6. Literatur

1  Eichhorn EJ, Bristow MR. Medical therapy can improve the biological properties of the chronically failing heart. A new era in the treatment of heart failure. Circulation. 1996 Nov 1; 94 (9): 2285-96.

2  Levy D, Garrison RJ, Savage DD, Kannel WB, Castelli WP. Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. Engl J Med. 1990 May 31; 322 (22): 1561-6.

3  Wagoner LE, Walsh RA. The cellular pathophysiology of progression to heart failure. Curr Opin Cardiol. 1996 May; 11 (3): 237-44.

4  Fuchs M, Drexler H. Pathopysiologie der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Internist. 2000; 41: 93-104.

5  Sadoshima J, Xu Y, Slayter HS, Izumo S. Autocrine release of angiotensin II mediates stretch-induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes in vitro. Cell. 1993 Dec 3; 75 (5): 977-84.

6  Miyata S, Haneda T, Osaki J, Kikuchi K. Renin-angiotensin system in stretch-induced hypertrophy of cultured neonatal rat heart cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Jun 20; 307 (1): 81-8.

7  Yamazaki T, Komuro I, Kudoh S, Zou Y, Shiojima I, Hiroi Y, Mizuno T, Maemura K, Kurihara H, Aikawa R, Takano ,Yazaki Y. Endothelin-1 is involved in mechanical stress induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. J Biol. Chem. 1996 Feb 9; 271 (6): 3221-8.

8  Arai M, Yoguchi A, Iso T, Takahashi T, Imai S, Murata K, Suzuki T. Endothelin-1 and its binding sites are upregulated in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Physiol. 1995 May; 268 (5 Pt 2): H2084-91.

9  Villarreal FJ, Dillmann WH. Cardiac hypertrophy-induced changes in mRNA levels for TGF-beta 1, fibronectin, and collagen. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun; 262 (Pt 2): H1861-6.

10  Calderone A, Takahashi N, Izzo NJ Jr, Thaik CM, Colucci WS. Pressure- and volume-induced left ventricular hypertrophies are associated with distinct myocyte phenotypes and differential induction of peptide growth factor mRNAs. Circulation. 1995 Nov 1; 92 (9): 2385-90.

11  Serneri GG, Modesti PA, Boddi M, Cecioni I, Paniccia R, Coppo M, Galanti G, Simonetti I, Vanni S, Papa L, Bandinelli B, Migliorini A, Modesti A, Maccherini M, Sani G, Toscano M. Cardiac growth factors in human hypertrophy. Relations with myocardial contractility and wall stress. Circ Res. 1999 Jul 9; 85 (1): 57-67.

12  Ruwhof C, van der Laarse A. Mechanical stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy: mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. Cardiovasc Res. 2000 Jul; 47 (1): 23-37.

13  Hasenfuss G. Alterations of calcium-regulatory proteins in heart failure. Cardiovasc. Res. 1998 Feb; 37: 279-289

14  Mercadier JJ, Lompre AM, Duc P, Boheler KR, Fraysse JB, Wisnewsky C, Allen PD, Komajda M, Schwartz K. Altered sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase gene expression in the human ventricle during end-stage heart failure. J Clin Invest. 1990 Jan; 85 (1): 305-9.

15  Molkentin JD. Calcineurin and beyond: cardiac hypertrophic signaling. Circ Res. 2000 Oct 27; 87 (9): 731-8.

16  Mukerjee N, McGinnis KM, Gnegy ME, Wang KK. Caspase-mediated calcineurin activation contributes to IL-2 release during T cell activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Aug 3; 285 (5): 1192-9.

17  Chin ER, Olson EN, Richardson JA, Yang Q, Humphries C, Shelton JM, Wu H, Zhu W, Bassel-DubyR, WilliamsRS. A calcineurin-dependent transcriptional pathway controls skeletal muscle fiber type. Genes Dev. 1998 Aug 15; 12 (16): 2499-509.

18  Spangenburg EE, Williams JH, Roy RR, Talmadge RJ. Skeletal muscle calcineurin: influence of phenotype adaptation and atrophy. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001 Apr; 280 (4): R1256-60.

19  Rao A, Luo C, Hogan PG. Transcription factors of the NFAT family: regulation and function. Annu Rev Immunol. 1997; 15: 707-47.

20  Shibasaki F, Price ER, Milan D, McKeon F. Role of kinases and the phosphatase calcineurin in the nuclear shuttling of transcription factor NF-AT4. Nature. 1996 Jul 25; 382 (6589): 370-3.

21  Molkentin JD. The zinc finger-containing transcription factors GATA-4, -5, and -6. Ubiquitously expressed regulators of tissue-specific gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 15; 275 (50): 38949-52.

22  Luo C, Shaw KT, Raghavan A, Aramburu J, Garcia-Cozar F, Perrino BA, Hogan PG, Rao A. Interaction of calcineurin with a domain of the transcription factor NFAT1 that controls nuclear import. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Aug 20; 93 (17): 8907-12.

23  Zou Y, Hiroi Y, Uozumi H, Takimoto E, Toko H, Zhu W, Kudoh S, Mizukami M, Shimoyama M, Shibasaki F, Nagai R, Yazaki Y, Komuro I. Calcineurin plays a critical role in the development of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Circulation. 2001 Jul 3; 104 (1): 97-101.

24  Molkentin JD, Lu JR, Antos CL, Markham B, Richardson J, Robbins J, Grant SR, Olson EN . A calcineurin-dependent transcriptional pathway for cardiac hypertrophy. Cell. 1998 Apr 17; 93 (2): 215-28.

25  Shimoyama M, Hayashi D, Takimoto E, Zou Y, Oka T, Uozumi H, Kudoh S, Shibasaki F, Yazaki Y, Nagai R, Komuro I. Calcineurin plays a critical role in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Circulation. 1999 Dec 14 ; 100 (24): 2449-54.

26  Lim HW, De Windt LJ, Steinberg L, Taigen T, Witt SA, Kimball TR, Molkentin JD. Calcineurin expression, activation, and function in cardiac pressure-overload hypertrophy. Circulation. 2000; 101 (20): 2431-7.

27  Taigen T, De Windt LJ, Lim HW, Molkentin JD. Targeted inhibition of calcineurin prevents agonist-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000 Feb 1; 97 (3): 1196-201.

28  Goldspink, PH, Mc Kinney,RD, Kimball, VA, Geenen, DL et al. Angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo is inhibited by cyclosporin A in adult rats. Moecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2001; 226, 83-88

29 

Zhang W, Kowal RC, Rusnak F, Sikkink RA, Olson EN, Victor RG. Failure of calcineurin inhibitors to prevent pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy in rats. Circ Res. 1999 Apr 2; 84 (6): 722-8.

30  Meguro T, Hong C, Asai K, Takagi G, McKinsey TA, Olson EN, Vatner SF. Cyclosporine attenuates pressure-overload hypertrophy in mice while enhancing susceptibility to decompensation and heart failure. Circ Res. 1999 Apr 2; 84 (6): 735-40.

31  Ding B, Price RL, Borg TK, Weinberg EO, Halloran PF, Lorell BH. Pressure overload induces severe hypertrophy in mice treated with cyclosporine, an inhibitor of calcineurin. Circ Res. 1999 Apr 2; 84 (6): 729-34.

32  Milan D, Griffith J, Su M, Price ER, McKeon F. The latch region of calcineurin B is involved in both immunosuppressant-immunophilin complex docking and phosphatase activation. Cell. 1994 Nov 4; 79 (3): 437-47.

33  Guerini D. Calcineurin: not just a simple protein phosphatase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Jun 18; 235 (2): 271-5.

34  Wang MG, Yi H, Guerini D, Klee CB, Mc Bride OW. Calcineurin A alpha (PPP3CA), calcineurin A beta (PPP3CB) and calcineurin B (PPP3R1) are located on human chromosomes 4, 10q21-->q22 and 2p16-->p15 respectively. Cytogenet Cell.Genet. 1996 ; 72 : 236-241.

35  Chang CD, Mukai H, Kuno T, Tanaka C. cDNA cloning of an alternatively spliced isoform of the regulatory subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (calcineurin B alpha 2). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Mar 1; 1217 (2): 174-80.

36  Mukai H, Chang CD, Tanaka H, Ito A, Kuno T, Tanaka C. cDNA cloning of a novel testis-specific calcineurin B-like protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Sep 30; 179 (3): 1325-30.

37  Liu L, Zhang J, Yuan J, Dang Y, Yang C, Chen X, Xu J, Yu L. Characterization of a human regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 3 gene (PPP3RL) expressed specifically in testis. Mol Biol Rep. 2005 Mar; 32 (1): 41-5.

38  Ueki K, Kincaid RL. Interchangeable associations of Calcineurin regulatory subunit isoforms with mammalian and fungal catalytic subunits. J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 25; 268 (9): 6554-9.

39  Goto S, Nagahiro S, Ushio Y, Hirano A. Calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase, in mammalian neuroendocrine cells and neoplasms. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Aug 31; 143 (1-2): 51-4.

40  Nakayama S, Kretsinger RH. Evolution of the EF-hand family of proteins. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 1994; 23:473-507.

41  Kawasaki H, Kretsinger RH. Calcium-binding proteins 1: EF-hands. Protein Profile. 1995; 2 (4): 297-490.

42  Rusnak F, Mertz P. Calcineurin: form and function. Physiol Rev. 2000 Oct; 80 (4): 1483-521.

43  Stemmer P.M., Klee CB. Dual calcium ion regulation of calcineurin by calmodulin and calcineurin B. Biochemistry. 1994 Jun 7; 33 (22): 6859-66.

44  Kennedy MT, Brockman H, Rusnak F. Contributions of myristoylation to calcineurin structure/function. J Biol Chem. 1996 Oct 25; 271 (43): 26517-21.

45  Nagata K, Somura F, Obata K, Odashima M, Izawa H, Ichihara S, Nagasaka T, Iwase M, Yamada Y, Nakashima N, Yokota M. AT1 receptor blockade reduces cardiac calcineurin activity in hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2002 Aug; 40 (2): 168-74.

46  Takeda Y, Yoneda T, Demura M, Usukura M, Mabuchi H. Calcineurin inhibition attenuates mineralocorticoid-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Circulation. 2002 Feb 12; 105 (6): 677-9.

47 

Li J, Wang J, Russell FD, Molenaar P. Activation of calcineurin in human failing heart ventricle by endothelin 1, angiotensin II and urotensin II. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Jun; 145 (4): 432-40.

48  Dolmetsch RE, Lewis RS, Goodnow CC, Healy JI. Differential activation of transcription factors induced by Ca2+ response amplitude and duration. Nature. 1997 Apr 24; 386 (6627): 855-8. Erratum in: Nature 1997 Jul 17; 388 (6639): 308.

49  Langenickel T, Pagel I, Höhnel K, Dietz R, Willenbrock R. Differential regulation of cardiac ANP and BNP mRNA in different stages of experimental heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 May; 278 (5): H1500-H1506

50  Timmerman LA, Clipstone NA, Ho SN, Northrop JP, Crabtree GR. Rapid shutting of NF-AT in discrimination of Ca sup 2+ signals and immunosuppression. Nature. 1996 Oct 31; 383 (6603): 837-840.

51  Chin ER, Olson EN, Richardson JA, Yang Q, Humphries C, Shelton JM, Wu H, Zhu W, Bassel-Duby R, Williams RS. A calcineurin-dependent transcriptional pathway controls skeletal muscle fiber type. Genes Dev. 1998 Aug 15; 12 (16): 2499-509

52  Feng B, Stemmer PM. Ca2+ binding site 2 in calcineurin-B modulates calmodulin-dependent calcineurin phosphatase activity. Biochemistry. 2001 Jul 31; 40 (30): 8808-14.

53  Chin ER, Allen DG. Changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration during constant 10 Hz stimulation of mouse single skeletal muscle fibres. Physiologist. 1996; 39: A-75.

54  De Windt, L.J, Lim, HW, Bueno, OF., Liang, Q, Braz, JC, Molkentin, JD. Target inhibition of Calcineurin attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. Proceeding of the national Academy of Sciences of the USA. 2001; 98 : 3322-3327.

55  Parsons JN, Wiederrecht GJ, Salowe S, Burbaum JJ, Rokosz LL, Kincaid RL, O'Keefe SJ. Regulation of calcineurin phosphatase activity and interaction with the FK-506.FK-506 binding protein complex. J Biol Chem. 1994 Jul 29; 269 (30): 19610-6.

56  Chen L, Glover JNM, Hogan PG, Rao A, Harrison SC. Structure of the DNA binding domains of NFAT, Fos, and Jun bound specifically to DNA. Nature. 1998 ; 392, 42-48.

57  De Windt L.J., Lim H.W., Haq S., Force T, Molkentin JD. Calcineurin promotes protein kinase C and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation in the heart. Cross-talk between cardiac hypertrophic signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 5; 275 (18): 13571-9.

58  Sugden PH. Signaling in myocardial hypertrophy: life after calcineurin? Circ Res. 1999 Apr 2; 84 (6): 633-46.

59  Wiederrecht G, Lam E, Hung S, Martin M, Sigal N. The mechanism of action of FK-506 and cyclosporin A. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Nov 30; 696:9-19.

60  Hojo M, Morimoto T, Maluccio M, Asano T, Morimoto K, Lagman M, Shimbo T, Suthanthiran M. Cyclosporine induces cancer progression by a cell-autonomous mechanism. Nature. 1999 Feb 11; 397 (6719): 530-4.

61  Janssen PM, Zeitz O, Keweloh B, Siegel U, Maier LS, Barckhausen P, Pieske B, Prestle J, Lehnart SE, Hasenfuss G. Influence of cyclosporine A on contractile function, calcium handling, and energetics in isolated human and rabbit myocardium. Cardiovasc Res. 2000 Jul; 47 (1): 99-107.

62  Park KS, Kim TK, Kim DH. Cyclosporin A treatment alters characteristics of Ca2+-release channel in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. Am J Physiol. 1999 Mar; 276 (3 Pt 2): H865-72.

63  Curtis JJ. Hypertensinogenic mechanism of the calcineurin inhibitors. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2002 Oct ; 4 (5): 377-80.

64  Klee CB, Ren H, Wang X. Regulation of the calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase, calcineurin. J Biol Chem. 1998 May 29; 273 (22): 13367-70.

65  Mitsuhashi S, Saito N, Watano K, Igarashi K, Tagami S, Shima H, Kikuchi K. Defect of delta-sarcoglycan gene is responsible for development of dilated
cardiomyopathy of a novel hamster strain, J2N-k: calcineurin/PP2B activity

in the heart of J2N-k hamster.
J Biochem (Tokyo). 2003 Aug; 134 (2): 269-76.

66  Munch G, Bolck B, Karczewski P, Schwinger RH. Evidence for calcineurin-mediated regulation of SERCA 2a activity in human myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002 Mar; 34 (3): 321-34.

67  Tenhunen O, Szokodi I, Ruskoaho H. Posttranscriptional activation of BNP gene expression in response to increased left ventricular wall stress: role of calcineurin and PKC. Regul Pept. 2005 Jun 30; 128 (3): 187-96.

68  Ritter O, Hack S, Schuh K, Rothlein N, Perrot A, Osterziel KJ, Schulte HD, Neyses L. Calcineurin in human heart hypertrophy. Circulation. 2002 May 14; 105 (19): 2265-9.

69  Pesole G, Liuni S, Grillo G, Saccone C. UTRdb: a specialized database of 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998 Jan1; 26 (1): 192-5.

70  Siomi H, Matunis MJ, Michael WM, Dreyfuss G . The pre-mRNA binding K protein contains a novel evolutionarily conserved motif. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Mar 11; 21 (5): 1193 -8.

71  Chkheidze, A. N., Lyakhov, D. L., Makeyev, A. V., Morales, J., Kong, J., Liebhaber, S. A. Assembly of the α- Globin mRNA stability complex reflects binary interaction between the Pyrimidine-rich 3`untranslated region determinant and poly (C) binding protein αCP. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1999 July; 19 (7): 4572-4581.

72  Skalweit A, Doller A, Huth A, Kahne T, Persson PB, Thiele BJ. Posttranscriptional control of renin synthesis: identification of proteins interacting with renin mRNA 3'-untranslated region. Circ Res. 2003 Mar 7; 92 (4): 419-27.

73  Reimann I, Huth A, Thiele H, Thiele BJ. Suppression of 15-lipoxygenase synthesis by hnRNP E1 is dependent on repetitive nature of LOX mRNA 3'-UTR control element DICE. J Mol Biol. 2002 Feb 1; 315 (5): 965-74.

74  Holcik M, Liebhaber SA. Four highly stable eukaryotic mRNAs assemble 3' untranslated region RNA-protein complexes sharing cis and trans components. Proc. Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Mar 18; 94 (6): 2410-4.

75  Thiele BJ, Doller A, Kahne T, Pregla R, Hetzer R, Regitz-Zagrosek V. RNA-binding proteins heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, E1, K are involved in post-transcriptional control of collagen I and III synthesis. Circ Res. 2004 Nov 26; 95 (11): 1058-66.

76 Maron BJ, Ferrans VJ, Roberts WC.Ultrastructural features of degenerated cardiac muscle cells in patients with cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Pathol. 1975 Jun;79(3):387-434.

77 Hess OM, Ritter M, Schneider J, Grimm J, Turina M, Krayenbuehl HP.Diastolic stiffness and myocardial structure in aortic valve disease before and after valve replacement. Circulation. 1984 May;69(5):855-65.

78 Eghbali M, Tomek R, Woods C, Bhambi B. Cardiac fibroblasts are predisposed to convert into myocyte phenotype: specific effect of transforming growth factor beta.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Feb 1;88(3):795-9. Erratum in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991 Apr 15;88(8):3510.

79 Fielitz J, Leuschner M, Zurbrugg HR, Hannack B, Pregla R, Hetzer R, Regitz-Zagrosek V.
Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the left
ventricular myocardium of patients with aortic stenosis. J Mol Med. 2004 Dec;82(12):809-20.

80 Pauschinger M, Knopf D, Petschauer S, Doerner A, Poller W, Schwimmbeck PL, Kuhl U, Schultheiss HP. Dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with significant changes in collagen type I/III ratio. Circulation. 1999 Jun 1;99(21):2750-6.

81 Piper C, Schultheiss HP, Akdemir D, Rudolf J, Horstkotte D, Pauschinger M.
Remodeling of the cardiac extracellular matrix differs between volume-and pressure-overloaded ventricles and is specific for each heart valve lesion. J Heart Valve Dis. 2003 Sep;12(5):592-600.

82  Kawakami H, Okayama H, Hamada M, Hiwada K. Alteration of atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide gene expression associated with progression and regression of cardiac hypertrophy in renovascular hypertensive rats. Clin Sci (Lond). 1996 Mar; 90 (3): 197-204.

83  Luchner A, Stevens TL, Borgeson DD, Redfield M, Wei CM, Porter JG, Burnett JC Jr. Differential atrial and ventricular expression of myocardial BNP during evolution of heart failure. Am J Physiol. 1998 May; 274 (5 Pt 2): H1684-9.

84  Knierem, H.J. Über den Bindegewebsgehalt des Herzmuskels des Menschen. Archiv für Kreislaufforschung. 1964 ; 44 : 231-259.

85 


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
XDiML DTD Version 4.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am:
26.05.2006