9 Literaturverzeichnis

1. Abedi, H. and I. Zachary. Signalling mechanisms in the regulation of vascular cell migration. Cardiovasc.Res. 30: 544-556, 1995.

2. Abedi, H. and I. Zachary. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates tyrosine phosphoryl a tion and recruitment to new focal adhesions of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin in end o thelial cells. J.Biol.Chem. 272: 15442-15451, 1997.

3. Ardissino, D., P. A. Merlini, R. Ariens, R. Coppola, E. Bramucci, and P. M. Mannucci. Ti s sue-factor antigen and activity in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Lancet 349: 769-771, 1997.

4. Ardissino, D., P. A. Merlini, R. Arlens, R. Coppola, E. Bramucci, S. Lucreziotti, A. Repetto, R. Fetiveau, and P. M. Mannucci. Tissue factor in human cor o nary atherosclerotic plaques. Clin.Chim.Acta 291: 235-240, 2000.

5. Bard, J. M., H. J. Parra, R. Camare, G. Luc, O. Ziegler, C. Dachet, E. Bruckert, P. Douste-Blazy, P. Drouin, B. Jacotot, et al. A multicenter comparison of the effects of simvastatin and fenofibrate therapy in severe pr i mary hypercholesterolemia, with particular emphasis on lipoproteins defined by their apolipoprotein co m position. Metabolism 41: 498-503, 1992.

6. Beck, L., Jr. and P. A. D'Amore.. Vascular development: cellular and molecular regulation FASEB J. 11: 365-373, 1997.

7. Bevilacqua, M. P. Endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules. Annu.Rev.Immunol. 11: 767-804, 1993.

8. Bevilacqua, M. P., R. M. Nelson, G. Mannori, and O. Cecconi. Endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules in h u man disease. Annu.Rev.Med. 45: 361-378, 1994.

9. Bishop-Bailey, D. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiova s cular system. Br.J.Pharmacol. 129: 823-834, 2000.

10. Bishop-Bailey, D. and T. Hla. Endothelial cell apoptosis induced by the peroxisome proliferator- activated rece p tor (PPAR) ligand 15-deoxy-Delta12, 14-prostaglandin J2. J.Biol.Chem. 274: 17042-17048, 1999.

11. Butcher, E. C. Leukocyte-endothelial cell recognition: three (or more) steps to specificity and diversity. Cell 67: 1033-1036, 1991.

12. Carlos, T. M. and J. M. Harlan. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion molecules. Blood 84: 2068-2101, 1994.

13. Carmeliet, P. Mechanisms of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. Nat.Med. 6: 389-395, 2000.

14. Castrillo, A., M. J. Diaz-Guerra, S. Hortelano, P. Martin-Sanz, and L. Bosca. Inhibition of IkappaB kinase and IkappaB phosphorylation by 15-deoxy- Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) in activated murine macrophages. Mol.Cell Biol. 20: 1692-1698, 2000.

15. Chen, N. G., S. F. Sarabia, P. J. Malloy, X. Y. Zhao, D. Feldman, and G. M. Reaven. PPARgamma agonists e n hance human vascular endothelial adhesiveness by increasing ICAM-1 expression. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 263: 718-722, 1999.

16. Chen, Y. X., Y. Nakashima, K. Tanaka, S. Shiraishi, K. Nakagawa, and K. Sueishi. Immunohistochemical e x pression of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor in atherosclerotic intimas of human coronary arteries. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 19: 131-139, 1999.

17. Cheresh, D. A., J. Leng, and R. L. Klemke. Regulation of cell contraction and membrane ruffling by distinct signals in migratory cells. J.Cell Biol. 146: 1107-1116, 1999.

18. Chinetti, G., J. C. Fruchart, and B. Staels. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): nuclear receptors with functions in the vascular wall. Z.Kardiol. 90 Suppl 3: 125-132, 2001.

19. Chinetti, G., S. Griglio, M. Antonucci, I. P. Torra, P. Delerive, Z. Majd, J. C. Fruchart, J. Chapman, J. Najib, and B. Staels. Activation of proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma induces apoptosis of human monocyte-derived macrophages. J.Biol.Chem. 273: 25573-25580, 1998.

20. Cho, A., J. Graves, and M. A. Reidy. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate matrix me t alloproteinase-9 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 20: 2527-2532, 2000.

21. Cho, S. Y. and R. L. Klemke. Extracellular-regulated kinase activation and CAS/Crk coupling regulate cell m i gration and suppress apoptosis during i n vasion of the extracellular matrix. J.Cell Biol. 149: 223-236, 2000.

22. Collins, A. R., W. P. Meehan, U. Kintscher, S. Jackson, S. Wakino, G. Noh, W. Palinski, W. A. Hsueh, and R. E. Law. Troglitazone inhibits formation of early atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic and nondiabetic low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 21: 365-371, 2001.

23. Collins, R. G., R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet. P-Selectin or intercellular adh e sion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E- def i cient mice. J.Exp.Med. 191: 189-194, 2000.

24. Collins, T., M. A. Read, A. S. Neish, M. Z. Whitley, D. Thanos, and T. Maniatis. Transcri p tional regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules: NF- kappa B and cytokine-inducible enhancers. FASEB J. 9: 899-909, 1995.

25. Conway, E. M., D. Collen, and P. Carmeliet. Molecular mechanisms of blood vessel growth. Cardiovasc.Res. 49: 507-521, 2001.

26. Couffinhal, T., M. Kearney, B. Witzenbichler, D. Chen, T. Murohara, D. W. Losordo, J. Symes, and J. M. Isner. Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF) in normal and atherosclerotic human arteries. Am.J.Pathol. 150: 1673-1685, 1997.

27. Cybulsky, M. I. and M. A. Gimbrone, Jr. Endothelial expression of a monon u clear leukocyte adhesion molecule during atherogenesis. Science 251: 788-791, 1991.

28. Davies, M. J., J. L. Gordon, A. J. Gearing, R. Pigott, N. Woolf, D. Katz, and A. Kyriakopo u los. The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM, and E- s e lectin in human atherosclerosis. J.Pathol. 171: 223-229, 1993.

29. Davignon, J. Advances in lipid-lowering therapy in atherosclerosis. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 498: 49-58, 2001.

30. de Boer, O. J., A. C. van der Wal, P. Teeling, and A. E. Becker. Leucocyte recruitment in rupture prone regions of lipid-rich plaques: a prominent role for neovascularization? Cardiovasc.Res. 41: 443-449, 1999.

31. Debril, M. B., J. P. Renaud, L. Fajas, and J. Auwerx. The pleiotropic functions of pero x isome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J.Mol.Med. 79: 30-47, 2001.

32. Delerive, P., K. De Bosscher, S. Besnard, W. Vanden Berghe, J. M. Peters, F. J. Gonzalez, J. C. Fruchart, A. Te d gui, G. Haegeman, and B. Staels. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha negatively regulates the vascular inflammatory gene response by negative cross-talk with transcription fa c tors NF-kappaB and AP-1. J.Biol.Chem. 274: 32048-32054, 1999.

33. Delerive, P., P. Gervois, J. C. Fruchart, and B. Staels. Induction of IkappaBa l pha expression as a mechanism contributing to the anti-inflammatory activities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activ a tors. J.Biol.Chem. 275: 36703-36707, 2000.

34. Delerive, P., F. Martin-Nizard, G. Chinetti, F. Trottein, J. C. Fruchart, J. Najib, P. Duriez, and B. Staels. Pero x isome proliferator-activated receptor activators inhibit thrombin- i n duced endothelin-1 production in human vascular endothelial cells by inhibiting the activator protein-1 signaling pathway. Circ.Res. 85: 394-402, 1999.

35. Dimmeler, S., B. Assmus, C. Hermann, J. Haendeler, and A. M. Zeiher. Fluid shear stress stimulates phosphor y lation of Akt in human endothelial cells: involvement in suppression of apoptosis. Circ.Res. 83: 334-341, 1998.

36. Dimmeler, S., E. Dernbach, and A. M. Zeiher. Phosphorylation of the endoth e lial nitric oxide synthase at ser-1177 is required for VEGF-induced end o thelial cell migration. FEBS Lett. 477: 258-262, 2000.

37. Dimmeler, S., I. Fleming, B. Fisslthaler, C. Hermann, R. Busse, and A. M. Ze i her. Activation of nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells by Akt- dependent phosphorylation. Nature 399: 601-605, 1999.

38. Dimmeler, S. and A. M. Zeiher. Akt takes center stage in angiogenesis signa l ing. Circ.Res. 86: 4-5, 2000.

39. Dong, Z. M., S. M. Chapman, A. A. Brown, P. S. Frenette, R. O. Hynes, and D. D. Wagner. The combined role of P- and E-selectins in atherosclerosis. J.Clin.Invest 102: 145-152, 1998.

40. Ericsson, C. G., A. Hamsten, J. Nilsson, L. Grip, B. Svane, and U. de Faire. Angiographic assessment of effects of bezafibrate on progression of coronary artery disease in young male postinfarction patients. Lancet 347: 849-853, 1996.

41. Ferrara, N. and T. Davis-Smyth. The biology of vascular endothelial growth factor. Endocr.Rev. 18: 4-25, 1997.

42. Ferri, C., C. Bellini, G. Desideri, L. Di Francesco, R. Baldoncini, A. Santucci, and G. De Mattia. Plasma end o thelin-1 levels in obese hypertensive and normotensive men. Diabetes 44: 431-436, 1995.

43. Ferri, C., V. Pittoni, A. Piccoli, O. Laurenti, M. R. Cassone, C. Bellini, G. Properzi, G. Val e sini, G. De Mattia, and A. Santucci. Insulin stimulates endothelin-1 secretion from human endothelial cells and modulates its circula t ing levels in vivo. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 80: 829-835, 1995.

44. Ferris, F. L., III, M. D. Davis, and L. M. Aiello. Treatment of diabetic ret i nopathy. N.Engl.J.Med. 341: 667-678, 1999.

45. Forman, B. M., J. Chen, and R. M. Evans. Hypolipidemic drugs, polyunsat u rated fatty acids, and eicosanoids are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 94: 4312-4317, 1997.

46. Franke, R. P., M. Gräfe, H. Schnittler, D. Seiffge, C. Mittermayer, and D. Drenckhahn. Induction of human va s cular endothelial stress fibres by fluid shear stress. Nature 307: 648-649, 1984.

47. Franke, T. F., S. I. Yang, T. O. Chan, K. Datta, A. Kazlauskas, D. K. Morrison, D. R. Ka p lan, and P. N. Tsichlis. The protein kinase encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is a target of the PDGF-activated phosphatidylinos i tol 3-kinase. Cell 81: 727-736, 1995.

48. Frick, M. H., M. Syvanne, M. S. Nieminen, H. Kauma, S. Majahalme, V. Virtanen, Y. A. Kesaniemi, A. Paste r nack, and M. R. Taskinen. Prevention of the angiographic progression of coronary and vein-graft ather o sclerosis by gemfibrozil after coronary bypass surgery in men with low levels of HDL cholesterol. Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial (LOCAT) Study Group. Circulation 96: 2137-2143, 1997.

49. Fulton, D., J. P. Gratton, T. J. McCabe, J. Fontana, Y. Fujio, K. Walsh, T. F. Franke, A. P a papetropoulos, and W. C. Sessa. Regula tion of endothelium-derived nitric oxide produ c tion by the protein kinase Akt. Nature 399: 597-601, 1999.

50. Glass, C. K. and J. L. Witztum. Atherosclerosis. the road ahead. Cell 104: 503-516, 2001.

51. Goetze, S., A. Bungenstock, C. Czupalla, F. Eilers, P. Stawowy, U. Kintscher, C. Spencer-Hänsch, K. Graf, B. Nürnberg, R. E. Law, E. Fleck, and M. Gräfe. Leptin induces end o thelial cell migration through Akt, which is inhibited by PPARgamma-ligands. Hypertension 40: 748-754, 2002.

52. Goetze, S., U. Kintscher, K. Kaneshiro, W. P. Meehan, A. Collins, E. Fleck, W. A. Hsueh, and R. E. Law. TNFa l pha induces expression of transcription factors c-fos, Egr-1, and Ets-1 in vascular lesions through extrace l lular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Atherosclerosis 159: 93-101, 2001.

53. Goetze, S., U. Kintscher, S. Kim, W. P. Meehan, K. Kaneshiro, A. R. Collins, E. Fleck, W. A. Hsueh, and R. E. Law. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands inhibit nuclear but not cytosolic extracell u lar si g nal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated steps in vascular smooth muscle cell migration. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 38: 909-921, 2001.

54. Goetze, S., X. P. Xi, K. Graf, E. Fleck, W. A. Hsueh, and R. E. Law. Troglit a zone inhibits angiotensin II-induced extracellular signal- regulated kinase 1/2 nuclear translocation and activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 452: 277-282, 1999.

55. Goetze, S., X. P. Xi, H. Kawano, T. Gotlibowski, E. Fleck, W. A. Hsueh, and R. E. Law. PPAR gamma-ligands inhibit migration mediated by multiple chemoattractants in vasc u lar smooth muscle cells. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 33: 798-806, 1999.

56. Goetze, S., X. P. Xi, Y. Kawano, H. Kawano, E. Fleck, W. A. Hsueh, and R. E. Law. TNF-alpha-induced migr a tion of vascular smooth muscle cells is MAPK dependent. Hypertension 33: 183-189, 1999.

57. Gouni-Berthold, I., H. K. Berthold, A. A. Weber, Y. Ko, C. Seul, H. Vetter, and A. Sachin i dis. Troglitazone and rosiglitazone induce apoptosis of va s cular smooth muscle cells through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase- independent pathway. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch.Pharmacol. 363: 215-221, 2001.

58. Gräfe, M., W. Auch-Schwelk, K. Graf, D. Terbeek, H. Hertel, M. Unkelbach, A. Hildebrandt, and E. Fleck. Is o lation and characterization of macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells from human hearts. Am.J.Physiol 267: H2138-H2148, 1994.

59. Gräfe, M., W. Auch-Schwelk, H. Hertel, D. Terbeek, G. Steinheider, M. Lo e be, and E. Fleck. Human cardiac microvascular and macrovascular endoth e lial cells respond differently to oxidatively modified LDL. Atherosclerosis 137: 87-95, 1998.

60. Gräfe, M., W. Auch-Schwelk, A. Zakrzewicz, V. Regitz-Zagrosek, P. Bartsch, K. Graf, M. Loebe, P. Gaehtgens, and E. Fleck. Angiotensin II-induced leukocyte adhesion on human coronary endothelial cells is mediated by E-selectin. Circ.Res. 81: 804-811, 1997.

61. Gräfe, M., K. Graf, W. Auch-Schwelk, D. Terbeek, H. Hertel, and E. Fleck. Cultivation and characterization of micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells from the human heart. Eur.Heart J. 14 Suppl I: 74-81, 1993.

62. Gräfe, M., G. Steinheider, U. Desaga, C. Warnecke, H. B. Lehmkuhl, V. R e gitz-Zagrosek, A. G. Hildebrandt, and E. Fleck. Characterization of two distinct mechanisms for induction of apoptosis in human vascular end o thelial cells. Clin.Chem.Lab Med. 37: 505-510, 1999.

63. Gräfe, M., A. Zakrzewicz, K. Graf, P. Gaehtgens, and E. Fleck. [Differential reaction of h u man cardiac macro- and microvascular endothelial cells with respect to leucocyte adhesion and exposition to atherogenic lip o proteins]. Z.Kardiol. 88: 828-837, 1999.

64. Gutstein, D. E. and V. Fuster. Pathophysiology and clinical significance of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Cardiovasc.Res. 41: 323-333, 1999.

65. Han, K. H., M. K. Chang, A. Boullier, S. R. Green, A. Li, C. K. Glass, and O. Quehenberger. Oxidized LDL reduces monocyte CCR2 expression through pathways involving pero x isome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J.Clin.Invest 106: 793-802, 2000.

66. Harker, L. A., A. B. Kelly, S. R. Hanson, W. Krupski, A. Bass, B. Osterud, G. A. FitzGerald, S. H. Goodnight, and W. E. Connor. Interruption of vasc u lar thrombus formation and vascular lesion formation by dietary n-3 fatty acids in fish oil in nonhuman primates. Circulation 87: 1017-1029, 1993.

67. Hinton, D. R., S. He, K. Graf, D. Yang, W. A. Hsueh, S. J. Ryan, and R. E. Law. Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation mediates PDGF-directed migration of RPE cells. Exp.Cell Res. 239: 11-15, 1998.

68. Hsueh, W. A. and R. E. Law. Cardiovascular risk continuum: implications of insulin resi s tance and diabetes. Am.J.Med. 105: 4S-14S, 1998.

69. Hsueh, W. A. and R. E. Law. Diabetes is a vascular disease. J.Investig.Med. 46: 387-390, 1998.

70. Hu, R. M., E. R. Levin, A. Pedram, and H. J. Frank. Insulin stimulates production and secr e tion of endothelin from bovine endothelial cells. Diabetes 42: 351-358, 1993.

71. Inoue, I., K. Shino, S. Noji, T. Awata, and S. Katayama. Expression of peroxisome prolifer a tor-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) in primary cultures of human vascular endothelial cells. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 246: 370-374, 1998.

72. Inoue, M., H. Itoh, M. Ueda, T. Naruko, A. Kojima, R. Komatsu, K. Doi, Y. Ogawa, N. T a mura, K. Takaya, T. Igaki, J. Yamashita, T. H. Chun, K. Masatsugu, A. E. Becker, and K. Nakao. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions: possible pathophysiological signif i cance of VEGF in progression of atherosclerosis. Circulation 98: 2108-2116, 1998.

73. Isner, J. M. Cancer and atherosclerosis: the broad mandate of angiogenesis. Circulation 99: 1653-1655, 1999.

74. Jackson, S. M., F. Parhami, X. P. Xi, J. A. Berliner, W. A. Hsueh, R. E. Law, and L. L. Demer. Peroxisome pr o liferator-activated receptor activators target human endothelial cells to inhibit leukocyte-endothelial cell i n teraction. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 19: 2094-2104, 1999.

75. Jaffe, E. A., R. L. Nachman, C. G. Becker, and C. R. Minick. Culture of human endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins. Identification by morphologic and immunologic crit e ria. J.Clin.Invest 52: 2745-2756, 1973.

76. Jiang, C., A. T. Ting, and B. Seed. PPAR-gamma agonists inhibit production of monocyte inflammatory cyt o kines. Nature 391: 82-86, 1998.

77. Kato, K., H. Satoh, Y. Endo, D. Yamada, S. Midorikawa, W. Sato, K. Mizuno, T. Fujita, K. Tsukamoto, and T. Watanabe. Thiazolidinediones down-regulate plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression in human vascular endothelial cells: A possible role for PPARgamma in endothelial function. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 258: 431-435, 1999.

78. Keller, H., C. Dreyer, J. Medin, A. Mahfoudi, K. Ozato, and W. Wahli. Fatty acids and ret i noids control lipid metabolism through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-retinoid X receptor he t erodimers. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 90: 2160-2164, 1993.

79. Kersten, S., B. Desvergne, and W. Wahli. Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature 405: 421-424, 2000.

80. Kintscher, U., S. Goetze, S. Wakino, S. Kim, S. Nagpal, R. A. Chandraratna, K. Graf, E. Fleck, W. A. Hsueh, and R. E. Law. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and ret i noid X receptor ligands inhibit monocyte chemotactic protein-1-directed migration of monocytes. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 401: 259-270, 2000.

81. Kume, N., M. I. Cybulsky, and M. A. Gimbrone, Jr. Lysophosphatidylcholine, a component of atherogenic lip o proteins, induces mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecules in cultured human and rabbit arterial endoth e lial cells. J.Clin.Invest 90: 1138-1144, 1992.

82. Kwon, H. M., G. Sangiorgi, E. L. Ritman, C. McKenna, D. R. Holmes, Jr., R. S. Schwartz, and A. Lerman. E n hanced coronary vasa vasorum neovascularization in experimental h y percholesterolemia. J.Clin.Invest 101: 1551-1556, 1998.

83. Lamoreaux, W. J., M. E. Fitzgerald, A. Reiner, K. A. Hasty, and S. T. Charles. Vascular e n dothelial growth factor increases release of gelatinase A and decreases release of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases by m i crovascular endothelial cells in vitro. Microvasc.Res. 55: 29-42, 1998.

84. Law, R. E., S. Goetze, X. P. Xi, S. Jackson, Y. Kawano, L. Demer, M. C. Fishbein, W. P. Meehan, and W. A. Hsueh. Expression and function of PPARgamma in rat and human vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulation 101: 1311-1318, 2000.

85. Law, R. E., W. P. Meehan, X. P. Xi, K. Graf, D. A. Wuthrich, W. Coats, D. Faxon, and W. A. Hsueh. Troglitazone inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell growth and intimal hype r plasia. J.Clin.Invest 98: 1897-1905, 1996.

86. Lee, H., W. Shi, P. Tontonoz, S. Wang, G. Subbanagounder, C. C. Hedrick, S. Hama, C. Borromeo, R. M. Evans, J. A. Berliner, and L. Nagy. Role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in oxidized phospho l ipid-induced synthesis of monocyte chem o tactic protein-1 and interleukin-8 by endothelial cells. Circ.Res. 87: 516-521, 2000.

87. Lee, P., C. C. Wang, and A. P. Adamis. Ocular neovascularization: an epidemiologic review. Surv.Ophthalmol. 43: 245-269, 1998.

88. Li, A. C., K. K. Brown, M. J. Silvestre, T. M. Willson, W. Palinski, and C. K. Glass. Pero x isome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands inhibit development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J.Clin.Invest 106: 523-531, 2000.

89. Li, H., M. I. Cybulsky, M. A. Gimbrone, Jr., and P. Libby. An atherogenic diet rapidly induces VCAM-1, a cyt o kine-regulatable mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecule, in rabbit aortic endothelium. Arterioscler.Thromb. 13: 197-204, 1993.

90. Li, H., M. I. Cybulsky, M. A. Gimbrone, Jr., and P. Libby. Inducible expression of vascular cell adhesion mol e cule-1 by vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and within rabbit atheroma. Am.J.Pathol. 143: 1551-1559, 1993.

91. Lin, J. H., Y. Zhu, H. L. Liao, Y. Kobari, L. Groszek, and M. B. Stemerman. Induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by low-density lipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 127: 185-194, 1996.

92. Loskutoff, D. J. and F. Samad. The adipocyte and hemostatic balance in obesity: studies of PAI-1. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 18: 1-6, 1998.

93. Luscinskas, F. W., M. I. Cybulsky, J. M. Kiely, C. S. Peckins, V. M. Davis, and M. A. Gi m brone, Jr. Cytokine-activated human endothelial monolayers support enhanced neutrophil transmigration via a mechanism i n volving both endothelial- leukocyte adhesion mol e cule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J.Immunol. 146: 1617-1625, 1991.

94. Lusis, A. J. Atherosclerosis. Nature 407: 233-241, 2000.

95. Mackay, C. R. Chemokine receptors and T cell chemotaxis. J.Exp.Med. 184: 799-802, 1996.

96. Maggs, D. G., T. A. Buchanan, C. F. Burant, G. Cline, B. Gumbiner, W. A. Hsueh, S. Inzu c chi, D. Kelley, J. Nolan, J. M. Olefsky, K. S. Polonsky, D. Silver, T. R. Valiquett, and G. I. Shulman. Metabolic effects of tr o glitazone monotherapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann.Intern.Med. 128: 176-185, 1998.

97. Marx, N., T. Bourcier, G. K. Sukhova, P. Libby, and J. Plutzky. PPARgamma activation in human endothelial cells increases plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression: PPARgamma as a potential mediator in vascular disease. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 19: 546-551, 1999.

98. Marx, N., J. Froehlich, L. Siam, J. Ittner, G. Wierse, A. Schmidt, H. Scharnagl, V. Hombach, and W. Koenig. Antidiabetic PPAR gamma-activator rosiglitazone reduces MMP-9 s e rum levels in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 23: 283-288, 2003.

99. Marx, N., A. Imhof, J. Froehlich, L. Siam, J. Ittner, G. Wierse, A. Schmidt, W. Maerz, V. Hombach, and W. Koenig. Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on soluble CD40L in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Circulation 107: 1954-1957, 2003.

100. Marx, N., F. Mach, A. Sauty, J. H. Leung, M. N. Sarafi, R. M. Ransohoff, P. Libby, J. Plutzky, and A. D. Luster. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activators inhibit IFN- gamma-induced expression of the T cell-active CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC in human endothelial cells. J.Immunol. 164: 6503-6508, 2000.

101. Marx, N., N. Mackman, U. Schonbeck, N. Yilmaz, V. Hombach, V, P. Libby, and J. Plutzky. PPARalpha Activ a tors Inhibit Tissue Factor Expression and Activity in Human Monocytes. Circulation 103: 213-219, 2001.

102. Marx, N., U. Schonbeck, M. A. Lazar, P. Libby, and J. Plutzky. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators inhibit gene expression and migration in human va s cular smooth muscle cells. Circ.Res. 83: 1097-1103, 1998.

103. Marx, N., G. Sukhova, C. Murphy, P. Libby, and J. Plutzky. Macrophages in human atheroma contain PPARgamma: differentiation- dependent peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma(PPARgamma) expression and reduction of MMP-9 activity through PPARgamma activation in mononuclear phagocytes in vitro. Am.J.Pathol. 153: 17-23, 1998.

104. Marx, N., G. K. Sukhova, T. Collins, P. Libby, and J. Plutzky. PPARalpha activators inhibit cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human endothelial cells. Circulation 99: 3125-3131, 1999.

105. Meili, R., C. Ellsworth, S. Lee, T. B. Reddy, H. Ma, and R. A. Firtel. Chemoattractant-mediated transient act i vation and membrane localization of Akt/PKB is required for efficient chemotaxis to cAMP in Dictyo s telium. EMBO J. 18: 2092-2105, 1999.

106. Morales-Ruiz, M., D. Fulton, G. Sowa, L. R. Languino, Y. Fujio, K. Walsh, and W. C. Sessa. Vascular endoth e lial growth factor-stimulated actin reorganization and migration of endothelial cells is regulated via the se r ine/threonine kinase Akt. Circ.Res. 86: 892-896, 2000.

107. Moulton, K. S., E. Heller, M. A. Konerding, E. Flynn, W. Palinski, and J. Folkman. Angi o genesis inhibitors endostatin or TNP-470 reduce intimal neovascularization and plaque growth in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation 99: 1726-1732, 1999.

108. Murao, K., H. Imachi, A. Momoi, Y. Sayo, H. Hosokawa, M. Sato, T. Ishida, and J. Takahara. Thiazolidi n edione inhibits the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in cytokine-treated human vascular endothelial cells. FEBS Lett. 454: 27-30, 1999.

109. Murata, T., Y. Hata, T. Ishibashi, S. Kim, W. A. Hsueh, R. E. Law, and D. R. Hinton. R e sponse of experimental retinal neovascularization to thiazolidinediones. Arch.Ophthalmol. 119: 709-717, 2001.

110. Murata, T., S. He, M. Hangai, T. Ishibashi, X. P. Xi, S. Kim, W. A. Hsueh, S. J. Ryan, R. E. Law, and D. R. Hinton. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands inhibit choroidal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 41: 2309-2317, 2000.

111. Neve, B. P., J. C. Fruchart, and B. Staels. Role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated r e ceptors (PPAR) in atherosclerosis. Biochem.Pharmacol. 60: 1245-1250, 2000.

112. Nilsson, L., T. Takemura, P. Eriksson, and A. Hamsten. Effects of fibrate compounds on expression of plasm i nogen activator inhibitor-1 by cultured endothelial cells. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 19: 1577-1581, 1999.

113. O'Brien, E. R., M. R. Garvin, R. Dev, D. K. Stewart, T. Hinohara, J. B. Simpson, and S. M. Schwartz. Angi o genesis in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Am.J.Pathol. 145: 883-894, 1994.

114. O'Brien, K. D., T. O. McDonald, A. Chait, M. D. Allen, and C. E. Alpers. Neovascular e x pression of E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in human atherosclerosis and their relation to intimal leukocyte content. Circulation 93: 672-682, 1996.

115. Oda, N., M. Abe, and Y. Sato. ETS-1 converts endothelial cells to the angiogenic phenotype by inducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and integrin beta3. J.Cell Physiol 178: 121-132, 1999.

116. Okura, T., M. Nakamura, Y. Takata, S. Watanabe, Y. Kitami, and K. Hiwada. Troglitazone induces apoptosis via the p53 and Gadd45 pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 407: 227-235, 2000.

117. Olefsky, J. M. Treatment of insulin resistance with peroxisome proliferator-activated rece p tor gamma agonists. J.Clin.Invest 106: 467-472, 2000.

118. Papapetropoulos, A., G. Garcia-Cardena, J. A. Madri, and W. C. Sessa. Nitric oxide produ c tion contributes to the angiogenic properties of vascular endothelial growth factor in h u man endothelial cells. J.Clin.Invest 100: 3131-3139, 1997.

119. Pasceri, V., H. D. Wu, J. T. Willerson, and E. T. Yeh. Modulation of vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activators. Circulation 101: 235-238, 2000.

120. Pauly, R. R., A. Passaniti, C. Bilato, R. Monticone, L. Cheng, N. Papadopoulos, Y. A. Gluzband, L. Smith, C. Weinstein, E. G. Lakatta, and . Migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells through a basement membrane barrier requires type IV collagenase activity and is inhibited by cellular differentiation. Circ.Res. 75: 41-54, 1994.

121. Pedram, A., M. Razandi, and E. R. Levin. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/Jun kinase cross-talk underlies vascular endothelial cell growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation. J.Biol.Chem. 273: 26722-26728, 1998.

122. Petrova, T. V., K. T. Akama, and L. J. Van Eldik. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins suppress activation of micr o glia: down- regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14- prostaglandin J2. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 96: 4668-4673, 1999.

123. Petruzzelli, L., M. Takami, and H. D. Humes. Structure and function of cell adhesion mol e cules. Am.J.Med. 106: 467-476, 1999.

124. Plutzky, J. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture: emerging insights and opportunities. Am.J.Cardiol. 84: 15J-20J, 1999.

125. Pober, J. S. and R. S. Cotran. The role of endothelial cells in inflammation. Transplantation 50: 537-544, 1990.

126. Poston, R. N., D. O. Haskard, J. R. Coucher, N. P. Gall, and R. R. Johnson-Tidey. Expre s sion of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in atherosclerotic plaques. Am.J.Pathol. 140: 665-673, 1992.

127. Ramos, M. A., M. Kuzuya, T. Esaki, S. Miura, S. Satake, T. Asai, S. Kanda, T. Hayashi, and A. Iguchi. Indu c tion of macrophage VEGF in response to oxidized LDL and VEGF accumulation in human atherosclerotic lesions. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 18: 1188-1196, 1998.

128. Ricote, M., A. C. Li, T. M. Willson, C. J. Kelly, and C. K. Glass. The peroxisome proliferator-activated rece p tor-gamma is a negative regulator of macrophage activation. Nature 391: 79-82, 1998.

129. Rosen, E. D. and B. M. Spiegelman. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands and atheroscl e rosis: ending the heartache. J.Clin.Invest 106: 629-631, 2000.

130. Ross, R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s. Nature 362: 801-809, 1993.

131. Ross, R. Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease. N.Engl.J.Med. 340: 115-126, 1999.

132. Rossi, A., P. Kapahi, G. Natoli, T. Takahashi, Y. Chen, M. Karin, and M. G. Santoro. Anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone prostaglandins are direct inhibitors of IkappaB kinase. Nature 403: 103-108, 2000.

133. Rubins, H. B., S. J. Robins, D. Collins, C. L. Fye, J. W. Anderson, M. B. Elam, F. H. Faas, E. Linares, E. J. Schaefer, G. Schectman, T. J. Wilt, and J. Wittes. Gemfibrozil for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Interve n tion Trial Study Group. N.Engl.J.Med. 341: 410-418, 1999.

134. Saitoh, K., T. Mori, H. Kasai, T. Nagayama, and S. Ohbayashi. [Anti-atheromatous effects of fenofibrate, a hypolipidemic drug. II: Anti-atheromatous effects are independent of its hypolipidemic effect in hereditary hyperlipidemic rabbits]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 106: 51-60, 1995.

135. Saitoh, K., T. Mori, H. Kasai, T. Nagayama, A. Tsuchiya, and S. Ohbayashi. [Anti-atheromatous effects of fenofibrate, a hypolipidemic drug. I: Anti-atheromatous effects are independent of its hypolipidemic effect in cholesterol-fed rabbits]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 106: 41-50, 1995.

136. Satoh, H., K. Tsukamoto, Y. Hashimoto, N. Hashimoto, M. Togo, M. Hara, H. Maekawa, N. Isoo, S. Kimura, and T. Watanabe. Thiazolidinediones suppress endothelin-1 secretion from bovine vascular endothelial cells: a new possible role of PPARgamma on vascular endothelial function. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 254: 757-763, 1999.

137. Schneiderman, J., M. S. Sawdey, M. R. Keeton, G. M. Bordin, E. F. Bernstein, R. B. Dilley, and D. J. Loskutoff. Increased type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene expression in atherosclerotic human arte r ies. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 89: 6998-7002, 1992.

138. Schoonjans, K., B. Staels, and J. Auwerx. Role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in mediating the effects of fibrates and fatty acids on gene expression. J.Lipid Res. 37: 907-925, 1996.

139. Seger, R. and E. G. Krebs. The MAPK signaling cascade. FASEB J. 9: 726-735, 1995.

140. Shih, P. T., M. L. Brennan, D. K. Vora, M. C. Territo, D. Strahl, M. J. Elices, A. J. Lusis, and J. A. Berliner. Blocking very late antigen-4 integrin decreases leukocyte entry and fatty streak formation in mice fed an atherogenic diet. Circ.Res. 84: 345-351, 1999.

141. Shu, H., B. Wong, G. Zhou, Y. Li, J. Berger, J. W. Woods, S. D. Wright, and T. Q. Cai. Activation of PPARalpha or gamma reduces secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 but not interleukin 8 from human monocytic THP-1 cells. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 267: 345-349, 2000.

142. Slupsky, C. M., L. N. Gentile, L. W. Donaldson, C. D. Mackereth, J. J. Seidel, B. J. Graves, and L. P. McIntosh. Structure of the Ets-1 pointed domain and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation site. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 95: 12129-12134, 1998.

143. Sobel, B. E. Insulin resistance and thrombosis: a cardiologist's view. Am.J.Cardiol. 84: 37J-41J, 1999.

144. Sowers, J. R., M. Epstein, and E. D. Frohlich. Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: an update. Hypertension 37: 1053-1059, 2001.

145. Spencer, C. M. and A. Markham. Troglitazone. Drugs 54: 89-101, 1997.

146. Spiegelman, B. M. PPAR-gamma: adipogenic regulator and thiazolidinedione receptor. Diabetes 47: 507-514, 1998.

147. Staels, B., J. Dallongeville, J. Auwerx, K. Schoonjans, E. Leitersdorf, and J. C. Fruchart. Mechanism of action of fibrates on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Circulation 98: 2088-2093, 1998.

148. Takagi, T., T. Akasaka, A. Yamamuro, Y. Honda, T. Hozumi, S. Morioka, and K. Yoshida. Troglitazone reduces neointimal tissue proliferation after coronary stent implantation in patients with non-insulin dependent di a betes mellitus: a serial intravascular ultrasound study. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 36: 1529-1535, 2000.

149. Tenaglia, A. N., K. G. Peters, M. H. Sketch, Jr., and B. H. Annex. Neovascularization in atherectomy specimens from patients with unstable angina: implications for pathogenesis of unstable angina. Am.Heart J. 135: 10-14, 1998.

150. Tontonoz, P., L. Nagy, J. G. Alvarez, V. A. Thomazy, and R. M. Evans. PPARgamma promotes mon o cyte/macrophage differentiation and uptake of oxidized LDL. Cell 93: 241-252, 1998.

151. van der Wal, A. C. and A. E. Becker. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture--pathologic basis of plaque stability and instability. Cardiovasc.Res. 41: 334-344, 1999.

152. van der Wal, A. C., P. K. Das, A. J. Tigges, and A. E. Becker. Adhesion molecules on the endothelium and mononuclear cells in human atherosclerotic lesions. Am.J.Pathol. 141: 1427-1433, 1992.

153. Waltenberger, J. Impaired collateral vessel development in diabetes: potential cellular mechanisms and ther a peutic implications. Cardiovasc.Res. 49: 554-560, 2001.

154. Weil, A., J. Caldwell, and M. Strolin-Benedetti. The metabolism and disposition of 14C-fenofibrate in human volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos. 18: 115-120, 1990.

155. Wheeler-Jones, C., R. Abu-Ghazaleh, R. Cospedal, R. A. Houliston, J. Martin, and I. Zachary. Vascular end o thelial growth factor stimulates prostacyclin production and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in e n dothelial cells via p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase. FEBS Lett. 420: 28-32, 1997.

156. Willson, T. M., P. J. Brown, D. D. Sternbach, and B. R. Henke. The PPARs: from orphan receptors to drug discovery. J.Med.Chem. 43: 527-550, 2000.

157. Wymann, M. P. and L. Pirola. Structure and function of phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1436: 127-150, 1998.

158. Xi, X. P., K. Graf, S. Goetze, E. Fleck, W. A. Hsueh, and R. E. Law. Central role of the MAPK pathway in ang II-mediated DNA synthesis and migration in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 19: 73-82, 1999.

159. Xin, X., S. Yang, J. Kowalski, and M. E. Gerritsen. Peroxisome proliferator-activated r e ceptor gamma ligands are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. J.Biol.Chem. 274: 9116-9121, 1999.

160. Yoshimoto, T., M. Naruse, H. Shizume, K. Naruse, A. Tanabe, M. Tanaka, K. Tago, K. Irie, T. Muraki, H. D e mura, and L. Zardi. Vasculo-protective effects of insulin sensitizing agent pioglitazone in neointimal thic k ening and hypertensive vascular hypertrophy. Atherosclerosis 145: 333-340, 1999.

161. Zachary, I. and G. Gliki. Signaling transduction mechanisms mediating biological actions of the vascular end o thelial growth factor family. Cardiovasc.Res. 49: 568-581, 2001.

162. Zempo, N., N. Koyama, R. D. Kenagy, H. J. Lea, and A. W. Clowes. Regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation in vitro and in injured rat arteries by a synthetic matrix metalloproteinase i n hibitor. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 16: 28-33, 1996.

163. Zhang, Y., W. J. Cliff, G. I. Schoefl, and G. Higgins. Immunohistochemical study of intimal microvessels in coronary atherosclerosis. Am.J.Pathol. 143: 164-172, 1993.

164. Ziche, M., L. Morbidelli, R. Choudhuri, H. T. Zhang, S. Donnini, H. J. Granger, and R. Bicknell. Nitric oxide synthase lies downstream from vascular endothelial growth factor-induced but not basic fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis. J.Clin.Invest 99: 2625-2634, 1997.

© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
XDiML DTD Version 4.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am: