.; Dalla Palma, L.; Quaia, E. and al., et (2000): Characterization of unifocal liver lesions with pulse inversion harmonic imaging after Levovist injection: preliminary results, Eur J Radiol, (vol. 10), No. 9, pp.1369-1376.

[23] Dietrich, C. F. (2002): Signalverstärkte Sonographie verbessert Nachweis von Leberraumforderungen, Deutsches Ärzteblatt, (vol. 99), No. 24, pp.1666-1674.

[24] Becker, Dirk; Jenett, M.; Behren, P.; Norka, V. and Lowery, C. (1999): Ensemble Contrast Imaging in der Ultraschalldiagnostik -Technologie und klinische Anwendung, electromedica, (vol. 2), No. 67, pp.111-115.

[25] Leen, E.; Angerson, W. J.; Yarmenitis, S.; Bongartz, G.; Blomley, M.; Del Maschio, A.; Summaria, V.; Maresca, G.; Pezzoli, C. and Llull, J. B. (2002): Multi-centre clinical study evaluating the efficacy of SonoVue (BR1), a new ultrasound contrast agent in Doppler investigation of focal hepatic lesions, Eur J Radiol, (vol. 41), No. 3, pp.200-6.

[26] Albrecht, T.; Hoffmann, C.; Schettler, S. and al., et (2000): B-mode enhancement at phase-inversion US with air-based microbubble contrast agent: initial experience in humans, Radiology, (vol. 216), No. 1, pp.273-278.

[27] Burns, P. N.; Wilson, S. R. and Simpson, D. H. (2000): Pulse inversion imaging of liver blood flow: improved method for characterizing fokal masses with microbubble contrast, Invest Radiol, (vol. 35), No. 1, pp.58-71.

[28] Solbiati, L.; Martegani, A.; Leen, E.; Correas, J. M.; Burns, P. N. and Becker, D. (2003): Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of Liver Diseases, 1. ed., Springer-Verlag Italien, Mailand.

[29] Solbiati, L. (2001): Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatic metastases., European Journal of Ultrasound, (vol. 13), No. 2, pp.149-158.

[30] Dietrich, C. F. and Becker, D. (2002): Signalverstärkte Farbdopplersonographie des Abdomens, Wissenschaftliche Buchreihe Byk Gulden, Konstanz.

[31] Mulvagh, S.; DeMaria, A.; Feinstein, S.; Burns, P. N. and Kaul, S. (2000): Contrast echocardiography: current and future applications., Journal of American Society of Echocardiography, (vol. 13), No. 4, pp.331-342.

[32] Senior, R. (2000): Enhanced left ventricular endocardial border delineation with an intravenous injection of SonoVue., Echocardiography, (vol. 17), No. 8, pp.705-711.

[33] Senior, R.; Kaul, S.; Soman, P. and Lahiri, A. (2000): Power doppler harmonic imaging: a feasibility study of a new technique for the assesment of myocardial perfusion., American Heart Journal, No. 139, pp.245-251.

[34] Kaps, M.; Seidel, G.; Bokor, D.; Modrau, B. and Algermissen, C. (1999): Safety and ultrasound-enhancing potentials of a new sulfur hexaflouridecontaining agent in the cerebral circulation., Journal of Neuroimaging, (vol. 9), No. 3, pp.150-154.

[35] Morel, D. R.; Schwieger, I.; Hohn, L.; Terrettaz, J.; Llull, J. B.; Cornioley, Y. A. and Schneider, M. (2000): Human pharmacokinetics and safety evaluation of SonoVue, a new contrast agent for ultrasound imaging, Invest Radiol, (vol. 35), No. 1, pp.80-5.

[36] Bokor, D.; Chambers, J. B.; Rees, P. J.; Mant, T. G.; Luzzani, F. and Spinazzi, A. (2001): Clinical safety of SonoVue, a new contrast agent for ultrasound imaging, in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Invest Radiol, (vol. 36), No. 2, pp.104-9.

[37] Hope Simpson, D.; Chin, C.T. and Burns, P. N. (1999): Pulse inversion doppler: a new method for detecting nonlinear echoes from microbubble contrast agents, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, (vol. 46), pp.372-382.

[38] Nino-Murcia, M.; Olcott, E. W.; Jeffrey, R. B., Jr.; Lamm, R. L.; Beaulieu, C. F. and Jain, K. A. (2000): Focal liver lesions: pattern-based classification scheme for enhancement at arterial phase CT, Radiology, (vol. 215), No. 3, pp.746-51.

[39] Savellano, D. H.; Kostler, H.; Baus, S.; Mossinger, M.; Gratz, K. F.; Weimann, A. and Galanski, M. (2004): Assessment of sequential enhancement patterns of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma on mangafodipir trisodium enhanced MR imaging, Invest Radiol, (vol. 39), No. 5, pp.305-12.

[40] Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Hong, Hye-Suk; Park, Seong Ho and Moon, Sung Gyu (2000): Hepatic Tumors: Contrast Agent-Enhancement Patterns with Pulse-Inversion Harmonic US, Radiology, (vol. 216), No. 2, pp.411-417.

[41] Kim, K. W.; Kim, T. K.; Han, J. K.; Kim, A. Y.; Lee, H. J.; Park, S. H.; Kim, Y. H. and Choi, B. I. (2000): Hepatic hemangiomas: spectrum of US appearances on gray-scale, power Doppler, and contrast-enhanced US, Korean J Radiol, (vol. 1), No. 4, pp.191-7.

[42] Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S. and Vlahos, L. (2001): Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings, Eur Radiol, (vol. 11), No. 2, pp.202-12.

[43] Oudkerk, M.; Torres, C. G.; Song, B.; Konig, M.; Grimm, J.; Fernandez-Cuadrado, J.; Op de Beeck, B.; Marquardt, M.; van Dijk, P. and de Groot, J. C. (2002): Characterization of liver lesions with mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MR imaging: multicenter study comparing MR and dual-phase spiral CT, Radiology, (vol. 223), No. 2, pp.517-24.

[44] Semelka, R. C. and Helmberger, T. K. (2001): Contrast agents for MR imaging of the liver, Radiology, (vol. 218), No. 1, pp.27-38.

[45] Pirovano, G.; Vanzulli, A.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Grazioli, L.; Manfredi, R.; Greco, A.; Holzknecht, N.; Daldrup-Link, H. E.; Rummeny, E.; Hamm, B.; Arneson, V.; Imperatori, L.; Kirchin, M. A. and Spinazzi, A. (2000): Evaluation of the accuracy of gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR imaging in the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions, AJR Am J Roentgenol, (vol. 175), No. 4, pp.1111-20.

[46] Gambarin-Gelwan, M.; Wolf, D. C.; Shapiro, R.; Schwartz, M. E. and Min, A. D. (2000): Sensitivity of commonly available screening tests in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation, Am J Gastroenterol, (vol. 95), No. 6, pp.1535-8.

[47] Carter, R.; Hemingway, D.; Cooke, T. G.; Pickard, R.; Poon, F. W.; McKillop, J. A. and McArdle, C. S. (1996): A prospective study of six methods for detection of hepatic colorectal metastases, Ann R Coll Surg Engl, (vol. 78), No. 1, pp.27-30.

[48] Hagspiel, K. D.; Neidl, K. F.; Eichenberger, A. C.; Weder, W. and Marincek, B. (1995): Detection of liver metastases: comparison of superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced and unenhanced MR imaging at 1.5 T with dynamic CT, intraoperative US, and percutaneous US, Radiology, (vol. 196), No. 2, pp.471-8.

[49] Hohmann, J.; Skrok, J.; Puls, R. and Albrecht, T. (2003): Charakterisierung fokaler Leberläsionen mit kontrastmittelgestütztem "low MI real time" Ultraschall und SonoVue, Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr, (vol. 175), No. 6, pp.835-43.

[50] Folkman, J. (2002): Role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis, Semin Oncol, (vol. 29), No. 6 Suppl 16, pp.15-8.

[51] Hosten, N.; Puls, R.; Bechstein, W. O. and Felix, R. (1999): Focal liver lesions: Doppler ultrasound, Eur Radiol, (vol. 9), No. 3, pp.428-35.

[52] Basilico, R.; Blomley, M. J.; Harvey, C. J.; Filippone, A.; Heckemann, R. A.; Eckersley, R. J. and Cosgrove, D. O. (2002): Which continuous US scanning mode is optimal for the detection of vascularity in liver lesions when enhanced with a second generation contrast agent?, Eur J Radiol, (vol. 41), No. 3, pp.184-91.

[53] Cedrone, A.; Pompili, M.; Sallustio, G.; Lorenzelli, G. P.; Gasbarrini, G. and Rapaccini, G. L. (2001): Comparison between color power Doppler ultrasound with echo-enhancer and spiral computed tomography in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma vascularization before and after ablation procedures, Am J Gastroenterol, (vol. 96), No. 6, pp.1854-9.

[54] Schneider, M. (2001): Bubbles and microcirculatory disorders, Eur Radiol, (vol. 11 Suppl 3), pp.E1-5.

[55] Numata, K.; Tanaka, K.; Kiba, T.; Saito, S.; Ikeda, M.; Hara, K.; Tanaka, N.; Morimoto, M.; Iwase, S. and Sekihara, H. (2001): Contrast-enhanced, wide-band harmonic gray scale imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with helical computed tomographic findings, J Ultrasound Med, (vol. 20), No. 2, pp.89-98.

[56] Basilico, R.; Blomley, M. J.; Cosgrove, D. O.; Liull, J. B.; Broillet, A.; Bauer, A. and Bonomo, L. (2002): The first phase I study of a novel ultrasound contrast agent (BR14): assessment of safety and efficacy in liver and kidneys, Acad Radiol, (vol. 9 Suppl 2), pp.S380-1.

[57] Youk, J. H.; Kim, C. S. and Lee, J. M. (2003): Contrast-enhanced agent detection imaging: value in the characterization of focal hepatic lesions, J Ultrasound Med, (vol. 22), No. 9, pp.897-910.

[58] Barr, R. (2002): Seeking consensus: contrast ultrasound in radiology, Eur J Radiol, (vol. 41), No. 3, pp.207-16.

[59] Bauer, A.; Solbiati, L. and Weissman, N. (2002): Ultrasound imaging with SonoVue: low mechanical index real-time imaging, Acad Radiol, (vol. 9 Suppl 2), pp.S282-4.

[60] Kissel, A.; Rixe, O.; Methlin, A.; Nabet, M.; Tranquart, F.; Rubini, B.; Jafaar, S. and Gaucher, H. (2001): Quantification of hepatic arterial and portal venous flow using ultrasound contrast agents for early detection of liver metastases of colorectal cancers, J Radiol, (vol. 82), No. 11, pp.1621-5.

[61] Maeda, K.; Utsu, M. and Kihaile, P. E. (1998): Quantification of sonographic echogenicity with grey-level histogram width: a clinical tissue characterization, Ultrasound Med Biol, (vol. 24), No. 2, pp.225-34.

[62] Dietrich, C. F. (2002): Kontrastverstärkte 3D-Bildgebung unter Echtzeitbedingungen, eine neue Technik, Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr, (vol. 174), No. 2, pp.160-3.

[63] Yamamoto, K.; Shiraki, K.; Nakanishi, S.; Deguchi, M.; Sugimoto, K.; Sakai, T.; Ohmori, S.; Murata, K.; Fuke, H.; Hashimoto, A.; Shimizu, A.; Okuda, Y. and Nakano, T. (2003): The usefulness of digital subtraction imaging with Levovist in the diagnosis of focal hepatic tumors, Int J Oncol, (vol. 22), No. 2, pp.353-8.

[64] Fischer, T.; Muhler, M.; Kroncke, T. J.; Lembcke, A.; Rudolph, J.; Diekmann, F.; Ebeling, V.; Thomas, A.; Greis, C.; Hamm, B. and Filimonow, S. (2004): Die Transplantatniere: Zeit-Intensitäts-Kurven-basierte Evaluation der arteriellen Anflutungsphase mittels Echosignalverstärker unmittelbar postoperativ, Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr, (vol. 176), No. 4, pp.472-7.

[65] Dill-Macky, M. J.; Burns, P. N.; Khalili, K. and Wilson, S. R. (2002): Focal hepatic masses: enhancement patterns with SH U 508A and pulse-inversion US, Radiology, (vol. 222), No. 1, pp.95-102.

[66] Bezy-Wendling, J.; Kretowski, M. and Rolland, Y. (2003): Hepatic tumor enhancement in computed tomography: combined models of liver perfusion and dynamic imaging, Comput Biol Med, (vol. 33), No. 1, pp.77-89.

[67] Kim, T. K.; Choi, B. I.; Han, J. K.; Hong, H. S.; Park, S. H. and Moon, S. G. (2000): Hepatic tumors: contrast agent-enhancement patterns with pulse-inversion harmonic US, Radiology, (vol. 216), No. 2, pp.411-7.

[68] Strobel, D.; Hoefer, A.; Martus, P.; Hahn, E. G. and Becker, D. (2001): Dynamic contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography improves the differential diagnosis of liver lesions, Int J Colorectal Dis, (vol. 16), No. 4, pp.247-56.

© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 4.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am: