7 LITERATURVERZEICHNIS

[1] Richardson, P.; McKenna, W.; Bristow, M.; Maisch, B.; Mautner, B.; O'Con-nell, J.; Olsen, E.; Thiene, G.; Goodwin, J.; Gyarfas, I.; Martin, I. und Nordet, P. (1996): Report of the 1995 World Health Organization/International Society and Federation of Cardiology Task Force on the Definition and Classification of cardio-myopathies, Circulation, (Band 93), No. 5, Seite 841-2.

[2] Maisch, B. (1998): Einteilung der Kardiomyopathien nach der WHO/ISFC Task Force - Mehr Fragen als Antworten ?, Medizinische Klinik, (Band 93), No. 3, Seite 199-209.

[3] Seimann, CE; McKenna, WJ und Watkins, HC (1992): Molecular genetic approaches to di-agnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Braunwald, E, A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medi-cine, Seite 77-83, WB Saunders Co., New York.

[4] Dec, G. W. und Fuster, V. (1994): Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, N Engl J Med, (Band 331), No. 23, Seite 1564-75.

[5] Mestroni, L.; Miani, D.; Di Lenarda, A.; Silvestri, F.; Bussani, R.; Filippi, G. und Camerini, F. (1990): Clinical and pathologic study of familial dilated cardiomyopathy, Am J Cardiol, (Band 65), No. 22, Seite 1449-53.

[6] Ferrans, V. J. (1989): Pathologic anatomy of the dilated cardiomyopathies, Am J Cardiol, (Band 64), No. 6, Seite 9C-11C.

[7] Tazelaar, H.D. und Billingham, M.E. (1986): Leukocytic infiltrates in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: a source of confusion with active myocarditis, Am J Surg Pathol, (Band 10), Seite 405-412.

[8] Towbin, J. A.; Hejtmancik, J. F.; Brink, P.; Gelb, B.; Zhu, X. M.; Chamber-lain, J. S.; McCabe, E. R. und Swift, M. (1993): X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy. Molecular genetic evidence of linkage to the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (dystrophin) gene at the Xp21 locus, Circulation, (Band 87), No. 6, Seite 1854-65.

[9] Thierfelder, L. (1998): Genetik der dilatativen Kardiomyopathie, Medizinische Klinik, (Band 93), No. 3, Seite 210-214.

[10] Caforio, A. L.; Baboonian, C. und McKenna, W. J. (1997): Postviral autoimmune heart disease - fact or fiction ?, Eur Heart J, (Band 18), No. 7, Seite 1051-5.

[11] Kühl, U.; Noutsias, M.; Seeberg, B. und Schultheiss, H. P. (1996): Immunohistological evidence for a chronic intramyocardial inflammatory process in dilated cardiomyopa-thy, Heart, (Band 75), No. 3, Seite 295-300.

[12] Hufnagel, G.; Pankuweit, S.; Richter, A.; Schonian, U. und Maisch, B. (2000): The European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Cardiac Inflammatory Diseases (ESETCID). First epidemiological results, Herz, (Band 25), No. 3, Seite 279-85.

[13] Kandolf, R. (1998): Enterovirale Myokarditis und dilatative Kardiomyopathie, Medizinische Klinik, (Band 93), No. 3, Seite 215-222.

[14] Pankuweit, S.; Hufnagel, G. und Eckhardt, H. (1998): Kardiotrope DNA-Viren und Bakterien in der Pathogenese der dilatativen Kardiomyopathie mit und ohne Entzün-dung, Medizinische Klinik, (Band 93), No. 3, Seite 223-228.

[15] Cetta, F. und Michels, V. (1995): The autoimmune basis of dilated cardiomyopathy, Ann Med, (Band 27), No. 2, Seite 169-73.

[16] Kanda, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Suzuki, T. und Murata, K. (1992): Functional abnormalities of circulating natural killer cell, Tohoku J Exp Med, (Band 168), No. 3, Seite 529-37.

[17] Schultheiss, H. P. (1989): The significance of autoantibodies against the ADP/ATP carrier for the pathogenesis of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy - clinical and experi-mental data, Springer Semin Immunopathol, (Band 11), No. 1, Seite 15-30.

[18] Caforio, A. L.; Grazzini, M.; Mann, J. M.; Keeling, P. J.; Bottazzo, G. F.; McKenna, W. J. und Schiaffino, S. (1992): Identification of alpha- and beta-cardiac myosin heavy chain iso-forms as major autoantigens in dilated cardiomyopathy, Circulation, (Band 85), No. 5, Seite 1734-42.

[19] Maisch, B.; Herzum, M.; Hufnagel, G.; Bethge, C. und Schonian, U. (1995): Immunosuppressive treatment for myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, Eur Heart J, (Band 16 Suppl O), Seite 153-61.

[20] Kühl, U.; Melzner, B.; Schafer, B.; Schultheiss, H. P. und Strauer, B. E. (1991): The Ca-channel as cardiac autoantigen, Eur Heart J, (Band 12 Suppl D), Seite 99-104.

[21] Fu, M; Schulze, W.; Wallukat, G.; Hjalmarson, A. und Hoebeke, J. (1996): A synthetic peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop of the human M2 acetylcholine receptor induces pharmacological and morphological changes in cardiomyo-cytes by active immunization after 6 month in rabbits., Clin Immunol Immunopathol, (Band 78), Seite 203-207.

[22] Limas, C. J. und Limas, C. (1991): Beta-adrenoceptor antibodies and genetics in dilated cardiomyopathy - an overview and review, Eur Heart J, (Band 12 Suppl D), Seite 175-7.

[23] Wallukat, G.; Nissen, E.; Morwinski, R. und Müller, J. (2000): Autoantikörper gegen Beta- und muskarinerge Rezeptoren bei Kardiomyopathie, Herz, (Band 25), No. 3, Seite 261-266.

[24] Liu, H.R.; Zhao, R.R.; Zhi, J.M.; Wu, W.B. und Fu, M.L. (1999): Screening of serum autoantibodies to cardiac beta1-adrenoceptors and M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in 408 healthy subjects of varying ages, Autoimmunity, (Band 29), No. 1, Seite 43-51.

[25] Wallukat, G.; Wollenberger, A.; Morwinski, R. und Pitschner, H. F. (1995): Anti beta1-adrenoceptor autoantibodies with chronotropic activity from the serum of pa-tients with dilated cardiomyopathy: mapping of epitopes in the first and second extracellular loops, J Mol Cell Cardiol, (Band 27), No. 1, Seite 397-406.

[26] Krause, E. G.; Bartel, S.; Beyerdorfer, I. und Wallukat, G. (1996): Activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cardiomyocytes by anti-beta 1-adrenoceptor autoantibodies from patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, Blood Press Suppl, (Band 3), Seite 37-40.

[27] Wallukat, G.; Kayser, A. und Wollenberger, A. (1995): The beta1-adrenoceptor as antigen: functional aspects, Eur Heart J, (Band 16 Suppl O), Seite 85-8.

[28] Matsui, S.; Fu, M.L. und Hyase, M. (1999): Active immunization of combined beta1-adrenoceptor and M2-muscarinic receptor peptides induces cardiac hy-perthrophy in rabbits, J Card Fail, (Band Sep 5), No. 3, Seite 246-54.

[29] Matsui, S. und Fu, M.L. (1998): Myocardial injury due to G-Protein couples receptor-autoimmunity, Jpn Heart J, (Band 39), No. 3, Seite 261-74.

[30] Matsumori, A. (1996): Cytokines in myocarditis and cardiomyopathies, Curr Opin Cardiol, (Band 11), No. 3, Seite 302-9.

[31] Torre-Amione, G.; Kapadia, S.; Benedict, C.; Oral, H.; Young, J. B. und Mann, D. L. (1996): Proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction: a report from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD), J Am Coll Cardiol, (Band 27), No. 5, Seite 1201-6.

[32] Ferrari, R.; Bachetti, T.; Confortini, R.; Opasich, C.; Febo, O.; Corti, A.; Cassani, G. und Visioli, O. (1995): Tumor necrosis factor soluble receptors in patients with various degrees of congestive heart failure, Circulation, (Band 92), No. 6, Seite 1479-86.

[33] Aukrust, P.; Ueland, T.; Lien, E.; Bendtzen, K.; Muller, F.; Andreassen, A. K.; Nordoy, I.; Aass, H.; Espevik, T.; Simonsen, S.; Froland, S. S. und Gullestad, L. (1999): Cytokine network in congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardio-myopathy, Am J Cardiol, (Band 83), No. 3, Seite 376-82.

[34] Cain, B. S.; Meldrum, D. R.; Dinarello, C. A.; Meng, X.; Joo, K. S.; Baner-jee, A. und Harken, A. H. (1999): Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta synergistically depress human myocardial function, Crit Care Med, (Band 27), No. 7, Seite 1309-18.

[35] Torre-Amione, G.; Vooletich, M. T. und Farmer, J. A. (2000): Role of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the progression of heart failure: therapeutic implications, Drugs, (Band 59), No. 4, Seite 745-51.

[36] Plenz, G.; Song, Z. F.; Reichenberg, S.; Tjan, T. D.; Robenek, H. und Deng, M. C. (1998): Left-ventricular expression of interleukin-6 messenger-RNA higher in idiopathic di-lated than in ischemic cardiomyopathy, Thorac Cardio-vasc Surg, (Band 46), No. 4, Seite 213-6.

[37] Kosar, F.; Varol, E.; Ileri, M.; Ayaz, S.; Hisar, I. und Kisacik, H. (1999): Circulating cytokines and complements in chronic heart failure, Angiology, (Band 50), No. 5, Seite 403-8.

[38] Pagani, F. D.; Baker, L. S.; Hsi, C.; Knox, M.; Fink, M. P. und Visner, M. S. (1992): Left ventricular sys-tolic and diastolic dysfunction after infusion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in conscious dogs, J Clin Invest, (Band 90), No. 2, Seite 389-98.

[39] Gulick, T.; Chung, M. K.; Pieper, S. J.; Lange, L. G. und Schreiner, G. F. (1989): Interleukin-1 and tu-mor necrosis factor inhibit cardiac myocyte beta-adrenergic responsive-ness, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, (Band 86), No. 17, Seite 6753-7.

[40] Hegewisch, S.; Weh, H. J. und Hossfeld, D. K. (1990): TNF-induced cardiomyopa-thy, Lancet, (Band 335), No. 8684, Seite 294-5.

[41] Garza, H.; Garzon, G. und Stetson, S.J. (2000): Tumor necrosis factor-alpha: a media-tor in the pathogenesis of cardiac insuffiency, Arch Inst Cardiol Mex, (Band 69), No. 5, Seite 462-468.

[42] Parissis, J. T.; Venetsanou, K. F.; Mentzikof, D. G.; Ziras, N. G.; Kefalas, C. G. und Karas, S. M. (1999): Tumor necrosis factor-alpha serum activity during treatment of acute decom-pensation of cachectic and non-cachectic patients with advanced congestive heart failure, Scand Cardiovasc J, (Band 33), No. 6, Seite 344-50.

[43] Müller-Werdan, U.; Engelmann, H. und Werdan, K. (1998): Cardiodepression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Eur Cytokine Netw, (Band 9), No. 4, Seite 689-91.

[44] Comini, L.; Bachetti, T.; Agnoletti, L.; Gaia, G.; Curello, S.; Milanesi, B.; Volterrani, M.; Parrinello, G.; Ceconi, C.; Giordano, A.; Corti, A. und Ferrari, R. (1999): Induction of func-tional inducible nitric oxide synthase in monocytes of patients with congestive heart failure. Link with tumour necrosis factor-alpha, Eur Heart J, (Band 20), No. 20, Seite 1503-13.

[45] Narula, J.; Kolodgie, F. D. und Virmani, R. (2000): Apoptosis and cardiomyopa-thy, Curr Opin Cardiol, (Band 15), No. 3, Seite 183-8.

[46] Ferrari, R.; Corti, A. und Tiziana, B. (1995): Tumor Necrosis Alpha in Heart Fail-ure, Heart Failure, (Band Aug/Sept), Seite 142-147.

[47] Roig, E.; Orus, J.; Pare, C.; Azqueta, M.; Filella, X.; Perez-Villa, F.; Heras, M. und Sanz, G. (1998): Serum interleukin-6 in congestive heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated cardio-myopathy, Am J Cardiol, (Band 82), No. 5, Seite 688-90, A8.

[48] Boura, P.; Lefkos, N.; Boudonas, G.; Kountouras, J.; Zacharioudaki, E.; Efthimiadis, A. und Tsapas, G. (1999): Antigenic stimulation in T-cell cultures in cardiomyopathies: differences in cytokine profiles, Eur J Immunogenet, (Band 26), No. 4, Seite 285-91.

[49] Rauchhaus, M.; Coats, A. J.; Anker, S. D.; Niebauer, J.; Volk, H. D.; Kemp, M.; Dominguez, M.; Schumann, R. R. und Poole-Wilson, P. A. (2000): The endotoxin-lipoprotein hypothesis - Endotoxin and immune activation in chronic heart failure: a prospective cohort study, Lancet, (Band 356), No. 9233, Seite 930-3.

[50] Duchman, S. M.; Thohan, V.; Kalra, D. und Torre-Amione, G. (2000): Endothelin-1: a new target of thera-peutic intervention for the treatment of heart failure, Curr Opin Cardiol, (Band 15), No. 3, Seite 136-40.

[51] Pousset, F.; Isnard, R.; Lechat, P.; Kalotka, H.; Carayon, A.; Maistre, G.; Escolano, S.; Thomas, D. und Komajda, M. (1997): Prognostic value of plasma endo-thelin-1 in patients with chronic heart failure, Eur Heart J, (Band 18), No. 2, Seite 254-8.

[52] Samsonov, M. (1993): Anaphylatoxine in dilated cardiomyopathy, J Intern Med, (Band 234), Seite 139-42.

[53] Narula, J.; Haider, N.; Virmani, R.; DiSalvo, T. G.; Kolodgie, F. D.; Hajjar, R. J.; Schmidt, U.; Semigran, M. J.; Dec, G. W. und Khaw, B. A. (1996): Apoptosis in myocytes in end-stage heart failure, N Engl J Med, (Band 335), No. 16, Seite 1182-9.

[54] Felix, S.B. (1996): Prognose der Herzinsuffizienz - Bedeutung der medikamentösen Thera-pie, Z Kardiol, (Band 85), No. Suppl 4, Seite 1-7.

[55] Felix, S.B. und Baumann, G. (1996): Herzinsuffizienz, Stobbe, H. und Baumann, G., Innere Medizin, Seite 168-190, Urban & Fischer.

[56] Bristow, M. R.; Anderson, F. L.; Port, J. D.; Skerl, L.; Hershberger, R. E.; Larrabee, P.; O'Connell, J. B.; Renlund, D. G.; Volkman, K.; Murray, J. und et al. (1991): Differences in beta-adrenergic neuroeffector mechanisms in ischemic, Circulation, (Band 84), No. 3, Seite 1024-39.

[57] Schrier, R.W. und Abraham, W.T. (1999): Hormones and hemodynamics in heart failure, N Eng J Med, (Band 341), Seite 577-585.

[58] Manolio, T. A.; Baughman, K. L.; Rodeheffer, R.; Pearson, T. A.; Bristow, J. D.; Michels, V. V.; Abelmann, W. H. und Harlan, W. R. (1992): Prevalence and etiology of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop, Am J Cardiol, (Band 69), No. 17, Seite 1458-66.

[59] Hellige, G.; Spieckermann, P.G. und Baumann, G. (1997): Herzinsuffizienz - Fortschritt in Diagnostik und Therapie (Band 1), Arcis-Verlag, München.

[60] Kienzle, M. G.; Ferguson, D. W.; Birkett, C. L.; Myers, G. A.; Berg, W. J. und Mariano, D. J. (1992): Clinical, hemodynamic and sympathetic neural correlates of heart rate vari-ability in congestive heart failure, Am J Car-diol, (Band 69), No. 8, Seite 761-7.

[61] Keogh, A. M.; Baron, D. W. und Hickie, J. B. (1990): Prognostic guides in patients with idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy assessed for cardiac transplanta-tion, Am J Cardiol, (Band 65), No. 13, Seite 903-8.

[62] Anker, S. D. und Cicoira, M. (1999): [Chronic heart failure and cardiac cachexia and links between the endocrine and immune systems], Z Kardiol, (Band 88 Suppl 3), Seite S18-S23.

[63] Roig, E.; Perez-Villa, F.; Morales, M.; Jimenez, W.; Orus, J.; Heras, M. und Sanz, G. (2000): Clinical impli-cations of increased plasma angiotensin II despite ACE inhibitor therapy in pa-tients with congestive heart failure, Eur Heart J, (Band 21), No. 1, Seite 53-7.

[64] Maeda, K.; Tsutamoto, T.; Wada, A.; Mabuchi, N.; Hayashi, M.; Tsutsui, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Sawaki, M.; Fujii, M.; Matsumoto, T. und Kinoshita, M. (2000): High levels of plasma brain natriuretic peptide and interleukin-6 after optimized treatment for heart failure are independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure, J Am Coll Car-diol, (Band 36), No. 5, Seite 1587-93.

[65] Janicki, J. S.; Weber, K. T. und McElroy, P. A. (1988): Use of the cardiopulmonary exercise test to evaluate the patient with chronic heart failure, Eur Heart J, (Band 9 Suppl H), Seite 55-8.

[66] Winter, U.J. et al. (1994): Klinischer Wert der modernen, computerisierten Ergospirometrie, Mager, G. und Winter, U.J., Belastungsuntersuchungen bei Herz-, Kreislauf-, Gefäß- und Lungenerkrankungen, Seite 56-75, Stuttgart.

[67] Weber, K.T. und Janicki, J.S. (1991): Exercise evaluation of cardiorespiratory function, Cardiology I (Band Chapter 32), Seite 4202-4212, Philadelphia.

[68] Szlachcic, J.; Massie, B. M.; Kramer, B. L.; Topic, N. und Tubau, J. (1985): Correlates and prog-nostic implication of exercise capacity in chronic congestive heart fail-ure, Am J Cardiol, (Band 55), No. 8, Seite 1037-42.

[69] de Vries, R. J.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Dunselman, P. H.; van der Veer, N. und Crijns, H. J. (1997): Physiological parameters during the initial stages of cardiopulmonary exer-cise testing in patients with chronic heart failure. Their value in the assessment of clinical severity and prognosis, Eur Heart J, (Band 18), No. 12, Seite 1921-30.

[70] Meyer, K. (1999): Exercise training in chronic heart failure: is it really safe ?, Eur Heart J, (Band 20), No. 12, Seite 851-3.

[71] Kiilavuori, K.; Naveri, H.; Leinonen, H. und Harkonen, M. (1999): The effect of physical training on hor-monal status and exertional hormonal response in patients with chronic conges-tive heart failure, Eur Heart J, (Band 20), No. 6, Seite 456-64.

[72] Hambrecht, R.; Niebauer, J.; Fiehn, E.; Kalberer, B.; Offner, B.; Hauer, K.; Riede, U.; Schlierf, G.; Kubler, W. und Schuler, G. (1995): Physical training in patients with sta-ble chronic heart failure: Effects on cardiorespiratory fitness and ultrastructural abnormalities of leg muscles, J Am Coll Car-diol, (Band 25), No. 6, Seite 1239-49.

[73] Hoppe, U.C. und Erdmann, E. (1998): Leitlinien zur Therapie der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie, Herz- und Kreislaufforschung), Z Kardiol, (Band 87), Seite 645-661.

[74] Europäische_Gesellschaft_für_Kardiologie (1997): Die Behandlung der Herzinsuffizienz - Son-dergremium der Arbeitsgruppe "Herzinsuffizienz" der Europäischen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie, European Heart Journal, (Band 18), Seite 736-753.

[75] The-CONSENSUS-Trial-Study-Group (1987): Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), N Engl J Med, (Band 316), No. 23, Seite 1429-35.

[76] SOLVD-Investigators (1991): Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure, N Engl J Med, (Band 325), No. 5, Seite 293-302.

[77] Konstam, M. A.; Rousseau, M. F.; Kronenberg, M. W.; Udelson, J. E.; Melin, J.; Stewart, D.; Dolan, N.; Edens, T. R.; Ahn, S.; Kinan, D. und et al. (1992): Effects of the angio-tensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on the long-term progression of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with heart failure. SOLVD Investiga-tors, Circulation, (Band 86), No. 2, Seite 431-8.

[78] SOLVD-Investigators (1992): Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions, N Engl J Med, (Band 327), No. 10, Seite 685-91.

[79] HOPE-Study-Investigators (2000): Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on car-diovascular events in high-risk patients, N Eng J Med, (Band 342), No. 145-153.

[80] Pfeffer, M.A.; Braunwald, D.E. und Moye, L.A. (1992): Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction - Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial, N Eng J Med, (Band 327), Seite 669-679.

[81] Swedberg, K.; Held, P. und Kjekus, J. (1992): Effects of early administration of enalapril on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction - Results of the Cooperative New Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study II (CONSENSUS II), N Eng Med, (Band 327), Seite 678-684.

[82] ELITE-II-Investigators (1999): Late breaking clinical tri-als, American Heart Association Scientific Ses-sion, Atlanta/Georgia.

[83] Pitt, B.; Segal, R.; Martinez, F. A.; Meurers, G.; Cowley, A. J.; Thomas, I.; Deedwania, P. C.; Ney, D. E.; Snavely, D. B. und Chang, P. I. (1997): Randomised trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (Evaluation of Losartan in the Eld-erly Study, ELITE), Lancet, (Band 349), No. 9054, Seite 747-52.

[84] Rector, T. S.; Olivari, M. T.; Levine, T. B.; Francis, G. S. und Cohn, J. N. (1987): Predicting survival for an individual with congestive heart failure using the plasma norepinephrine concentration, Am Heart J, (Band 114), No. 1 Pt 1, Seite 148-52.

[85] Waagstein, F.; Bristow, M. R.; Swedberg, K.; Camerini, F.; Fowler, M. B.; Silver, M. A.; Gilbert, E. M.; Johnson, M. R.; Goss, F. G. und Hjalmarson, A. (1993): Beneficial effects of metoprolol in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Metoprolol in Dilated Cardio-myopathy (MDC) Trial Study Group, Lancet, (Band 342), No. 8885, Seite 1441-6.

[86] CIBIS-Investigators (1994): A randomized trial of beta-blockade in heart failure. The Cardiac Insuffi-ciency Bisoprolol Study (CIBIS), Circulation, (Band 90), No. 4, Seite 1765-73.

[87] Packer, M.; Bristow, M. R.; Cohn, J. N.; Colucci, W. S.; Fowler, M. B.; Gil-bert, E. M. und Shusterman, N. H. (1996): The Effect of Carvedilol on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure, N Engl J Med, (Band 334), No. 21, Seite 1349-55.

[88] MERIT-HF-Study-Group (1999): Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: meotoprolol CR/XL Randomized Interventional Trial in Congestive Haert Failure (MERIT-HF), Lancet, (Band 353), Seite 2001-2007.

[89] CIBIS-II-Investigators-and-Committees (1999): The cardiac insufficiency Study II (CIBIS-II) - A randomized trial, Lancet, (Band 353), Seite 9-13.

[90] Pitt, B.; Zannad, F.; Remme, W. J.; Cody, R.; Castaigne, A.; Perez, A.; Palensky, J. und Wittes, J. (1999): The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investiga-tors, N Engl J Med, (Band 341), No. 10, Seite 709-17.

[91] Weber, K. T. (1999): Aldosterone and spironolactone in heart failure, N Engl J Med, (Band 341), No. 10, Seite 753-5.

[92] Ferguson, D.W. (1992): Digitalis and neurohumoral abnormalities in heart failure and implications for therapy, Am J Cardiol, (Band 69), No. Suppl., Seite 24G-32G.

[93] The-Digitalis-Investigation-Group (1997): The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure, N Engl J Med, (Band 336), No. 8, Seite 525-33.

[94] Packer, M.; Gheorgiade, M. und Young, J.B. (1993): Withdrawal of Dogoxin from patients with chronic heart failure treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors, N Eng J Med, (Band 329), Seite 1-7.

[95] Uretsky, B.F.; Young, J.B. und Shahidi, F.E. (1993): Randomized study assessing the ef-fect of Digoxin withdrawal in patients with mild to moderate chronic congestiv heart failure: results of the PROVED trial, J Am Coll Cardiol, (Band 22), Seite 955-962.

[96] Figulla, H. R.; Gietzen, F.; Zeymer, U.; Raiber, M.; Hegselmann, J.; Soballa, R. und Hilgers, R. (1996): Diltiazem improves cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Results of the Diltiazem in Dilated Car-diomyopathy Trial, Circulation, (Band 94), No. 3, Seite 346-52.

[97] Packer, M.; O'Connor, C. M.; Ghali, J. K.; Pressler, M. L.; Carson, P. E.; Belkin, R. N.; Miller, A. B.; Neuberg, G. W.; Frid, D.; Wertheimer, J. H.; Cropp, A. B. und DeMets, D. L. (1996): Effect of amlodipine on morbidity and mortality in severe chronic heart fail-ure. Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation Study Group, N Engl J Med, (Band 335), No. 15, Seite 1107-14.

[98] Cohn, J.N.; Ziesche, S. und Smith, R. (1997): Effects of the calcium antagonist felodipine as supplementary vasodilatator therapy in patients with chronic heart failure treated with enalapril (V-HeFT-III Study Group), Circulation, (Band 96), Seite 856-863.

[99] Levine, T.B.; Bernink, P. und Caspi, A. (2000): Effect of mibefradil, a T-type calcium channel blocker on morbidity and mortality in moderate to severe congestive heart failure. The MACH-1 study, Circulation, (Band 101), Seite 758-764.

[100] Packer, M. (2000): Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Study-2. Late clinical trial results, American College of Cardiology Scientific Ses-sion, Anaheim/California.

[101] Furberg, C. D. und Psaty, B. M. (1996): Calcium antagonists: Not appropriate as first line antihypertensive agents, Am J Hyper-tens, (Band 9), No. 2, Seite 122-5.

[102] Furberg, C. D. und Psaty, B. M. (1996): Should calcium antagonists be first-line agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease? The public health per-spective, Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, (Band 10), No. 4, Seite 463-6.

[103] Baumann, G.; Felix, S.B. und Stangl, K. (1994): Therapy of cardiogenic shock, Z Kardiol, (Band 83), No. Suppl. 6, Seite 89-96.

[104] Cohn, J.N.; Archibald, D.G. und Ziesche, S. (1986): Effects of vasodilatator therapy on mortality in chronic heart failure, N Eng J Med, (Band 314), Seite 1547-1552.

[105] Cohn, J. N.; Johnson, G.; Ziesche, S.; Cobb, F.; Francis, G.; Tristani, F.; Smith, R.; Dunkman, W. B.; Loeb, H.; Wong, M. und et al. (1991): A comparison of enalapril with hydra-lazine-isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart fail-ure, N Engl J Med, (Band 325), No. 5, Seite 303-10.

[106] Ball, S. G. (2000): Discontinuation of doxazosin arm of ALLHAT - Antihypertensive and Lipid- Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack, Lancet, (Band 355), No. 9214, Seite 1558.

[107] Packer, M.; Carver, J.R. und Rodeheffer, R.J. (1991): Effect of oral Milrinone of mortality in severe chronic heart failure, N Eng J Med, (Band 325), Seite 1468-1475.

[108] Betkowski, A.S. und Hauptman, P.J. (2000): Update on recent clinical trials in con-gestive heart failure, Curr Opin Cardiol, (Band 15), Seite 293-303.

[109] Baumann, G. und Felix, S.B. (1991): Is the efficacy of positive inotropic drugs limited to symptomatic im-provement ?, Herz, (Band 16), No. 1, Seite 304-313.

[110] Remme, W.J. und Kruijissen, H.A. (1994): Hemodynamic, neurohumoral and myocardial energetic effects of pimobendan, a novel calcium sensitizing com-pound, in patients with mild to moderate heart failure, J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, (Band 24), Seite 730-739.

[111] Rapundalo, S.T.; Lathrop, D.A. und Harrison, S.A. (1988): Cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic AMP-independent actions of novel cardiotonic agent, Arch Pharmacol, (Band 338), Seite 692-698.

[112] Siegl, P.K. und Garcia, M.L. (1988): Interactions of DPI 201-106, a novel cardiotonic agent, with cardiac calcium, Arch Pharmacol, (Band 338), Seite 684-691.

[113] The_Xamoterol_In_Severe_Heart_Hailure_Study_Group (1990): Xamoterol in severe heart fail-ure, Lancet, (Band 336), Seite 1-6.

[114] Uretsky, B.F.; Jessup, M. und Konstam, M.A. (1990): Multicenter trial of oral enoximone in patients with moderate to moderately severe congestive heart fail-ure, Circulation, (Band 82), Seite 774-780.

[115] Tanimura, M.; Mishima, T.; Steinberg, M. I.; Borzak, S.; Goldstein, S. und Sabbah, H. N. (2000): Hemodynamic effects of a novel sodium channel activator in dogs with chronic heart failure, Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, (Band 14), No. 1, Seite 77-82.

[116] Cohn, L.N. (Dec 1999/ Jan 2000): Late-breaking clinical trial presented new research: MOXCON, Heart Failure Society News, Seite 5.

[117] Abraham, W.T.; Oren, N.M. und Crisman, T.S. (1997): Effects of an oral , nonpeptide, selec-tive V2 receptor antagonist in patients with chronic heart failure, J Am Coll Cardiol, (Band 29), No. Suppl. A, Seite 169A.

[118] Elsner, D.; Müntze, A.; Kromer, E.P. und Riegger, G.A. (1992): Effectiveness of endopeptidase inhibi-tion (candoxatril) in congestive heart failure, AM J Car-diol, (Band 82), Seite 196-201.

[119] Kostis, J.B.; Rouleau, J.L. und Pfeffer, M.A. (2000): Beneficial effects of vasopeptidase inhibition on mortality and morbidity in heart failure: evidence from the Omapatri-lat Heart Failure Program, J Am Coll Cardiol, (Band 35), No. Suppl. A, Seite 230A.

[120] Sutsch, G.; Kiowski, W.; Yan, X. W.; Hunziker, P.; Christen, S.; Strobel, W.; Kim, J. H.; Rickenbacher, P. und Bertel, O. (1998): Short-term oral endothelin-receptor antagonist therapy in conventionally treated patients with symptomatic severe chronic heart failure, Circulation, (Band 98), No. 21, Seite 2262-8.

[121] Sutsch, G.; Bertel, O. und Kiowski, W. (1997): Acute and short-term effects of the nonpeptide endothelin-1 receptor antagonist bosentan in humans, Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, (Band 10), No. 6, Seite 717-25.

[122] Benigni, A. und Remuzzi, G. (1999): Endothelin antagonists, Lancet, (Band 353), Seite 133-138.

[123] Eizema, K.; Fechner, H.; Bezstarosti, K.; Schneider-Rasp, S.; van der Laarse, A.; Wang, H.; Schultheiss, H. P.; Poller, W. C. und Lamers, J. M. (2000): Adenovirus-based phospholamban antisense expression as a novel approach to improve cardiac contractile dysfunction: comparison of a constitutive viral versus an endothelin-1-responsive cardiac promoter, Circulation, (Band 101), No. 18, Seite 2193-9.

[124] He, H.; Meyer, M.; Martin, J. L.; McDonough, P. M.; Ho, P.; Lou, X.; Lew, W. Y.; Hilal-Dandan, R. und Dillmann, W. H. (1999): Effects of mutant and antisense RNA of phospholamban on SR Ca(2+)- ATPase activity and cardiac myocyte contrac-tility, Circulation, (Band 100), No. 9, Seite 974-80.

[125] Shah, A. S.; White, D. C.; Tai, O.; Hata, J. A.; Wilson, K. H.; Pippen, A.; Kypson, A. P.; Glower, D. D.; Lefkowitz, R. J. und Koch, W. J. (2000): Adenovirus-mediated genetic manipu-lation of the myocardial beta- adrenergic signaling system in transplanted hearts, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, (Band 120), No. 3, Seite 581-8.

[126] Kypson, A.; Hendrickson, S.; Akhter, S.; Wilson, K.; McDonald, P.; Lilly, R.; Dolber, P.; Glower, D.; Lefkowitz, R. und Koch, W. (1999): Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the beta2-adrenergic receptor to donor hearts enhances cardiac func-tion, Gene Ther, (Band 6), No. 7, Seite 1298-304.

[127] Elkayam, U.; Berkley, R.; Azen, S.; Weber, L.; Geva, B. und Henry, W. L. (1983): Cardiac output by thermodilution technique. Effect of injectate's volume and temperature on accu-racy and reproducibility in the critically Ill patient, Chest, (Band 84), No. 4, Seite 418-22.

[128] Bigger, J. T., Jr. (1997): Prophylactic use of implanted cardiac defibrillators in patients at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias after coronary-artery bypass graft surgery. Coronary Ar-tery Bypass Graft (CABG) - Patch Trial Investigators, N Engl J Med, (Band 337), No. 22, Seite 1569-75.

[129] Leclercq, C.; Victor, F.; Alonso, C.; Pavin, D.; Revault d'Allones, G.; Ban-sard, J. Y.; Mabo, P. und Daubert, C. (2000): Comparative effects of permanent biventricular pacing for refractory heart failure in patients with stable sinus rhythm or chronic atrial fibrillation, Am J Car-diol, (Band 85), No. 9, Seite 1154-6, A9.

[130] Leclercq, C.; Cazeau, S.; Ritter, P.; Alonso, C.; Gras, D.; Mabo, P.; Laza-rus, A. und Daubert, J. C. (2000): A pilot experience with permanent biventricular pacing to treat advanced heart failure, Am Heart J, (Band 140), No. 6, Seite 862-870. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/Entrez/referer?,

[131] Auricchio, A.; Stellbrink, C.; Sack, S.; Block, M.; Vogt, J.; Bakker, P.; Mortensen, P. und Klein, H. (1999): The Pacing Therapies for Congestive Heart Failure (PATH-CHF) study: Rationale, design, and endpoints of a prospective randomized multicenter study, Am J Cardiol, (Band 83), No. 5B, Seite 130D-135D.

[132] Daubert, C.D. (2000): MUSTIC-Studie, Der Internist, (Band 41), Seite 1268.

[133] Stellbrink, C.; Auricchio, A.; Butter, C.; Sack, S.; Vogt, J.; Bocker, D.; Block, M.; Kirkels, H. und Ramdat-Misier, A. (2000): Pacing therapies in congestive heart failure II study, Am J Cardiol, (Band 86), No. 9 Suppl 1, Seite K138-K143.

[134] Hosenpud, J.D.; Bennett, L.E.; Keck, B.M.; Boucek, M.M. und Novick, R.J. (2000): The registry of the international society for heart and lung transplantation: seventeenth official re-port-2000, J Heart Lung Transplant, (Band 19), No. 10, Seite 909-31.

[135] Mason, J. W.; O'Connell, J. B.; Herskowitz, A.; Rose, N. R.; McManus, B. M.; Billingham, M. E. und Moon, T. E. (1995): A clinical trial of immunosuppressive therapy for myocarditis - The Myocarditis Treatment Trial Investiga-tors, N Engl J Med, (Band 333), No. 5, Seite 269-75.

[136] Herzum, M.; Ruppert, V.; Kuytz, B.; Jomaa, H.; Nakamura, I. und Maisch, B. (1994): Coxsackievirus B3 infection leads to cell death of cardiac myocytes, J Mol Cell Cardiol, (Band 26), No. 7, Seite 907-13.

[137] Dörffel, W. V.; Felix, S. B.; Wallukat, G.; Brehme, S.; Bestvater, K.; Hof-mann, T.; Kleber, F. X.; Baumann, G. und Reinke, P. (1997): Short-term hemodynamic effects of immu-noadsorption in dilated cardiomyopathy, Circulation, (Band 95), No. 8, Seite 1994-7.

[138] McNamara, D. M.; Rosenblum, W. D.; Janosko, K. M.; Trost, M. K.; Villa-neuva, F. S.; Demetris, A. J.; Murali, S. und Feldman, A. M. (1997): Intravenous immune globulin in the therapy of myocarditis and acute cardiomyopathy, Circulation, (Band 95), No. 11, Seite 2476-8.

[139] Gullestad, L.; Aass, H. und Fjeld, J. (2000): Effect of immunomodulating therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic heart failure, Coll Cardiol, (Band 35), No. Suppl. A, Seite 240A.

[140] McNamara, D. (1999): Late-breaking clinical trial session., 3rd An-nual Scientific Meeting of the Heart Failure Society of America, San Francisco.

[141] Bozkurt, B.; Torre-Amione, G. und Soran, O.Z. (2000): Safety and efficiacy of ENBREL (Etanercept) in the threatment of chronic heart failure, Am Coll Cardiol, (Band 35), No. Suppl. A, Seite 240A.

[142] Miric, M.; Vasiljevic, J.; Bojic, M.; Popovic, Z.; Keserovic, N. und Pesic, M. (1996): Long-term follow up of patients with dilated heart muscle disease treated with human leucocytic inter-feron alpha or thymic hormones initial results, Heart, (Band 75), No. 6, Seite 596-601.

[143] Richter, W. O.; Jacob, B. G.; Ritter, M. M.; Suhler, K.; Vierneisel, K. und Schwandt, P. (1993): Three-year treatment of familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia by extracorporeal low-density lipoprotein immunoadsorption with polyclonal apolipoprotein B anti-bodies, Metabolism, (Band 42), No. 7, Seite 888-94.

[144] Schneider, K. M. (1998): Plasmapheresis and immunoadsorption: different techniques and their cur-rent role in medical therapy, Kidney Int Suppl, (Band 64), Seite S61-5.

[145] Borberg, H.; Gaczkowski, A.; Hombach, V.; Oette, K. und Stoffel, W. (1988): Treatment of familial hypocholesterolemia by means of specific immunoadsorption, J Clin Apheresis, (Band 4), No. 2-3, Seite 59-65.

[146] PlasmaSelect-AG (1999): Homepage, www.therasorb.com.

[147] Müller-Derlich, J.; Moulin du, A. und Spaethe, R. (1993): Removal of human immunoglobulins with Ig-Therasorb, Transfusion Med, (Band 3), Seite 91.

[148] Moulin du, A.; Muller-Derlich, J.; Bieber, F.; Richter, W. O.; Frei, U.; Muller, R. und Spaethe, R. (1993): Antibody-based immunoadsorption as a therapeutic means, Blood Purif, (Band 11), No. 3, Seite 145-9.

[149] Schneider, M. (1996): Plasma- und Lymphapherese bei Immunopathien, Z Rheumatol, (Band 55), Seite 90-104.

[150] Dwyer, J. (1992): Manipulating the immune system with immune globulin, N Eng J Med, (Band 326), Seite 107-116.

[151] Schmid, E. R.; Schmidlin, D.; Tornic, M. und Seifert, B. (1999): Continuous thermodilution cardiac output: clinical validation against a reference technique of known accu-racy, Intensive Care Med, (Band 25), No. 2, Seite 166-72.

[152] Lehmann, K. G. und Platt, M. S. (1999): Improved accuracy and precision of thermodilution cardiac output measurement using a dual thermistor catheter sys-tem, J Am Coll Cardiol, (Band 33), No. 3, Seite 883-91.

[153] Mackenzie, J. D.; Haites, N. E. und Rawles, J. M. (1986): Method of assessing the reproducibil-ity of blood flow measurement: Factors influencing the performance of thermodi-lution cardiac output computers, Br Heart J, (Band 55), No. 1, Seite 14-24.

[154] Conway, J. und Lund-Johannsen, P. (1991): Thermodiluation method for measur-ing cardiac output, Robertson, J. I. S., Cardiac Output Measurement, Saunders, London.

[155] Schiller, N. B. (1991): Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of left ventricular volume, systolic function, and mass. Summary and discussion of the 1989 recommenda-tions of the American Society of Echocardiography, Circulation, (Band 84), No. 3 Suppl, Seite I280-7.

[156] Cheitlin, M. D.; Alpert, J. S.; Armstrong, W. F.; Aurigemma, G. P.; Beller, G. A.; Bierman, F. Z.; Davidson, T. W.; Davis, J. L.; Douglas, P. S. und Gillam, L. D. (1997): ACC/AHA Guide-lines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Clinical Application of Echocardiography). Developed in colloboration with the American Society of Echocardiography, Circulation, (Band 95), No. 6, Seite 1686-744.

[157] Gola, A.; Pozzoli, M.; Capomolla, S.; Traversi, E.; Sanarico, M.; Cobelli, F. und Tavazzi, L. (1996): Comparison of Doppler echocardiography with thermodilution for assessing cardiac output in advanced congestive heart failure, Am J Cardiol, (Band 78), No. 6, Seite 708-12.

[158] Wallukat, G. und Wollenberger, A. (1987): Effects of the serum gamma globulin fraction of patients with allergic asthma and dilated cardiomyopathy on chrono-tropic beta adrenoceptor function in cultured neonatal rat heart myo-cytes, Biomed Biochim Acta, (Band 46), No. 8-9, Seite S634-9.

[159] Aretz, H. T. (1987): Myocarditis: the Dallas criteria, Hum Pathol, (Band 18), No. 6, Seite 619-24.

[160] Kühl, U.; Noutsias, M. und Schultheiss, H. P. (1995): Immunohistochemistry in dilated cardio-myopathy, Eur Heart J, (Band 16 Suppl O), Seite 100-6.

[161] Tortoledo, F. A.; Quinones, M. A.; Fernandez, G. C.; Waggoner, A. D. und Winters, W. L., Jr. (1983): Quantification of left ventricular volumes by two-dimensional echocardiogra-phy: a simplified and accurate approach, Circulation, (Band 67), No. 3, Seite 579-84.

[162] Naik, M. M.; Diamond, G. A.; Pai, T.; Soffer, A. und Siegel, R. J. (1995): Correspondence of left ventricular ejection fraction determinations from two-dimensional echocardi-ography, radionuclide angiography and contrast cineangiography, J Am Coll Cardiol, (Band 25), No. 4, Seite 937-42.

[163] Schiller, N. B.; Acquatella, H.; Ports, T. A.; Drew, D.; Goerke, J.; Ringertz, H.; Silverman, N. H.; Brundage, B.; Botvinick, E. H.; Boswell, R.; Carlsson, E. und Parmley, W. W. (1979): Left ventricular volume from paired biplane two-dimensional echocardiogra-phy, Circulation, (Band 60), No. 3, Seite 547-55.

[164] van Royen, N.; Jaffe, C. C.; Krumholz, H. M.; Johnson, K. M.; Lynch, P. J.; Natale, D.; Atkinson, P.; Deman, P. und Wackers, F. J. (1996): Comparison and reproducibility of vis-ual echocardiographic and quantitative radionuclide left ventricular ejection frac-tions, Am J Cardiol, (Band 77), No. 10, Seite 843-50.

[165] Vuille, C. und Weyman, A.E. (1994): Left ventricle. General considerations, assessement of chamber size and function, Weyman, A.E., Principles and Practice of Echocardiography, Seite 557-624, Lea & Feibiger, Philadelphia.

[166] Feigenbaum, H. (1992): Echocardiography, Braunwald, E., Heart Disease, Seite 64-115, WB Saunders, Philadelphia.

[167] Ross, J. Jr. (1998): Assessement of cardiac function and myocardial contractility, Alexander, R. W.;Schlant, R. C. und Fuster, V., Hurst´s The Heart, 9th. Auflage, Seite 727-743, McGraw-Hill, New York.

[168] Rihal, C. S.; Nishimura, R. A.; Hatle, L. K.; Bailey, K. R. und Tajik, A. J. (1994): Systolic and diastolic dysfunction in patients with clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy - relation to symptoms and prognosis, Circulation, (Band 90), No. 6, Seite 2772-9.

[169] Corrao, S.; Paterna, S.; Arnone, S.; Costa, R.; Amato, V.; Amico, G.; Scaglione, R. und Licata, G. (1995): Two-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction by the ellipsoid single-plane algorithm: a reliable method for assessing low or very low ejection fraction values?, Cardiology, (Band 86), No. 6, Seite 503-7.

[170] Regnitz, V. und Rudolf, W. (1985): Dilatative Kardiomyopathie: Charakterisierung durch klinische und hämodynamische Befunde, Herz, (Band 10), Seite 125-133.

[171] Müller, J.; Wallukat, G.; Dandel, M.; Bieda, H.; Brandes, K.; Spiegelsber-ger, S.; Nissen, E.; Kunze, R. und Hetzer, R. (2000): Immunoglobulin adsorption in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, Circulation, (Band 101), No. 4, Seite 385-91.

[172] Jin, O.; Sole, M. J.; Butany, J. W.; Chia, W. K.; McLaughlin, P. R.; Liu, P. und Liew, C. C. (1990): Detection of enterovirus RNA in myocardial biopsies from patients with myo-carditis and cardiomyopathy using gene amplification by polymerase chain reac-tion, Circulation, (Band 82), No. 1, Seite 8-16.

[173] Limas, C. J. (1997): Cardiac autoantibodies in dilated cardiomyopathy: a pathogenetic role ?, Circulation, (Band 95), No. 8, Seite 1979-80.

[174] Schulze, K.; Becker, B. F.; Schauer, R. und Schultheiss, H. P. (1990): Antibodies to ADP-ATP carrier - an autoantigen in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy - impair cardiac function, Circulation, (Band 81), No. 3, Seite 959-69.

[175] Wallukat, G.; Müller, J.; Podlowski, S.; Nissen, W.; Morwinski, R. und Het-zer, R. (1999): Agonist-like beta-adrenoceptor antibodies in heart failure, Am J Car-diol, (Band 17), No. 12A, Seite 75H-79H.

[176] Müller, J.; Wallukat, G.; Weng, Y. G.; Dandel, M.; Spiegelsberger, S.; Sem-rau, S.; Brandes, K.; Theodoridis, V.; Loebe, M.; Meyer, R. und Hetzer, R. (1997): Weaning from me-chanical cardiac support in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopa-thy, Circulation, (Band 96), No. 2, Seite 542-9.

[177] Krum, H.; Sackner-Bernstein, J. D.; Goldsmith, R. L.; Kukin, M. L.; Schwartz, B.; Penn, J.; Medina, N.; Yushak, M.; Horn, E.; Katz, S. D. und et al. (1995): Double-blind, pla-cebo-controlled study of the long-term efficacy of carvedilol in patients with se-vere chronic heart failure, Circulation, (Band 92), No. 6, Seite 1499-506.

[178] Carvedilol-Study-Group (1997): Randomised, placebo-controlled trial of carvedilol in patients with con-gestive heart failure due to ischaemic heart disease. Australia/New Zealand Heart Failure Research Collaborative Group, Lancet, (Band 349), No. 9049, Seite 375-80.

[179] Hahn, A. F. (2000): Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in peripheral nerve disorders-- indica-tions, mechanisms of action and side-effects, Curr Opin Neurol, (Band 13), No. 5, Seite 575-82.

[180] Hundt, M.; Manger, K.; Dorner, T.; Grimbacher, B.; Kalden, P.; Rascu, A.; Weber, D.; Burmester, G. R.; Peter, H. H.; Kalden, J. R. und Schmidt, R. E. (2000): Treatment of acute exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus with high-dose intravenous im-munoglobulin, Rheumatology (Oxford), (Band 39), No. 11, Seite 1301-1302.

[181] Seneviratne, U. (2000): Guillain-Barre syndrome, Postgrad Med J, (Band 76), No. 902, Seite 774-782.

[182] Felix, S.B.; Staudt, A.; Dörffel, W.V.; Stangl, V.; Merkel, K.; Pohl, M.; Döcke, W.; Morgera, S.; Neumayer, H.; Wernecke, D.; Wallukat, G.; Stangl, K. und Baumann, G. (2000): Hemodynamic Effects of Immunoadsorption and Subsequent Immunoglobu-lin Substitution in Dilated Cardiomyopathy, J Am Coll Cardiol, (Band 35), No. 6, Seite 1590-1598.

[183] Ogi, M.; Yokoyama, H.; Tomosugi, N.; Hisada, Y. und Ohta, S. (1994): Risk factors for infec-tion and immunoglobulin replacement therapy in adult nephrotic syn-drom, Am J Kindney Dis, (Band 24), No. 3, Seite 427-36.

[184] Yokoyama, T.; Vaca, L.; Rossen, R. D.; Durante, W.; Hazarika, P. und Mann, D. L. (1993): Cellular basis for the negative inotropic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the adult mammalian heart, J Clin Invest, (Band 92), No. 5, Seite 2303-12.

[185] Paydas, S.; Aksu, H. S.; Karademir, M. und Gurcay, A. A. (1991): Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha during hemodialysis, Nephron, (Band 57), No. 4, Seite 477-8.

[186] Jorres, A.; Froese, P.; Fischer, C.; Safak, H.; Gahl, G. M.; Muller, C. und Vienken, J. (1992): Variables associated with the assessment of systemic tumor necrosis factor alpha levels during hemodialysis, Int J Artif Organs, (Band 15), No. 11, Seite 653-7.

[187] Liu, L. und Zhao, S. P. (1999): The changes of circulating tumor necrosis factor levels in patients with congestive heart failure influenced by therapy, Int J Car-diol, (Band 69), No. 1, Seite 77-82.

[188] Milani, R. V.; Mehra, M. R.; Endres, S.; Eigler, A.; Cooper, E. S.; Lavie, C. J., Jr. und Ventura, H. O. (1996): The clinical relevance of circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha in acute de-compensated chronic heart failure without cachexia, Chest, (Band 110), No. 4, Seite 992-5.

[189] Kjekshus, H.; Smiseth, O. A.; Klinge, R.; Oie, E.; Hystad, M. E. und At-tramadal, H. (2000): Regulation of ET: pulmonary release of ET contributes to increased plasma ET levels and vasoconstriction in CHF, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, (Band 278), No. 4, Seite H1299-310.

[190] Taddei, S.; Virdis, A.; Ghiadoni, L.; Sudano, I.; Notari, M. und Salvetti, A. (1999): Vasoconstriction to endogenous endothelin-1 is increased in the peripheral circulation of patients with essential hypertension, Circulation, (Band 100), No. 16, Seite 1680-3.

[191] Cracowski, J. L.; Stanke, F. und Bessard, G. (1999): Endothelin-1 and cardiovascular dis-eases, Rev Med Interne, (Band 20), No. 7, Seite 589-96.

[192] Sakai, S.; Miyauchi, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Yamaguchi, I.; Goto, K. und Sugi-shita, Y. (1996): Inhibition of myocardial endothelin pathway improves long-term survival in heart fail-ure, Nature, (Band 384), No. 6607, Seite 353-5.

[193] Krum, H.; Goldsmith, R.; Wilshire-Clement, M.; Miller, M. und Packer, M. (1995): Role of endothelin in the exercise intolerance of chronic heart failure, Am J Cardiol, (Band 75), No. 17, Seite 1282-3.

[194] McMurray, J. J.; Ray, S. G.; Abdullah, I.; Dargie, H. J. und Morton, J. J. (1992): Plasma endothelin in chronic heart failure, Circulation, (Band 85), No. 4, Seite 1374-9.

[195] Kiowski, W.; Sutsch, G.; Hunziker, P.; Muller, P.; Kim, J.; Oechslin, E.; Schmitt, R.; Jones, R. und Bertel, O. (1995): Evidence for endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction in severe chronic heart failure, Lancet, (Band 346), No. 8977, Seite 732-6.

[196] Bogoyevitch, M. A. und Sugden, P. H. (1996): The role of protein kinases in adapta-tional growth of the heart, Int J Biochem Cell Biol, (Band 28), No. 1, Seite 1-12.

[197] Stawski, G.; Olsen, U. B. und Grande, P. (1991): Cytotoxic effect of endothelin-1 during 'stimulated' ischaemia in cultured myocytes, Eur J Phar-macol, (Band 201), No. 1, Seite 123-4.

[198] Best, P. J. und Lerman, A. (2000): Endothelin in cardiovascular disease: from atherosclerosis to heart fail-ure [In Process Citation], J Cardiovasc Pharma-col, (Band 35), No. 4, Seite S61-63.

[199] Ikenouchi, H.; Kangawa, K.; Matsuo, H. und Hirata, Y. (1997): Negative inotropic effect of adrenomedullin in isolated adult rabbit cardiac ventricular myo-cytes, Circulation, (Band 95), No. 9, Seite 2318-24.

[200] Stangl, V.; Dschietzig, T.; Bramlage, P.; Boye, P.; Kinkel, H.; Staudt, A.; Baumann, G.; Felix, S. B. und Stangl, K. (2000): Adrenomedullin and myocardial con-tractility in the rat, Eur J Pharmacol, (Band 408), No. 1, Seite 83-9.

[201] Del Bene, R.; Lazzeri, C.; Barletta, G.; Vecchiarino, S.; Guerra, C. T.; Fran-chi, F. und La Villa, G. (2000): Effects of low-dose adrenomedullin on cardiac function and systemic haemodynamics in man, Clin Physiol, (Band 20), No. 6, Seite 457-65.

[202] Lainchbury, J. G.; Meyer, D. M.; Jougasaki, M.; Burnett, J. C., Jr. und Red-field, M. M. (2000): Effects of adrenomedullin on load and myocardial performance in normal and heart-failure dogs, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, (Band 279), No. 3, Seite H1000-6.

[203] Kiesewetter, H.; Jung, F. und Spitzer, S. (1989): Die Fließeigenschaften des Blutes und ihre klinische Bedeutung beim arteriellen Gefäßpatienten, Der Internist, (Band 30), Seite 420-428.

[204] Fadul, J. E.; Linde, T.; Sandhagen, B.; Wikstrom, B. und Danielson, B. G. (1997): Effects of extracor-poreal hemapheresis therapy on blood rheology, J Clin Apheresis, (Band 12), No. 4, Seite 183-6.

[205] Fadul, J. E.; Danielson, B. G. und Wikstrom, B. (1996): Reduction of plasma fibrinogen, im-munoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin M concentrations by immunoadsorption therapy with tryptophan and phenylalanine adsorbents, Artif Organs, (Band 20), No. 9, Seite 986-90.

[206] Chien, S.; Usami, S.; Dellenback, R. J. und Gregersen, M. I. (1970): Shear-dependent interaction of plasma proteins with erythrocytes in blood rheology, Am J Physiol, (Band 219), No. 1, Seite 143-53.

[207] Brown, M. M. und Marshall, J. (1982): Effect of plasma exchange on blood viscosity and cerebral blood flow, Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), (Band 284), No. 6331, Seite 1733-6.

[208] Burch, G. E. und Giles, T. D. (1972): Prolonged bed rest in the management of patients with cardio-myopathy, Cardiovasc Clin, (Band 4), No. 1, Seite 375-87.

[209] Drucker, N. A.; Colan, S. D.; Lewis, A. B.; Beiser, A. S.; Wessel, D. L.; Ta-kahashi, M.; Baker, A. L.; Perez-Atayde, A. R. und Newburger, J. W. (1994): Gamma-globulin treatment of acute myocarditis in the pediatric population, Circulation, (Band 89), No. 1, Seite 252-7.

[210] Hufnagel, G.; Pankuweit, S. und Maisch, B. (1998): Therapie der dilatativen Kardiomyopathy mit und ohne Entzündung, Medizinische Klinik, (Band 93), No. 3, Seite 240-251.

[211] Tabet, J.; Logeart, D.; Geyer, C.; Guiti, C.; Ennezat, P. V.; Dahan, M. und Cohen-Solal, A. (2000): Comparison of the prognostic value of left ventricular filling and peak oxygen uptake in patients with systolic heart failure, Eur Heart J, (Band 21), No. 22, Seite 1864-1871.

[212] Fuchs, J.B.; Werner, G. S.; Schulz, R. und Kreuzer, H. (1995): Prognostische Bedeutung von Ände-rungen der linksventrikulären diastolischen Funktion der dilatativen Kardiomyo-pathie, Z Kardiol, (Band 84), Seite 712-723.

[213] Itoh, H.; Taniguchi, K.; Koike, A. und Doi, M. (1990): Evaluation of severity of heart failure using ventilatory gas analysis, Circulation, (Band 81), No. 1 Suppl, Seite II31-7.

[214] Marburger, C. T.; Brubaker, P. H.; Pollock, W. E.; Morgan, T. M. und Kitz-man, D. W. (1998): Reproducibility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in elderly patients with congestive heart failure, Am J Cardiol, (Band 82), No. 7, Seite 905-9.

[215] Rostagno, C.; Galanti, G.; Comeglio, M.; Boddi, V.; Olivo, G. und Gastone Neri Serneri, G. (2000): Comparison of different methods of functional evaluation in patients with chronic heart failure, Eur J Heart Fail, (Band 2), No. 3, Seite 273-80.

[216] Matsui, S.; Persson, M.; Fu, H.M.; Hayase, M. und Katsuda, S. (2000): Protektive Wirkung von Bisoprolol auf die Beta-1-Adrenozeptorpeptid induzierte Myokardschädi-gung bei Kaninchen, Herz, (Band 25), No. 3, Seite 267-270.

[217] Magnusson, Y.; Wallukat, G.; Waagstein, F.; Hjalmarson, A. und Hoebeke, J. (1994): Autoimmunity in idio-pathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Characterization of antibodies against the beta 1-adrenoceptor with positive chronotropic effect, Circulation, (Band 89), No. 6, Seite 2760-7.

[218] Sprung, C.L.; Rackow, E.C. und Civetta, J.M. (1988): Direkte Messungen mit Hilfe des Pulmona-larterienkatheters und abgeleitete Meßgrößen, Sprung, Charles L., Pulmonalarterienkatheter - Methodik und klinis-che Anwendung, Seite 102, Springer-Verlag, Berlin; Heidelberg; New York.


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am:
26.10.2004