[page 125↓]

9. Tables

Table 1. Carbon-specific fatty acid concentrations (μg mgC-1) in four freshwater heterotrophic protists and their diet. Balanion planctonicum and Urotricha farcta fed Cryptomonas phaseolus;Cyclidium sp. and Chilomonas paramecium fed a “bacteria + rice” diet. Values are means (±SD) of at least 4 analyses (n= 4); (-) not detected fatty acids.

Fatty Acid

Cryptomonas (algal diet)

Balanion

Urotricha

“Bacteria + rice” diet

Cyclidium

Chilomonas

14:0

7.8 (8.1)

2.6 (1.1)

2.6 (0.7)

-

0.6 (0.0)*

0.5 (0.0)*

15:0

11.9 (2.3)

10.1 (3.1)

13.9 (2.5)

0.9 (0.2)

3.2 (0.1)*

4.5 (0.5)*

16:0

111.6 (39.7)

82.5 (32.1)

103.8 (3.2)

17.0 (5.4)

47.0 (2.5)*

47.0 (13.2)*

17:0

1.3 (1.0)

3.2 (0.0)

3.8 (0.0)

0.3 (0.1)

1.4 (0.1)*

0.7 (0.0)*

18:0

44.8 (24.2)

32.8 (11.3)

40.7 (3.1)

7.2 (1.6)

24.4 (2.3)*

15.9 (1.4)*

19:0

-

23.5 (9.5)*

25.5 (12.8)*

4.8 (0.8)

19.4 (0.6)*

8.4 (0.2)*

20:0

8.3 (2.4)

6.2 (3.0)

4.7 (1.6)

0.9 (0.2)

3.7 (0.5)*

3.1 (0.7)*

24:0

12.2 (7.9)

7.2 (4.3)

2.9 (1.1)*

53.6 (5.7)

2.5 (2.2)*

0.7 (0.3)*

Summe SAFA

207.3 (41.2)

202.4 (77.5)

235.1 (36.4)

35.4 (10.6)

116.7 (13.7)

98.9 (14.2)

14:1 ω 7

1.9 (1.3)

11.7 (4.5)*

13.8 (2.9)*

3.0 (1.9)

4.2 (0.2)

5.8 (3.2)

14:1 ω 5

5.5 (1.1)

4.4 (1.2)

7.7 (0.8)*

1.9 (0.5)

5.9 (0.2)*

1.7 (0.5)

15:1

4.2 (1.4)

25.1 (9.6)*

27.1 (10.5)*

3.1 (0.9)

8.2 (0.3)*

0.5 (0.1)*

16:1 ω 9

7.0 (2.8)

20.3 (10.0)*

23.5 (1.5)*

6.3 (1.5)

17.2 (0.4)*

12.8 (1.3)*

16:1 ω 5

2.6 (2.5)

25.8 (8.2)*

29.1 (13.3)*

3.2 (0.9)

9.6 (0.1)*

9.3 (5.2)

17:1

1.4 (0.6)

13.0 (4.4)*

16.4 (9.4)*

2.5 (0.2)

10.3 (0.4)*

5.0 (0.7)*

18:1 ω 9

7.4 (5.8)

25.8 (10.9)*

40.4 (7.7)*

3.4 (0.8)

16.7 (1.5)*

25.3 (10.3)*

18:1 ω 7

1.5 (0.9)

14.8 (5.2)*

14.3 (5.8)*

1.0 (0.5)

33.5 (1.9)*

26.1 (5.0)*

20:1 ω 9

2.9 (1.5)

16.9 (2.4)*

17.0 (7.7)*

4.4 (2.1)

14.2 (2.7)*

-*

Summe MUFA

56.7 (23.6)

176.9 (56.1)

212.9 (47.9)

31.1 (9.1)

125.8 (4.6)

93.3 (15.1)

16:2 ω 4

13.9 (10.4)

90.1 (50.2)*

75.9 (53.8)*

17.5 (3.2)

36.3 (2.1)*

31.4 (2.8)*

16:3 ω 4

4.8 (3.8)

7.7 (2.3)

7.3 (1.5)

0.4 (0.0)

4.0 (0.2)*

1.7 (0.3)*

18:2 ω 6

6.5 (4.0)

25.9 (13.4)*

50.9 (12.5)*

3.3 (0.3)

8.0 (1.0)*

27.3 (17.6)*

18:3 ω 6

3.8 (1.3)

4.0 (0.0)

7.2 (3.2)

-

1.7 (0.2)*

1.2 (0.7)*

18:3 ω 4

2.0 (1.1)

2.1 (0.2)

3.8 (0.8)*

-

0.6 (0.1)*

3.9 (1.7)*

18:3 ω 3

1.1 (0.5)

7.5 (3.3)*

9.3 (2.9)*

1.6 (0.4)

2.7 (0.3)

3.4 (0.9)*

18:4 ω 3

2.2 (0.6)

14.3 (5.3)*

16.5 (6.9)*

2.2 (0.4)

8.5 (0.3)*

17.4 (14.0)*

20:2 ω 6

10.9 (7.6)

12.8 (4.6)

13.3 (11.9)

-

3.8 (0.3)*

18.9 (17.3)*

20:3 ω 6

10.0 (4.4)

-*

6.7 (6.1)

-

0.7 (0.1)*

0.9 (0.5)*

20:4 ω 6

8.9 (8.9)

2.2 (1.0)

4.2 (0.0)

0.7 (0.3)

1.5 (0.3)*

1.2 (0.2)

20:3 ω 3

1.5 (0.9)

3.3 (0.1)

5.3 (4.1)

1.1 (0.3)

2.0 (0.2)*

1.6 (0.2)

20:4 ω 3

13.2 (3.5)

7.6 (2.1)

5.3 (0.0)

1.3 (0.4)

2.8 (0.2)*

14.1 (12.2)*

20:5 ω 3

(EPA)

11.2 (5.8)

9.1 (1.9)

10.8 (5.1)

4.7 (0.7)

8.2 (0.2)*

4.6 (0.5)

21:5 ω 3

20.7 (2.0)

-

-

-

0.4 (0.0)*

0.6 (0.0)*

Summe

22 (ω 6)

1.6 (1.4)

16.7 (7.7)*

17.5 (4.0)*

2.2 (0.5)

13.3 (1.9)*

7.7 (0.7)*

22:6 ω 3

(DHA)

40.2 (6.3)

-*

-*

-

-

1.1 (0.69)*

Summe PUFA

194.6 (106.4)

202.2 (92.9)

224.9 (86.5)

36.4 (5.8)

101.9 (11.3)

146.6 (72.6)

ω6/ω3

0.7 (0.1)

1.3 (0.1)*

2.1 (0.3)*

0.5 (0.1)

0.9 (0.1)*

0.7 (0.4)

*Significant differences between protist fatty acid composition and the composition of its respective diet, according to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s- test (P<0.05).


[page 126↓]

Table 2. Standardized canonical coefficients for each fatty acid in the discriminant functions (canonical roots) extracted by stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA), performed to identify fatty acids (independent variables), which significantly separate organisms (groups); Eigenvalues (Eigenv.), significance provided by Chi2 - test (P value), and explained cumulative variance (Cum. r2) are provided for each root following the fatty acids. Fatty acids marked with an asterisk discriminate organisms (groups) within a root. See Fig. 1 (chapter 2) for group’s separation.

  

Root

   

Root

   

Root

 

SAFA

1

2

3

MUFA

1

2

3

PUFA

1

2

3

24:0

1.50*

0.17

0.29

18:1ω7

-3.02*

0.93

-0.01

22:3ω6

-8.09*

-1.178

-0.50

8:0

-1.13

0.47

1.95*

12:1

1.71

1.80*

0.30

18:2ω6

31.51*

6.73

3.52

19:0

1.60

-2.48*

-0.67

14:1ω5

-1.29

-1.42*

-0.93

22:5ω3

-3.39*

1.03

1.95

10:0

-0.48

-0.98

-1.01*

16:1ω7

1.96

2.00*

0.18

22:5ω6

-1.98

0.12

-0.96

20:0

1.32*

1.61

-0.09

18:1ω9

-3.09

-1.41

-0.18

18:3ω6

-19.2*

-7.70

-6.37

15:0

-0.40

0.39

0.86*

22:1ω11

3.63*

-0.29

0.37

20:2ω6

-38.7*

-2.17

-6.83

12:0

0.69

1.83*

-0.27

16:1ω5

2.60*

-0.63

1.23

22:2ω6

0.48

-5.65*

-0.41

21:0

0.89

-2.47*

-0.93

20:1ω9

0.23

0.46

-0.81*

20:3ω3

3.14

-2.23

3.25*

14:0

1.35*

1.08

0.49

16:1ω9

1.00

0.73

-0.13

DPA

8.06

15.49*

6.43

22:0

0.54*

-0.17

-0.17

20:1ω11

-0.85

1.54

0.12

DHA

20.38

-21.9*

-1.31

    

24:1ω9

0.02

-0.25

0.24

20:4ω3

24.77*

-7.46

4.31

    

15:1

0.32

-1.40

-0.65

18:3ω3

-7.16*

1.64

-1.58

        

16:3ω4

-0.34

7.30*

4.34

        

16:2ω4

-0.75

-6.07*

-2.40

        

20:3ω6

-1.32

-3.36*

-1.52

        

EPA

4.10

2.84

4.32*

        

20:4ω6

-12.9

-1.05

-4.50

        

18:3ω4

0.13

0.35

-1.94*

Eigenv.

128.2

26.4

17.5

 

241.7

34.2

5.8

 

5478.8

666.3

25.1

P value

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

 

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

 

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

Cum. r2

0.72

0.87

0.97

 

0.84

0.96

0.98

 

0.89

0.99

0.99


[page 127↓]

Table 3. Carbon-specific amino acid concentrations (pMol fgC-1) in four freshwater heterotrophic protists and their diet. Balanion planctonicum and Urotricha farcta fed Cryptomonas phaseolus;Cyclidium sp. and Chilomonas paramecium fed a “bacteria + rice” diet. Values are means (±SD) of at least 4 analyses (n= 4).

Amino acids

Cryptomonas algal diet

Balanion

Urotricha

“Bacteria + rice” diet

Cyclidium

Chilomonas

Histidine

0.03 ± 0.01

0.9 ± 0.3*

0.4 ± 0.3

0.01 ± 0.007

0.4 ± 0.2

1.9 ± 0.7*

Threonine

0.2 ± 0.2

6.3 ± 0.8*

4.0 ± 1.1*

0.09 ± 0.04

6.7 ± 4.4*

11.0 ± 3.9*

Arginine

0.2 ± 0.1

2.5 ± 0.5*

2.7 ± 1.5*

0.03 ± 0.01

3.0 ± 1.3*

6.9 ± 1.6*

Tryptophan

2.2 ± 1.3

5.0 ± 0.9

11.1± 3.0*

0.71 ± 0.53

15.5±11.4*

36.0 ± 6.6*

Methionine

0.1 ± 0.0

1.6 ± 0.9*

1.2 ± 0.2*

0.04 ± 0.004

2.0 ± 1.8

3.8 ± 1.5*

Valine

0.2 ± 0.1

1.3 ± 1.4

1.0 ± 0.7

0.01 ± 0.004

0.7 ± 0.1*

2.1 ± 0.2*

Phenylalanine

0.4 ± 0.2

2.0 ± 0.2*

3.0 ± 0.6*

0.05 ± 0.01

3.8 ± 2.7*

7.6 ± 1.8*

Isoleucine

0.2 ± 0.04

1.8 ± 0.9*

1.7 ± 0.5*

0.04 ± 0.01

2.5 ± 1.5*

6.2 ± 0.4*

Leucine

0.8 ± 0.1

18.5±2.5*

4.2 ± 0.6*

0.23 ± 0.12

7.4 ± 5.1*

3.6 ± 1.4*

Lysine

0.4 ± 0.3

0.7 ± 0.2

1.3 ± 0.5*

0.06 ± 0.02

1.8 ± 1.2*

4.5 ± 0.6

* Significant differences between protist amino acid composition and the composition of its respective diet, according to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s- test (P<0.05).


[page 128↓]

Table 4. Standardized canonical coefficients for each amino acid in the discriminant functions (canonical roots) extracted by the stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) performed to identify amino acids (independent variables), which significantly separate organisms (groups); Eigenvalues (Eigenv.), significance provided by Chi2 - test (P value), and explained cumulative variance (Cum. r2) for each discriminant function (canonical root) are provided for each root following the amino acids. Amino acids marked with an asterisk discriminate organisms (groups) within a root. See Fig. 2 (chapter 2) for group’s separation.

Amino acid

Root 1

Root 2

Leucine

-0.747

-0.797*

Isoleucine

2.829*

0.273

Histidine

0.002

-1.220*

Phenylalanine

-8.559*

0.331

Tryptophan

5.086*

2.410

Lysine

5.168*

-3.178

Valine

-2.326*

-0.428

Methionine

-4.088*

-0.347

Arginine

-1.174

0.659

Eigenv.

97.694

23.706

P value

< 0.001

< 0.001

Cum. r2

0.786

0.976


[page 129↓]

Table 5. Sterol composition of the algal diet Cryptomonas phaseolus and the heterotrophic protists Balanionplanctonicum and Urotrichafarcta.

Sterol

Cryptomonas phaseolus

(algal diet)

Balanion

planctonicum

Urotricha

farcta

Cholesterol

6.5 ± 4.9

(0.51±0.2)

1.9 ± 0.6

(0.50±0.1)

5.1 ± 0.2

(1.24±0.9)

Dihydrocholesterol

2.3 ± 2.1

(0.36±0.3)

-*

-*

Desmosterol

12.4 ± 4.6

(7.13±1.4)

18.4* ± 3.4

(6.44±1.0)

8.3 ± 0.7

(2.39*±1.2)

Campesterol

1.5 ± 1.6

(0.22±0.2)

5.2* ± 1.8

(1.72*±0.7)

0.3 ± 0.1

(0.11±0.0)

Stigmasterol

9.8 ± 2.0

(0.85±0.5)

49.3† ± 1.8

(16.81*±0.7)

26.7† ± 8.2

(5.89*±3.6)

Sitosterol

0.6 ± 0.1

(0.18±0.1)

0.9 ± 0.4

(0.25±0.1)

6.1* ± 1.0

(2.23†±0.6)

Lathosterol

0.5 ± 0.6

(0.09±0.0)

-*

0.1 ± 0.0

(0.04±0.0)

Ergosterol

42.8 ± 21.8

(10.18±0.8)

-*

20.9 ± 5.9

(2.98*±2.9)

Stigmastanol

5.13 ± 0.06

(0.49±0.2)

-*

0.9* ± 0.4

(0.30±0.0)

Brassicasterol (%)

15.9 ± 4.8

20.6 ± 4.8

14.6 ± 1.9

24-Stigmasta-5,7,24(28)-trien-3β-ol (%)

-*

3.2 ± 1.7

13.9 ± 8.7

Undentified sterol (%)

-*

5.2 ± 0.6

3.1 ± 2.3

TOTAL (μg mgC-1)

26.8±21.2

27.6±2.2

20.6±12.1

Sterol precursors and other neutral lipids

Squalene (μg mgC-1)

1.5 ± 1.2

0.5 ± 0.0

1.4 ± 0.7

Cycloartenol (%)

0.8 ± 0.1

-*

0.5 ± 0.0

Tetrahymanol (%)

-

-*

-

Hopan-22-ol (%)

0.1 ± 0.0

-

1.1* ± 0.5

Hop-22(29)-ene (%)

-

-

-

Values for sterols are given as relative (mean percentages of the total sterol pool ± S.D.) and absolute concentrations (μg mgC-1± S.D., values in parenthesis; N = 4–5); Neutral lipids are provided as percentages of the total neutral lipid fraction; -: not detected.
*Significant differences at 95% confidence when comparing protists and diet (Mann Whitney U-test);
†Significant differences at 90% confidence when comparing protists and diet (Mann Whitney U-test);


[page 130↓]

Table 6. Sterol composition of Chilomonas paramecium, Cyclidium sp., and their diet – “bacteria + polished rice” (Chilomonas diet) and “bacteria + unpolished rice” (Cyclidium diet).

Sterol

Bacteria +

polished rice

(Chilomonas diet)

Chilomonas paramecium

Bacteria + unpolished rice (Cyclidium diet)

Cyclidium sp.

Cholesterol

65.8 ± 18.5

(9.85±3.2)

3.4* ± 1.4

(1.77*±0.9)

17.3 ± 0.9

(15.58±0.1)

70.6* ± 5.2

(31.29±14.8)

Dihydrocholesterol

13.5 ± 5.5

(3.91±0.0)

-*

0.3 ± 0.0

(0.27±0.0)

3.1* ± 1.5

(2.09*±1.5)

Desmosterol

5.5 ± 3.9

(0.72±0.3)

2.5 ± 0.1

(1.45†±0.3)

0.5 ± 0.0

(0.42±0.0)

1.2* ± 0.7

(0.36±0.3)

Campesterol

-

12.1* ± 6.1

(6.18*±4.7)

12.7 ± 1.0

(11.53±1.6)

2.6* ± 1.0

(0.98*±0.2)

Stigmasterol

6.2 ± 0.9

(1.29±0.1)

39.7* ± 12.6

(17.43*±7.3)

12.2 ± 0.1

(11.00±0.6)

3.5* ± 0.6

(2.30*±0.7)

Sitosterol

-

32.1* ± 10.2

(15.85*±10.4)

49.9 ± 0.7

(45.12±2.2)

10.7* ± 0.7

(4.10*±2.3)

Lathosterol

2.6 ± 0.8

(0.39±0.1)

2.2 ± 0.3

(1.23*±0.1)

0.5 ± 0.2

(0.50±0.2)

2.8* ± 0.9

(1.67†±0.4)

Ergosterol

-

8.5* ± 6.5

(2.08*±0.7)

0.3 ± 0.0

(0.25±0.1)

-*

Stigmastanol

10.9 ± 7.6

(2.38±0.0)

1.4* ± 1.2

(0.67±0.8)

6.4 ± 0.3

(5.76±0.6)

3.0* ± 1.6

(1.20*±0.7)

Brassicasterol

-

3.7* ± 0.7

-

-

24-Stigmasta-5,7,24(28)-trien-3β-ol (%)

-

0.4* ± 0.1

-

-

Unidentified sterol (%)

-

-

-

-

TOTAL (μg mgC-1)

16.5 ± 8.3

46.1* ± 19.1

90.4* ± 5.6

37.7 ± 20.7

Sterol precursors and other neutral lipids

Squalene (μg mgC-1)

5.2 ± 1.4

8.4 ± 5.6

2.5 ± 0.2

2.6 ± 1.3

Cycloartenol (%)

-

4.8* ± 1.3

-

0.8* ± 0.2

Tetrahymanol (%)

-

-

-

11.5* ± 4.7

Hopan-22-ol (%)

-

-

-

30.2* ± 3.5

Hop-22(29)-ene (%)

-

-

-

2.5* ± 0.3

Values for sterols are given as relative (mean percentages of the total sterol pool ± S.D.) and absolute concentrations (μg mgC-1± S.D., values in parenthesis; N = 4–5); Neutral lipids are provided as percentages of the total neutral lipid fraction; -: not detected.

*Significant differences at 95% confidence when comparing protist and its diet (Mann Whitney U-test);

†Significant differences at 90% confidence when comparing protist and its diet (Mann Whitney U-test);


[page 131↓]

Table 7. Carbon-specific fatty acid concentrations (ng mgC-1) of Ochromonas sp. of different trophic modes. Values are means (±S.D.) of at least 4 replicates.

  

Ochromonas sp.

.

 

Fatty Acid

Autotroph

Mixotroph

Heterotroph

Bacterial diet

14:0

4.4 (2.1)

7.0 (2.9)

3.1 (1.6)

1.5 (0.2)

15:0

8.6 (5.1)

22.0 (4.1)

3.1 (2.2)

0.9 (0.1)

16:0

140.4 (40.9)

284.7 (201.3)

22.2 (5.3)

12.8 (1.2)

17:0

35.7 (15.1)

56.6 (19.3)

1.3 (0.3)

1.0 (0.5)

18:0

15.7 (7.2)

145.2 (84.7)

18.9 (6.4)

5.1 (0.5)

19:0

-

18.2 (7.8)

0.4 (0.1)

-

20:0

19.6 (10.5)

35.0 (20.5)

-

-

24:0

53.9 (2.4)

54.1 (36.7)

34.5 (14.7)

13.4 (2.3)

Sum SAFA

379.6 (139.5)

893.8 (59.5)

108.2 (41.3)

37.1 (1.2)

14:1 ω 7

4.4 (1.7)

1.9 (1.0)

1.4 (0.5)

0.4 (0.1)

14:1 ω 5

6.6 (2.6)

5.2 (2.6)

6.5 (1.7)

2.9 (0.3)

15:1

5.4 (3.2)

142.2 (59.2)

2.4 (0.8)

1.0 (0.1)

16:1 ω 9

8.6 (6.3)

-

0.5 (0.3)

0.3 (0.1)

16:1 ω 5

8.1 (3.1)

5.4 (3.0)

0.5 (0.2)

0.8 (0.2)

17:1

78.8 (17.7)

63.7 (24.6)

13.9 (3.9)

8.2 (1.5)

18:1 ω 9

14.7 (7.9)

7.9 (3.2)

10.4 (7.4)

37.2 (9.9)

18:1 ω 7

20.7 (9.1)

2.9 (2.3)

6.8 (2.0)

3.9 (0.7)

20:1 ω 9

14.5 (9.8)

-

-

-

20:1 ω 11

7.2 (4.1)

9.9 (1.8)

-

-

22:1 ω 9

66.0 (24.0)

65.8 (24.8)

-

-

Sum MUFA

405.8 (199.7)

460.8 (156.7)

68.9 (44.1)

57.4 (12.0)

16:2 ω 4

21.7 (10.0)

21.1 (5.0)

1.2 (0.5)

3.2 (1.4)

16:3 ω 4

15.5 (4.1)

9.2 (4.7)

3.1 (1.2)

2.5 (0.0)

18:2 ω 6

18.9 (5.9)

12.4 (10.2)

7.3 (3.4)

3.9 (0.7)

18:3 ω6

19.1 (4.3)

5.5 (2.5)

2.0 (0.8)

1.4 (0.5)

18:3 ω 4

-

7.4 (2.0)

-

-

18:3 ω 3

12.0 (6.4)

5.4 (1.6)

2.0 (1.2)

1.5 (0.9)

18:4 ω 3

39.6 (15.2)

2.0 (1.2)

9.0 (2.2)

4.5 (0.9)

20:2 ω6

26.0 (18.0)

51.6 (18.6)

-

-

20:3 ω6

51.9 (35.2)

55.7 (26.8)

-

-

20:4 ω 6

17.0 (13.9)

-

-

-

20:3 ω 3

4.1 (1.3)

16.9 (10.6)

-

-

20:4 ω 3

44.0 (19.5)

-

-

-

20:5 ω 3 (EPA)

16.2 (8.5)

67.7 (12.0)

-

-

21:5 ω 3

113.4 (47.8)

40.8 (24.4)

-

-

22:5 ω 3

24.9 (1.7)

-

-

-

22:6 ω 3 (DHA)

60.0 (3.2)

73.5 (1.4)

-

-

Sum PUFA

620.5 (281.4)

369.2 (50.5)

33.2 (10.7)

20.0 (3.4)

ω 6 / ω 3

0.4 (0.1)

0.8 (0.2)

0.7 (0.1)

0.9 (0.2)

The total sum of SAFA, MUFA, and PUFA takes other measured fatty acids into account, which were not presented here; -: not found.


[page 132↓]

Table 8. Standardized canonical coefficients for each fatty acid in the discriminant functions (canonical roots) extracted by discriminant analyses (DA) performed to identify fatty acids (independent variables), which significantly separate trophic modes (groups); Eigenvalues (Eigenv.), significance provided by Chi2 - test (P value), and explained cumulative variance (Cum. r2) are provided for each root. Fatty acids marked with an asterisk significantly discriminated trophic modes (groups) within a root. See Fig. 2 (chapter 4) for group’s separation.

 

Root

 

Root

 

Root

SAFA

1

2

MUFA

1

2

PUFA

1

2

14:0

-0.08

0.09

14:1ω7

-0.73*

0.78

16:2ω4

-0.45

-2.14*

15:0

0.20

-0.18

14:1ω5

0.06

0.01

20:3ω3

-10.32*

-4.46

16:0

3.64*

1.68

15:1

1.80*

1.45

DHA

3.12

-3.76*

17:0

-0.38

-0.46

16:1ω9

-0.61

0.89

18:3ω6

3.42

-5.95*

18:0

-2.63*

-2.02

16:1ω7

-0.34

1.27

18:4ω3

0.37

3.14*

19:0

0.43

0.64

16:1ω5

-0.23

0.55

20:3ω6

-2.91

7.13*

20:0

-5.86*

0.16

17:1

-1.23

-2.10*

22:5ω3

-1.54

0.15*

21:0

6.67*

-0.51

18:1ω9

-0.17

-0.03

16:3ω4

14.01*

3.75

22:0

0.19

-0.17

18:1ω7

0.27

-0.33

18:3ω3

-18.76*

-11.66

24:0

-1.30*

0.63

20:1ω9

4.80*

-2.25

18:3ω4

5.97*

5.14

   

20:1ω11

-3.23

5.12*

EPA

12.06*

8.55

   

22:1ω9

-1.32

-2.53

DPA

0.01

2.98*

   

24:1ω9

0.22

0.65

20:4ω3

-2.18

3.46*

Eigenv.

13.93

1.92

 

8.21

1.11

 

377.71

29.12

P value

<0.01

0.06

 

<0.01

<0.05

 

<0.01

<0.01

Cum. r2

0.879

1.000

 

0.881

1.000

 

0.928

1.000


[page 133↓]

Table 9. Carbon-specific sterol concentrations (ng mgC-1) of Ochromonas sp. of different trophic modes. Values are means (±S.D.) from at least 4 replicates.

 

Ochromonas sp.

 

Sterol

Autotroph

Mixotroph

Heterotroph

Bacterial diet

Cholesterol

3.8 (2.5)

0.1 (0.01)*

1.6 (0.2)

0.4 (0.2)

 

Dihydrocholesterol

-

-

-

-

 

Desmosterol

-

-

-

-

 

Campesterol

-

0.03 (0.01)

0.4 (0.2)*

0.04 (0.04)

 

Stigmasterol

38.9 (18.7)

22.8 (7.4)*

39.9 (9.2)

0.1 (0.1)

 

Sitosterol

2.1 (1.5)

0.2 (0.03)*

0.9 (0.3)

1.1 (1.0)

 

Lathosterol

0.2 (0.1)

0.02 (0.01)*

0.2 (0.1)

0.02 (0.01)

 

Ergosterol

-

-

-

-

 

Stigmastanol

-

-

-

-

 

Brassicasterol

-

-

-

-

 

24-Stigmasta-5,7,24(28)-trien-3β-ol† (%)

-

-

-

-

 

Unidentified sterol† (%)

1.5 (0.1)*

-

-

-

 

TOTAL (ng mgC-1)

62.4 (41.0)

22.9 (7.4)

48.7 (17.3)

1.6 (1.2)

 

Squalene (sterol precursor)

6.1 (1.1)*

1.6 (1.1)

2.2 (0.4)

0.7 (0.2)

 

Values for sterols are given as absolute concentrations (ng mgC-1± S.D; N = 4–8);
-: not detected.
†Quantitative analysis as percentages of the total neutral lipid fraction.
*Significant differences at 95% confidence (ANOVA and Tukey – HSD test);


[page 134↓]

Table 10. Standardized canonical coefficients for each sterol in the discriminant functions (canonical roots) extracted by the discriminant analysis (DA) performed to identify sterols (independent variables), which significantly separate trophic modes (groups); Eigenvalues (Eigenv.), significance provided by Chi2 - test (P value), and explained cumulative variance (Cum. r2) for each discriminant function (canonical root) are provided for each root. Sterols marked with an asterisk significantly discriminate trophic modes (groups) within each root. See Fig. 4 (chapter 4) for groups’ separation.

Sterol

Root 1

Root 2

Cholesterol

1.53*

1.18

Lathosterol

-0.98

-1.18*

Stigmasterol

0.64

-0.54

Campesterol

-0.26

-0.60*

Sitosterol

0.93*

-0.01

Eigenv.

2.284

1.022

P value

< 0.001

0.018

Cum. r2

0.690

1.000


[page 135↓]

Table 11. Non-linear regression parameters calculated for the cumulative egg production (y) versus experimental time (x) (see chapter 5, Fig. 2 for fitting curves). Same letters indicate similar cumulative egg numbers when protist prey treatments are compared to the treatments with C. phaseolus and the control without prey (Dunnett’s t-test).

Prey

organism

Equation

Dunnett’s

t-test

Cryptomonas phaseolus

y = - 0.28 + 6.33x ln(x)

A

Balanion planctonicum

ln(y) = 3.96 - 11.59e-x

A

Urotricha farcta

y = - 16.10 + 15.79x0.583

B

Cyclidium sp.

y = - 14.30 + 14.03x0.533

B

Chilomonas paramecium

y = - 4.11 + 4.11x0.923

B

Control without prey

y = - 2.46 + 2.35x0.472

C


[page 136↓]

Table 12. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (R) and significances (P), for cumulative egg numbers of Keratella quadrata versus prey fatty acid absolute concentration (conc.) and relative amounts (%). No significant relationship could be detected between Keratella population growth rates and prey biochemical composition.

Fatty acid

RSpearman

P

Σ PUFA

0.45

0.01*

18:2ω6 (conc.)

-0.49

0.00*

18:3ω6 (conc.)

0.56

0.00*

18:4ω3 (conc.)

-0.58

0.00*

20:3ω6 (conc.)

0.54

0.00*

20:4ω6 (conc.)

0.69

0.00*

20:5ω3 (EPA) (conc.)

0.69

0.00*

21:5ω3 (conc.)

0.52

0.01*

% PUFA

0.78

0.00*

% 18:2ω6

-0.49

0.00*

% 18:3ω6

0.39

0.02*

% 20:3ω6

0.71

0.00*

% 20:4ω6

0.50

0.00*

% 22:2ω6

0.84

0.00*

% 22:3ω6

-0.56

0.01*

% 21:5ω3

0.52

0.01*

% 22:5ω6

0.65

0.00*

% 22:6ω3 (DHA)

0.84

0.00*

*Significant P values at 95% confidence


[page 137↓]

Table 13. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (R) and significances (P) for population growth rates and cumulative egg numbers of Keratella quadrata versus prey sterol and amino acid absolute concentration (conc.) and relative amounts (%). No significant relationship could be detected between Keratella population growth rates and prey biochemical composition.

Biochemical parameter

RSpearman

P

Desmosterol (conc.)

0.67

0.00*

%Desmosterol

0.67

0.00*

Ergosterol (conc.)

0.79

0.00*

%Ergosterol

0.79

0.00*

%Stigmastanol

0.55

0.00*

%Leucine

0.77

0.00*

* Significant P values at 95% confidence


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