[page 150↓]Printed Appendix


[page i↓]

Table A 1: Cultivation of the winter rye field for the field trial 1999 for the site-specific application of growth-regulators and the test for the biasing effect of the year on the measurements.

Winter Rye

1998 / 1999

Königsfeld

Variety: AMILO

Soil types:

sandy loam, loamy sand

Preceding crop:

Winter rye

 

 

Date

Name

Application rate

Seeding

19th September 1998

AMILO

120 kg ha-1

Fertilizing

19th March 1999

21 / 21 / 21 N P K

88 kg ha-1 nitrogen

Growth-regulator

3rd May 1999

MODDUS

0.6 l ha-1

Table A 2: Cultivation of the winter wheat field for the test of the biasing effect of the year and the cultivar on the measurements.

Winter Wheat

1997 / 1998

Golzow

Field 58    Variety: ZENTOS

Soil types:

sandy loam, loamy sand, clayey loam

Preceding crop:

Maize

 

 

Date

Name

Application rate

Seeding

19th October 1997

ZENTOS

199 kg ha-1

Fertilizing

15th March 1998

Ammoniating solution

71 kg ha-1 nitrogen

 

21st April 1998

Ammoniating solution

56 kg ha-1 nitrogen

 

11th May 1998

Calcium-ammonium-nitrate

41 kg ha-1 nitrogen

Herbicide

15th March 1998

CONCERT

0.06 kg ha-1

 

21st April 1998

RALON

1.0 l ha-1

 

21st April 1998

HOESTAR

0.02 kg ha-1

Growth-regulator

21st April 1998

CCC 720

2.0 l ha-1

Table A 3: Cultivation of the rice field for the test of the biasing effect of the year, planting method, and the cultivar on the measurements.

Irrigated Rice

Variety: IR 72

  

Research Farm,

IRRI, Philippines, 1998 / 1999, monsoon season

Preceding crop:

Irrigated rice

 
 

Date

Name

Application rate

Seeding

16th October 1998

IR 72

60-110 kg ha-1 differentiated

Fertilizing

14th October 1998

Urea

60 kg ha-1 nitrogen

Weeding

4th January 1999

By hand

-


[page ii↓]

Table A 4: Cultivation of the winter wheat field for the field mapping of the biomass with the prototype sensor.

Winter Wheat

1999 / 2000

Baasdorf

Variety: CONTRA

Soil types:

sandy loam, loamy sand, clayey loam

 

 

Date

Name

Application rate

Seeding

16th-20th Oct. 1999

CONTRA

175 kg ha-1

Fertilizing

3rd April 2000

Ammoniating solution

100 kg ha-1 nitrogen

 

18th May 2000

Calcium-ammonium-nitrate

68 kg ha-1 nitrogen

Herbicide

24th March 2000

BACCARA

0.6 l ha-1

Fungicide

10th May 2000

ZENIT-M

0.35 l ha-1

 

30th May 2000

JUWEL TOP

0.7 l ha-1

Growth-regulator

17th April 2000

CCC

1.0 l ha-1

Table A 5: Vibration time of the pendulum-meter for a full vibration, averaged from 10 replicates.

 

Pendulum, Tested in Rice

l P (m)

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Vibration time (s)

0.86

1.07

1.26

1.42

1.56

l P (m)

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

-

Vibration time (s)

1.68

1.78

1.88

1.92

-

 

Pendulum, Tested in Winter Rye and Winter Wheat

l P (m)

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Vibration time (s)

0.87

1.08

1.27

1.41

1.57

l P (m)

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

Vibration time (s)

1.71

1.79

1.92

2.02

2.10


[page iii↓]

Figure A 1: Listing of days after transplanting DAT, the names for the growth-stages, and Zadoks code and BBCH code for the growth-stages in cereals.


[page iv↓]

Figure A 2: Biomass differences in winter wheat.

Figure A 3: Biomass differences in irrigated rice.


[page v↓]

Figure A 4: Circuitry between sensors and electronic cabinet.

Figure A 5: Circuitry between electronic cabinet and computer.


[page vi↓]

Figure A 6: Relationship between the angle of deviation and the horizontal force component of the resultant force.

Figure A 7: Relationship between the angle of deviation and the vertical force component of the resultant force


[page vii↓]

Figure A 8: Linear relationship between the angle of deviation and the carrier speed for various growth-stages in rice, winter wheat, and winter rye.


[page viii↓]

Table A 6: Results of the optimisation trials in winter rye at BBCH 32, measured with 75 Hz measurement frequency, 2.5 m s-1 velocity, the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation calculated from 5 identical replicates, the measured angle of deviation, and the accuracy of biomass determination in terms of linear (y = a + b·x) and square (y = a + b·x + c·x2) goodness of fit R2 and the standard error of estimate SE of the linear regression for the tested pendulum parameter.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.300

0.100

1.000

0.65**

3.73

0.66**

0.59**

4.01

0.64**

44.5

37.1

55.6

1.13

0.14

3.06

2.55

0.400

0.100

1.000

0.58**

3.86

0.63 *

0.52**

4.10

0.61 *

37.1

30.3

47.7

0.36

0.10

0.86

0.98

0.500

0.100

0.574

0.51**

3.20

0.55 *

0.46 *

3.38

0.54 *

39.4

34.3

47.8

0.18

0.07

0.32

0.47

0.500

0.100

1.000

0.49 *

3.54

0.54 *

0.43 *

3.76

0.52 *

34.0

29.0

42.8

0.19

0.12

0.30

0.56

0.500

0.100

1.500

0.52**

3.21

0.54 *

0.46 *

3.42

0.52 *

29.3

24.1

38.1

0.29

0.13

0.46

0.98

0.500

0.100

2.000

0.49 *

3.29

0.52 *

0.43 *

3.50

0.48 †

25.6

20.5

34.6

0.53

0.36

1.09

2.08

0.500

0.200

1.000

0.55**

3.81

0.55 *

0.50 *

4.04

0.51 *

14.9

9.0

26.7

0.37

0.18

0.82

2.52

0.600

0.100

1.000

0.45 *

3.17

0.50 *

0.38 *

3.35

0.47 †

32.2

28.2

39.5

0.51

0.34

0.80

1.58

0.700

0.100

1.000

0.53**

3.03

0.53 *

0.48 *

3.21

0.49 *

12.5

7.7

21.6

0.32

0.13

0.44

2.55

0.800

0.100

1.000

0.51**

2.88

0.51 *

0.45 *

3.04

0.46 †

12.5

8.4

21.0

0.38

0.23

0.55

3.03

0.900

0.100

1.000

0.50**

2.63

0.50 *

0.44 *

2.78

0.46 †

11.9

8.4

19.9

0.34

0.13

0.48

2.85

1.100

0.100

1.000

0.49 *

2.40

0.51 *

0.43 *

2.54

0.48 †

12.5

8.5

19.6

0.43

0.24

0.71

3.41

1.100

0.200

0.676

0.01 †

2.57

0.01 †

0.00 †

2.58

0.03 †

4.0

-1.3

9.2

0.68

0.46

0.92

16.95

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page ix↓]

Table A 7: Results of the optimisation trials in winter rye at BBCH 39.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.400

0.200

0.522

0.92**

6.19

0.99**

0.93**

5.87

0.99**

53.8

10.6

76.5

0.44

0.19

0.73

0.81

0.400

0.200

1.000

0.95**

4.57

0.99**

0.95**

4.34

0.99**

43.4

5.5

66.3

0.57

0.24

0.82

1.31

0.400

0.200

2.000

0.98**

2.16

0.99**

0.98**

2.17

0.99**

30.7

2.0

52.6

0.71

0.40

1.11

2.32

0.400

0.200

3.000

0.99**

1.35

0.99**

0.99**

1.52

0.99**

23.5

0.8

43.3

0.74

0.17

1.37

3.14

0.500

0.200

0.549

0.93**

5.16

0.99**

0.94**

4.88

0.99**

46.3

7.8

67.6

0.27

0.14

0.40

0.58

0.500

0.200

1.000

0.95**

4.02

0.99**

0.96**

3.80

0.99**

38.2

3.8

59.7

0.31

0.12

0.60

0.80

0.500

0.200

2.000

0.98**

2.19

0.99**

0.98**

2.28

0.98**

27.2

0.8

47.6

0.44

0.27

0.64

1.62

0.500

0.200

3.000

0.98**

1.80

0.98**

0.98**

1.99

0.98**

20.7

-0.1

39.1

0.51

0.19

0.88

2.48

0.500

0.300

0.522

0.98**

3.21

0.98**

0.97**

3.44

0.98**

35.4

1.0

61.8

0.48

0.20

1.04

1.36

0.500

0.300

1.000

0.97**

2.97

0.97**

0.96**

3.38

0.97**

25.9

0.0

50.5

0.55

0.26

1.09

2.13

0.500

0.300

2.000

0.95**

2.80

0.97**

0.94**

3.14

0.97**

16.1

-1.2

36.4

0.41

0.19

0.66

2.58

0.500

0.300

3.000

0.94**

2.45

0.98**

0.93**

2.69

0.97**

11.3

-1.4

28.2

0.44

0.25

0.61

3.86

0.800

0.200

0.615

0.94**

3.56

0.98**

0.95**

3.38

0.98**

34.3

5.6

51.3

0.38

0.23

0.76

1.10

0.800

0.200

1.000

0.95**

3.28

0.98**

0.95**

3.14

0.98**

29.4

1.9

46.1

0.35

0.15

0.66

1.20

0.800

0.200

2.000

0.96**

2.49

0.98**

0.96**

2.46

0.97**

21.8

-1.4

37.4

0.40

0.12

0.69

1.84

0.800

0.200

3.000

0.97**

2.01

0.97**

0.97**

2.06

0.97**

17.4

-2.1

31.7

0.36

0.14

0.79

2.09

0.800

0.300

0.595

0.97**

2.44

0.97**

0.97**

2.64

0.97**

20.1

-1.8

40.4

0.37

0.16

0.70

1.83

0.800

0.300

1.000

0.97**

2.63

0.97**

0.97**

2.69

0.97**

24.9

-1.1

45.5

0.37

0.09

0.59

1.47

0.800

0.300

2.000

0.95**

2.49

0.96**

0.94**

2.72

0.96**

13.2

-2.0

30.5

0.47

0.28

0.75

3.56

0.800

0.300

3.000

0.94**

2.22

0.96**

0.93**

2.38

0.96**

9.5

-1.5

23.8

0.42

0.23

0.60

4.41

1.100

0.200

0.676

0.94**

3.10

0.98**

0.94**

2.95

0.98**

29.2

5.7

43.2

0.35

0.18

0.66

1.20

1.100

0.200

1.000

0.94**

2.92

0.98**

0.95**

2.81

0.98**

26.0

3.4

39.9

0.30

0.13

0.49

1.16

1.100

0.200

2.000

0.96**

2.39

0.99**

0.96**

2.28

0.98**

21.7

1.6

35.2

1.11

0.43

2.13

5.12

1.100

0.200

3.000

0.97**

1.79

0.98**

0.97**

1.74

0.98**

18.0

0.7

31.0

0.43

0.17

1.10

2.42

1.100

0.300

0.657

0.97**

2.32

0.97**

0.96**

2.41

0.97**

20.7

0.6

36.9

0.56

0.33

1.09

2.70

1.100

0.300

1.000

0.96**

2.45

0.96**

0.95**

2.66

0.95**

17.5

-0.2

33.2

0.32

0.14

0.47

1.83

1.100

0.300

2.000

0.94**

2.36

0.95**

0.93**

2.57

0.95**

12.0

-1.5

26.6

0.37

0.21

0.70

3.05

1.100

0.300

3.000

0.93**

2.19

0.96**

0.92**

2.39

0.95**

9.3

-1.1

22.6

0.39

0.19

0.80

4.22

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page x↓]

Table A 8: Results of the optimisation trials in winter rye at BBCH 59.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient of
Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

SE

R 2

SE

R 2

SE

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.500

0.200

0.549

0.85**

9.79

0.98**

3.60

0.80**

11.03

0.98**

3.74

57.7

5.3

80.4

0.22

0.12

0.39

0.38

0.500

0.200

3.000

0.94**

4.33

0.99**

1.88

0.91**

5.25

0.99**

1.68

30.0

-0.1

49.7

0.42

0.12

0.86

1.39

0.500

0.300

0.522

0.89**

9.03

0.98**

3.95

0.85**

10.48

0.98**

3.82

51.4

1.9

78.4

0.34

0.11

0.83

0.66

0.600

0.200

0.549

0.84**

9.24

0.98**

3.42

0.80**

10.33

0.98**

3.52

54.1

5.1

74.5

0.26

0.12

0.65

0.47

0.600

0.200

3.000

0.92**

4.62

0.99**

1.84

0.89**

5.48

0.99**

1.76

29.9

-0.5

48.5

0.40

0.21

0.58

1.35

0.600

0.300

0.549

0.87**

8.97

0.98**

4.02

0.83**

10.23

0.98**

3.76

47.5

0.3

71.8

0.29

0.14

0.44

0.62

0.700

0.200

0.574

0.85**

8.25

0.98**

3.12

0.81**

9.30

0.98**

3.22

50.3

5.8

69.2

1.22

0.73

2.27

2.43

0.700

0.200

3.000

0.91**

4.75

0.99**

1.86

0.88**

5.65

0.99**

1.94

29.6

-1.0

47.2

0.43

0.25

0.64

1.44

0.700

0.300

0.549

0.89**

7.67

0.98**

3.69

0.85**

8.86

0.98**

3.45

42.4

1.0

64.8

0.24

0.12

0.45

0.56

0.800

0.200

0.615

0.84**

7.85

0.98**

3.19

0.80**

8.82

0.98**

3.18

48.1

6.5

65.7

0.32

0.14

0.72

0.67

0.800

0.200

3.000

0.92**

4.59

0.98**

2.29

0.88**

5.45

0.98**

2.20

28.9

1.0

46.0

0.79

0.19

1.42

2.72

0.800

0.300

0.595

0.88**

7.21

0.97**

3.66

0.85**

8.27

0.98**

3.34

41.0

2.5

61.7

0.62

0.24

1.17

1.51

0.900

0.200

0.635

0.86**

7.10

0.98**

2.78

0.82**

8.02

0.98**

2.80

43.7

4.8

60.8

0.33

0.13

0.63

0.76

0.900

0.200

3.000

0.92**

4.12

0.98**

2.38

0.89**

4.92

0.98**

2.31

26.8

1.8

43.4

0.44

0.08

0.56

1.64

0.900

0.300

0.615

0.88**

6.69

0.97**

3.58

0.85**

7.70

0.97**

3.33

37.9

3.1

57.0

0.50

0.29

1.06

1.31

1.000

0.200

0.657

0.86**

6.49

0.98**

2.58

0.82**

7.34

0.98**

2.55

41.5

5.8

57.4

0.42

0.16

0.89

1.01

1.000

0.200

3.000

0.92**

3.86

0.98**

2.33

0.89**

4.59

0.98**

2.19

25.7

1.9

41.4

0.45

0.17

0.93

1.77

1.000

0.300

0.635

0.89**

6.10

0.96**

3.61

0.85**

7.00

0.97**

3.37

35.5

4.3

53.6

0.48

0.12

1.58

1.35

1.100

0.200

0.676

0.87**

6.04

0.98**

2.56

0.83**

6.88

0.98**

2.48

37.6

4.3

53.1

0.43

0.15

0.98

1.15

1.100

0.200

3.000

0.92**

3.67

0.97**

2.29

0.89**

4.35

0.98**

2.14

23.4

1.0

38.1

0.45

0.29

1.04

1.91

1.100

0.300

0.657

0.89**

5.52

0.96**

3.43

0.86**

6.40

0.97**

3.24

32.0

3.7

49.0

0.62

0.36

1.36

1.93

1.400

0.200

0.735

0.86**

5.40

0.98**

2.30

0.82**

6.15

0.98**

2.29

33.8

4.0

47.0

0.21

0.10

0.38

0.61

1.400

0.200

3.000

0.91**

3.52

0.98**

1.76

0.87**

4.15

0.98**

1.66

23.0

2.9

34.9

0.37

0.09

0.91

1.59

1.400

0.300

0.696

0.89**

4.71

0.97**

2.49

0.85**

5.52

0.97**

2.49

29.1

3.4

43.3

0.40

0.10

0.94

1.36

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xi↓]

Table A 9: Results of the optimisation trials in winter rye at BBCH 69.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.800

0.200

0.615

0.78**

8.00

0.93**

0.77**

8.27

0.94**

65.3

26.6

80.6

0.28

0.11

0.65

0.57

0.800

0.200

1.000

0.79**

7.84

0.94**

0.77**

8.10

0.95**

59.3

21.4

74.8

0.29

0.18

0.50

0.59

0.800

0.200

1.500

0.78**

7.67

0.95**

0.77**

7.89

0.95**

52.7

16.5

67.6

0.28

0.06

0.48

0.66

0.800

0.200

2.000

0.81**

7.09

0.96**

0.80**

7.37

0.97**

51.4

16.2

66.0

0.36

0.17

0.60

0.74

0.800

0.200

2.500

0.82**

6.84

0.96**

0.80**

7.12

0.97**

47.9

13.5

62.3

0.28

0.11

0.40

0.74

0.800

0.200

3.000

0.76**

7.19

0.95**

0.75**

7.39

0.96**

43.3

11.0

56.0

1.14

0.64

2.56

3.02

0.800

0.200

3.500

0.82**

6.25

0.97**

0.81**

6.51

0.97**

40.6

9.5

54.6

0.30

0.13

0.47

0.99

0.800

0.200

4.000

0.83**

5.96

0.97**

0.82**

6.25

0.98**

38.2

8.2

52.4

0.25

0.11

0.41

0.91

0.800

0.200

4.500

0.84**

5.70

0.97**

0.82**

5.99

0.98**

35.9

7.1

49.7

0.35

0.08

0.68

1.51

0.800

0.200

5.000

0.84**

5.59

0.98**

0.82**

5.90

0.98**

35.7

7.1

49.4

0.54

0.14

2.20

2.02

1.000

0.300

1.000

0.87**

8.12

0.98**

0.92**

6.43

0.98**

62.2

22.6

80.3

0.59

0.33

1.05

0.95

1.100

0.100

1.000

0.21 †

16.83

0.60 *

0.28 †

16.09

0.53 †

61.8

34.1

79.2

10.49

0.15

102.38

16.98

1.100

0.200

1.000

0.87**

6.63

0.97**

0.92**

5.33

0.97**

63.7

31.2

78.7

0.41

0.23

0.55

0.65

1.100

0.300

0.657

0.87**

7.79

0.97**

0.92**

6.23

0.98**

65.1

27.4

82.6

0.32

0.12

0.47

0.49

1.100

0.300

1.000

0.87**

7.64

0.97**

0.92**

6.08

0.98**

60.4

23.5

77.0

0.40

0.21

0.85

0.67

1.100

0.300

2.000

0.87**

7.44

0.98**

0.92**

5.89

0.98**

49.2

13.4

65.8

7.78

3.43

9.19

15.81

1.100

0.400

1.000

0.87**

8.37

0.98**

0.92**

6.59

0.98**

55.3

14.9

74.0

2.00

1.12

3.80

3.62

1.100

0.500

1.000

0.89**

8.20

0.98**

0.93**

6.41

0.98**

51.2

10.3

71.4

2.81

2.19

3.51

5.50

1.100

0.600

1.000

0.91**

7.19

0.98**

0.95**

5.32

0.99**

45.8

5.5

67.0

2.69

0.65

4.36

5.87

1.100

0.700

1.000

0.93**

5.83

0.98**

0.97**

4.16

0.98**

41.3

4.0

63.0

3.04

0.23

5.16

7.35

1.100

0.800

1.000

0.96**

4.03

0.98**

0.98**

2.94

0.98**

36.0

3.4

59.0

2.33

0.35

4.14

6.46

1.100

0.900

1.000

0.95**

4.33

0.98**

0.97**

3.14

0.98**

43.4

11.8

63.6

14.38

10.27

19.52

33.14

1.200

0.300

1.000

0.86**

7.15

0.96**

0.91**

5.80

0.96**

58.1

24.0

73.6

1.21

0.46

1.56

2.08

1.300

0.300

1.000

0.42 *

17.01

0.45 †

0.44 *

16.74

0.46 †

51.8

18.0

71.0

10.34

0.43

97.80

19.97

1.400

0.300

1.000

0.86**

6.58

0.95**

0.90**

5.41

0.96**

54.7

23.7

68.9

1.44

0.42

1.92

2.64

1.600

0.300

1.000

0.86**

6.82

0.96**

0.91**

5.53

0.97**

55.2

22.7

70.2

7.46

0.35

10.22

13.53

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xii↓]

Table A 10: Results of the optimisation trials in winter wheat at BBCH 34.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.300

0.100

1.000

0.81**

2.97

0.83**

0.78**

3.18

0.79**

48.7

33.5

55.7

0.60

0.15

0.92

1.22

0.400

0.100

1.000

0.81**

2.62

0.82**

0.78**

2.78

0.79**

42.9

29.9

49.2

1.47

1.24

1.83

3.43

0.500

0.100

1.000

0.88**

1.61

0.88**

0.84**

1.86

0.84**

37.8

28.5

44.3

0.45

0.12

0.84

1.20

0.500

0.100

2.000

0.86**

1.95

0.90**

0.81**

2.29

0.84**

29.7

17.2

35.6

0.26

0.12

0.44

0.86

0.500

0.200

1.000

0.82**

2.37

0.83**

0.77**

2.65

0.78**

20.0

8.0

27.0

0.35

0.13

0.83

1.74

0.600

0.100

1.000

0.83**

1.88

0.86**

0.77**

2.16

0.79**

34.8

24.3

39.5

0.27

0.08

0.68

0.77

0.700

0.100

1.000

0.82**

1.66

0.86**

0.74**

1.96

0.78**

33.9

24.7

37.9

0.22

0.10

0.49

0.65

0.700

0.140

1.000

0.80**

1.94

0.86**

0.73**

2.27

0.78**

28.8

18.2

33.3

0.25

0.07

0.39

0.86

0.700

0.170

1.000

0.80**

2.18

0.86**

0.74**

2.49

0.79**

24.4

12.1

29.5

0.25

0.15

0.34

1.02

0.800

0.100

0.635

0.82**

1.34

0.84**

0.75**

1.58

0.77**

34.0

27.0

37.8

0.13

0.06

0.20

0.39

0.800

0.100

1.000

0.80**

1.50

0.84**

0.72**

1.80

0.75**

31.8

24.0

35.5

0.21

0.13

0.40

0.67

0.800

0.100

1.500

0.84**

1.49

0.87**

0.77**

1.80

0.80**

27.9

18.9

32.1

0.24

0.12

0.58

0.85

0.800

0.100

2.000

0.83**

1.64

0.86**

0.76**

1.96

0.78**

25.4

15.9

29.7

0.16

0.00

0.35

0.64

0.800

0.140

1.000

0.81**

1.73

0.86**

0.74**

2.03

0.78**

27.1

17.3

31.4

0.21

0.07

0.49

0.76

0.800

0.170

1.000

0.77**

2.08

0.80**

0.70**

2.37

0.72**

22.6

12.4

27.3

0.30

0.09

0.83

1.31

0.800

0.200

1.000

0.71**

2.24

0.71**

0.63**

2.53

0.63 *

19.5

11.4

24.5

0.31

0.10

0.88

1.58

0.800

0.240

1.000

0.51**

2.58

0.56 *

0.43 *

2.78

0.49 *

12.9

6.2

17.6

0.54

0.32

0.89

4.19

0.800

0.270

1.000

0.32 †

2.68

0.42 †

0.24 †

2.83

0.35 †

9.1

2.2

12.4

0.48

0.35

0.77

5.29

0.800

0.300

1.000

0.38 *

1.59

0.41 †

0.27 †

1.72

0.30 †

5.2

1.2

7.6

0.64

0.29

1.12

12.11

0.900

0.100

1.000

0.81**

1.36

0.84**

0.73**

1.65

0.75**

29.9

22.5

33.3

0.22

0.07

0.55

0.73

1.100

0.100

1.000

0.81**

1.21

0.84**

0.72**

1.47

0.74**

27.8

21.4

30.9

0.40

0.29

0.52

1.46

1.100

0.200

1.000

0.66**

1.90

0.67**

0.60**

2.08

0.61 *

16.9

11.6

20.8

0.31

0.16

0.80

1.85

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xiii↓]

Table A 11: Results of the optimisation trials in winter wheat at BBCH 39.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.400

0.200

1.000

0.90**

3.90

0.95**

0.91**

3.83

0.94**

63.2

35.6

76.1

8.42

7.44

9.31

13.33

0.500

0.200

1.000

0.88**

3.56

0.93**

0.89**

3.55

0.92**

58.5

34.6

69.4

0.19

0.07

0.53

0.32

0.500

0.300

1.000

0.91**

4.15

0.94**

0.91**

4.13

0.93**

48.4

19.2

62.7

0.28

0.13

0.69

0.58

0.600

0.200

1.000

0.89**

3.08

0.93**

0.89**

3.08

0.92**

52.9

32.1

62.5

0.24

0.06

0.61

0.45

0.600

0.300

1.000

0.90**

3.68

0.93**

0.90**

3.74

0.92**

42.4

16.7

55.4

0.25

0.07

0.49

0.58

0.700

0.200

1.000

0.87**

2.91

0.92**

0.87**

2.92

0.91**

47.1

28.4

55.5

0.13

0.06

0.21

0.28

0.700

0.300

1.000

0.89**

3.41

0.92**

0.89**

3.45

0.91**

36.8

14.0

48.1

0.23

0.06

0.76

0.62

0.800

0.100

1.000

0.86**

2.20

0.92**

0.86**

2.19

0.91**

51.1

37.2

57.0

0.16

0.10

0.25

0.32

0.800

0.150

1.000

0.86**

2.41

0.92**

0.86**

2.40

0.91**

48.6

33.3

55.2

0.14

0.05

0.26

0.28

0.800

0.200

0.615

0.86**

2.60

0.91**

0.85**

2.61

0.90**

49.1

32.8

56.3

0.21

0.09

0.36

0.42

0.800

0.200

1.000

0.87**

2.66

0.92**

0.86**

2.66

0.91**

45.1

28.0

52.5

0.14

0.10

0.20

0.31

0.800

0.200

1.500

0.86**

2.85

0.93**

0.86**

2.84

0.91**

41.4

23.2

48.9

0.26

0.07

0.68

0.63

0.800

0.200

2.000

0.86**

2.89

0.93**

0.86**

2.88

0.92**

38.5

19.8

46.6

0.22

0.06

0.45

0.58

0.800

0.250

1.000

0.86**

3.02

0.92**

0.86**

3.03

0.91**

40.8

21.5

49.2

0.16

0.04

0.22

0.40

0.800

0.300

1.000

0.87**

3.21

0.92**

0.87**

3.24

0.91**

35.8

14.6

45.3

0.34

0.09

1.08

0.96

0.800

0.350

1.000

0.89**

3.27

0.92**

0.89**

3.30

0.91**

30.1

8.2

41.0

0.25

0.05

0.80

0.84

0.800

0.400

1.000

0.92**

2.91

0.92**

0.91**

3.02

0.91**

22.1

2.5

34.3

0.43

0.13

1.46

1.94

0.800

0.450

1.000

0.88**

3.04

0.90**

0.86**

3.23

0.90**

14.4

3.0

26.9

0.48

0.20

1.58

3.36

0.800

0.500

1.000

0.81**

2.20

0.88**

0.78**

2.34

0.86**

6.8

1.5

15.8

0.52

0.12

1.01

7.62

0.900

0.200

1.000

0.85**

2.63

0.91**

0.85**

2.62

0.90**

40.6

24.5

47.4

0.13

0.04

0.28

0.31

1.000

0.200

1.000

0.83**

2.50

0.91**

0.84**

2.48

0.90**

38.6

23.6

44.7

0.14

0.06

0.27

0.35

1.100

0.100

0.696

0.81**

1.92

0.89**

0.81**

1.90

0.88**

47.0

36.2

51.4

0.12

0.05

0.21

0.25

1.100

0.200

1.000

0.83**

2.30

0.91**

0.83**

2.29

0.89**

37.4

23.6

43.0

0.16

0.08

0.37

0.43

1.100

0.300

1.000

0.84**

2.92

0.90**

0.83**

2.93

0.89**

28.6

11.2

36.0

0.28

0.07

1.00

0.97

1.200

0.200

1.000

0.80**

2.33

0.89**

0.80**

2.31

0.88**

37.9

24.9

43.0

0.19

0.12

0.35

0.49

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xiv↓]

Table A 12: Results of the optimisation trials in winter wheat at BBCH 59.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.500

0.300

1.000

0.97**

3.68

0.98**

0.97**

3.45

0.98**

67.4

37.6

89.1

٪

٪

٪

٪

0.600

0.300

1.000

0.97**

2.95

0.98**

0.97**

3.03

0.98**

60.8

33.9

78.9

٪

٪

٪

٪

0.800

0.400

1.000

0.97**

2.57

0.98**

0.97**

2.51

0.99**

56.7

33.7

72.8

0.44

0.17

0.91

0.77

0.700

0.300

1.000

0.97**

2.47

0.99**

0.97**

2.65

0.98**

56.0

32.1

72.2

0.27

0.04

0.58

0.48

0.800

0.300

1.000

0.97**

2.71

0.98**

0.96**

2.76

0.98**

52.8

30.9

68.0

0.37

0.13

0.77

0.71

0.900

0.300

1.000

0.96**

2.81

0.97**

0.96**

2.91

0.97**

50.4

29.0

65.3

0.18

0.09

0.39

0.36

1.000

0.300

1.000

0.95**

3.02

0.96**

0.95**

3.14

0.95**

47.7

27.7

61.9

0.23

0.07

0.39

0.48

1.100

0.100

1.000

0.92**

2.54

0.93**

0.91**

2.70

0.91**

54.4

40.3

63.8

0.16

0.02

0.33

0.30

1.100

0.200

1.000

0.93**

2.84

0.93**

0.92**

2.98

0.92**

50.3

34.4

61.3

0.18

0.04

0.28

0.36

1.100

0.300

1.000

0.94**

3.11

0.94**

0.93**

3.24

0.94**

45.8

26.9

59.2

0.19

0.04

0.43

0.42

1.100

0.300

1.500

0.93**

3.35

0.94**

0.93**

3.42

0.94**

41.6

22.5

54.5

0.13

0.01

0.26

0.30

1.100

0.300

2.000

0.92**

3.62

0.93**

0.92**

3.75

0.93**

38.2

17.9

51.5

0.11

0.01

0.30

0.29

1.100

0.300

2.500

0.92**

3.57

0.93**

0.92**

3.69

0.93**

36.3

17.0

49.1

0.22

0.00

0.84

0.60

1.100

0.300

3.000

0.92**

3.57

0.94**

0.92**

3.71

0.93**

34.1

13.9

47.2

0.26

0.01

0.53

0.77

1.100

0.300

4.000

0.93**

3.22

0.95**

0.93**

3.36

0.94**

30.6

11.3

43.4

0.13

0.00

0.46

0.42

1.100

0.300

5.000

0.94**

2.99

0.95**

0.93**

3.17

0.95**

29.3

10.3

42.1

0.17

0.02

0.44

0.56

1.100

0.400

1.000

0.96**

3.01

0.97**

0.96**

3.10

0.96**

40.4

18.5

56.5

0.28

0.08

0.46

0.68

1.100

0.500

1.000

0.98**

2.62

0.98**

0.98**

2.64

0.98**

34.2

10.5

52.9

0.28

0.12

0.57

0.81

1.100

0.600

1.000

0.97**

3.08

0.97**

0.98**

2.66

0.98**

26.2

4.5

47.0

0.26

0.05

0.50

1.00

1.100

0.700

1.000

0.89**

4.93

0.94**

0.91**

4.50

0.96**

17.2

2.5

36.9

0.35

0.14

0.78

2.03

1.200

0.300

1.000

0.93**

3.31

0.93**

0.92**

3.39

0.93**

43.6

26.3

56.7

0.20

0.09

0.42

0.45

1.300

0.300

1.000

0.92**

3.26

0.92**

0.91**

3.41

0.91**

41.8

25.1

54.2

0.23

0.10

0.54

0.55

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xv↓]

Table A 13: Results of the optimisation trials in winter wheat at BBCH 69.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.600

0.300

1.000

0.94**

2.78

0.94**

0.94**

2.68

0.94**

68.2

48.9

81.9

٪

٪

٪

٪

0.700

0.300

1.000

0.95**

2.20

0.96**

0.96**

2.09

0.96**

62.6

46.5

75.0

0.23

0.09

0.41

0.37

0.800

0.300

1.000

0.94**

2.11

0.95**

0.95**

1.88

0.95**

59.4

46.1

69.9

0.20

0.09

0.32

0.33

0.900

0.300

1.000

0.71**

4.34

0.75**

0.77**

3.88

0.77**

56.3

44.7

66.6

1.63

0.12

4.95

2.89

1.000

0.300

1.000

0.88**

2.60

0.89**

0.91**

2.19

0.91**

55.0

44.0

64.7

0.22

0.12

0.41

0.39

1.100

0.200

1.000

0.81**

2.73

0.83**

0.85**

2.38

0.86**

55.5

46.9

63.6

0.75

0.14

2.94

1.36

1.100

0.300

1.000

0.87**

2.62

0.88**

0.91**

2.21

0.91**

51.9

41.4

61.3

0.20

0.08

0.35

0.39

1.100

0.300

1.500

0.74**

3.73

0.79**

0.79**

3.33

0.80**

48.0

37.1

57.5

2.25

0.15

5.09

4.69

1.100

0.300

2.000

0.84**

3.01

0.87**

0.88**

2.57

0.89**

43.8

33.1

53.7

1.57

0.07

4.36

3.58

1.100

0.300

2.500

0.91**

2.32

0.92**

0.93**

2.05

0.93**

40.9

30.6

50.5

0.24

0.12

0.40

0.60

1.100

0.300

3.000

0.92**

2.24

0.93**

0.94**

1.98

0.94**

38.0

27.3

47.9

0.19

0.05

0.38

0.50

1.100

0.300

4.000

0.93**

2.14

0.94**

0.94**

1.91

0.94**

34.0

22.7

44.1

٪

٪

٪

٪

1.100

0.400

1.000

0.88**

2.83

0.89**

0.92**

2.38

0.92**

47.5

35.3

58.0

0.21

0.11

0.34

0.45

1.100

0.500

1.000

0.89**

3.20

0.89**

0.92**

2.65

0.92**

43.3

28.4

55.2

0.26

0.15

0.48

0.59

1.100

0.600

1.000

0.89**

3.57

0.90**

0.93**

2.92

0.93**

35.9

18.9

49.6

0.27

0.11

0.40

0.75

1.100

0.700

1.000

0.89**

4.09

0.90**

0.93**

3.19

0.93**

28.2

8.4

44.5

0.34

0.21

0.68

1.21

1.100

0.800

1.000

0.86**

4.42

0.90**

0.91**

3.49

0.93**

17.2

1.2

36.2

0.30

0.15

0.68

1.77

1.100

0.900

1.000

0.58**

3.18

0.74**

0.64**

2.93

0.79**

5.7

1.0

17.2

٪

٪

٪

٪

1.200

0.300

1.000

0.85**

2.57

0.86**

0.89**

2.20

0.89**

50.5

41.4

59.2

0.11

0.06

0.20

0.22

1.300

0.300

1.000

0.84**

2.49

0.86**

0.88**

2.14

0.88**

48.8

40.1

57.1

0.15

0.03

0.31

0.31

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xvi↓]

Table A 14: Results of the optimisation trials in irrigated rice at BBCH 25, or DAT 28 respectively.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

Square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

R 2

SE

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.300

0.100

0.450

0.90**

2.07

0.93**

0.89**

2.23

0.91**

25.4

7.6

31.9

0.46

0.22

0.98

1.82

0.400

0.100

0.497

0.91**

1.68

0.96**

0.91**

1.71

0.94**

23.1

7.8

28.3

0.49

0.26

1.38

2.13

0.400

0.200

0.450

0.80**

0.75

0.80**

0.77**

0.80

0.78**

6.0

2.3

8.0

0.57

0.28

0.81

9.56

0.500

0.100

0.519

0.95**

1.03

0.97**

0.94**

1.08

0.96**

19.1

7.3

23.2

0.21

0.09

0.48

1.10

0.500

0.100

1.000

0.96**

0.67

0.96**

0.95**

0.79

0.95**

12.8

4.3

16.6

0.42

0.23

0.73

3.31

0.500

0.100

1.500

0.94**

0.70

0.94**

0.92**

0.79

0.93**

8.9

2.5

12.3

0.27

0.13

0.70

3.07

0.500

0.200

0.497

0.63**

0.89

0.64 *

0.59**

0.93

0.60 *

4.6

1.7

6.4

0.40

0.19

0.58

8.78

0.600

0.100

0.533

0.95**

0.89

0.97**

0.94**

0.97

0.95**

17.5

7.2

21.2

0.43

0.27

0.61

2.44

0.600

0.200

0.519

0.69**

0.71

0.75**

0.66**

0.75

0.73**

4.9

2.6

6.7

0.48

0.20

0.91

9.83

0.600

0.300

0.497

0.06 †

0.48

0.23 †

0.06 †

0.48

0.25 †

1.6

0.4

2.2

0.62

0.36

1.01

38.08

0.700

0.100

0.556

0.93**

0.89

0.97**

0.93**

0.93

0.95**

16.5

7.2

19.5

0.25

0.07

0.58

1.48

0.800

0.100

0.576

0.92**

0.88

0.96**

0.91**

0.93

0.95**

15.0

6.4

17.9

0.34

0.28

0.47

2.28

0.800

0.200

0.556

0.69**

0.63

0.70**

0.68**

0.64

0.69**

4.3

1.9

5.7

0.54

0.22

1.30

12.33

0.900

0.100

0.604

0.91**

0.92

0.96**

0.90**

0.95

0.95**

14.4

6.1

16.9

0.41

0.12

1.07

2.83

1.000

0.100

0.618

0.85**

1.19

0.94**

0.85**

1.19

0.93**

13.6

5.1

15.9

0.38

0.20

0.90

2.81

1.000

0.200

0.604

0.73**

0.61

0.75**

0.73**

0.61

0.75**

3.7

0.9

5.2

0.63

0.45

0.93

17.08

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xvii↓]

Table A 15: Results of the optimisation trials in irrigated rice at BBCH 39, respectively 42 DAT.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.300

0.100

0.450

0.93**

2.95

0.97**

0.94**

2.72

0.97**

34.5

9.0

47.4

0.21

0.08

0.34

0.60

0.400

0.100

0.497

0.88**

3.07

0.93**

0.90**

2.85

0.94**

29.4

8.4

39.9

0.36

0.13

0.62

1.22

0.400

0.200

0.450

0.91**

1.37

0.92**

0.88**

1.58

0.90**

10.8

2.7

19.1

0.63

0.32

1.07

5.84

0.500

0.100

0.519

0.94**

1.89

0.96**

0.95**

1.77

0.96**

26.1

8.6

35.7

0.29

0.15

0.41

1.12

0.500

0.100

1.000

0.94**

1.88

0.95**

0.94**

1.91

0.94**

18.4

2.8

28.7

0.40

0.27

0.85

2.17

0.500

0.100

1.500

0.96**

1.29

0.96**

0.96**

1.32

0.96**

14.4

1.4

23.3

0.30

0.11

0.68

2.12

0.500

0.100

2.000

0.97**

1.07

0.97**

0.96**

1.19

0.96**

11.4

0.3

19.1

0.29

0.13

0.48

2.58

0.500

0.200

0.497

0.94**

1.03

0.95**

0.91**

1.24

0.93**

9.3

1.9

16.3

0.55

0.23

0.96

5.90

0.500

0.300

0.450

0.62**

0.41

0.62 *

0.59**

0.43

0.59 *

3.2

1.8

4.1

1.10

0.43

1.77

34.67

0.600

0.100

0.533

0.95**

1.57

0.97**

0.95**

1.51

0.96**

23.4

8.6

31.5

0.31

0.10

0.88

1.34

0.700

0.100

0.556

0.95**

1.34

0.97**

0.95**

1.29

0.97**

21.3

8.1

28.3

0.32

0.15

0.79

1.50

0.800

0.100

0.576

0.93**

1.43

0.97**

0.94**

1.38

0.96**

20.1

7.4

26.3

0.21

0.09

0.38

1.02

0.800

0.200

0.556

0.93**

0.85

0.93**

0.90**

1.01

0.90**

7.4

1.4

11.6

0.58

0.36

1.08

7.77

0.800

0.300

0.533

0.24 †

0.83

0.33 †

0.21 †

0.85

0.35 †

2.6

1.0

4.9

0.90

0.16

2.47

34.49

0.900

0.100

0.604

0.93**

1.34

0.96**

0.94**

1.30

0.96**

18.9

7.2

24.5

0.28

0.15

0.60

1.46

1.000

0.100

0.618

0.88**

1.72

0.94**

0.89**

1.64

0.94**

17.7

5.7

22.9

0.27

0.12

0.45

1.51

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xviii↓]

Table A 16: Results of the optimisation trials in irrigated rice at BBCH 49, respectively 62 DAT.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.300

0.100

0.450

0.90**

2.94

0.93**

0.94**

2.31

0.95**

50.6

33.7

64.6

0.33

0.11

0.46

0.65

0.400

0.100

0.497

0.91**

1.58

0.93**

0.87**

1.94

0.89**

43.5

34.2

53.6

0.29

0.06

0.86

0.66

0.400

0.200

0.450

0.93**

2.42

0.93**

0.88**

3.12

0.89**

21.7

7.3

38.7

0.74

0.23

2.21

3.43

0.500

0.100

0.519

0.63**

2.15

0.80**

0.62**

2.19

0.77**

37.6

29.1

42.9

3.50

0.22

17.43

9.32

0.500

0.100

1.000

0.88**

2.26

0.90**

0.89**

2.22

0.90**

31.6

19.0

42.3

0.71

0.38

1.31

2.24

0.500

0.100

1.500

0.91**

2.05

0.94**

0.93**

1.82

0.95**

25.6

11.9

36.0

0.58

0.29

0.86

2.27

0.500

0.100

2.000

0.91**

1.93

0.93**

0.93**

1.76

0.93**

21.5

10.0

31.6

0.66

0.17

1.67

3.05

0.500

0.200

0.497

0.93**

1.97

0.93**

0.89**

2.48

0.89**

21.9

9.8

35.1

0.63

0.33

1.89

2.89

0.500

0.300

0.450

0.68**

1.59

0.87**

0.61**

1.76

0.81**

4.6

2.0

11.5

1.23

0.64

2.14

26.77

0.600

0.100

0.533

0.91**

1.48

0.91**

0.89**

1.60

0.89**

33.0

23.8

41.2

0.22

0.09

0.58

0.68

0.600

0.200

0.519

0.93**

1.56

0.94**

0.89**

2.02

0.90**

17.4

7.6

28.4

0.55

0.07

2.00

3.15

0.600

0.300

0.497

0.82**

1.07

0.90**

0.75**

1.27

0.83**

4.3

0.8

9.6

0.78

0.26

1.22

18.02

0.700

0.100

0.556

0.91**

1.28

0.92**

0.89**

1.44

0.90**

30.4

22.3

37.6

0.27

0.15

0.43

0.87

0.800

0.100

0.576

0.92**

1.12

0.93**

0.90**

1.28

0.90**

28.2

21.1

34.6

0.24

0.03

0.35

0.83

0.800

0.200

0.556

0.93**

1.30

0.94**

0.91**

1.51

0.91**

15.1

6.6

23.5

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.800

0.200

1.000

0.94**

1.13

0.94**

0.93**

1.24

0.93**

11.4

4.2

19.2

0.39

0.09

0.70

3.43

0.800

0.200

1.500

0.90**

1.28

0.91**

0.90**

1.32

0.91**

7.3

0.9

15.6

0.41

0.25

0.65

5.62

0.800

0.200

2.000

0.86**

1.34

0.87**

0.86**

1.34

0.88**

5.4

-0.4

12.8

0.37

0.22

0.64

6.92

0.800

0.300

0.533

0.72**

0.95

0.85**

0.66**

1.06

0.78**

3.2

1.3

7.1

0.90

0.56

1.54

27.99

0.800

0.400

0.519

0.00 †

0.32

0.02 †

0.01 †

0.32

0.02 †

1.7

1.1

2.2

1.83

1.18

2.58

105.66

0.900

0.100

0.604

0.93**

1.00

0.93**

0.90**

1.20

0.90**

26.3

19.9

32.2

0.21

0.07

0.36

0.79

1.000

0.100

0.618

0.92**

0.98

0.92**

0.89**

1.14

0.89**

25.2

19.4

30.4

0.27

0.11

0.48

1.07

1.000

0.200

0.604

0.91**

1.30

0.91**

0.86**

1.56

0.86**

13.3

6.4

19.9

٪

٪

٪

٪

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xix↓]

Table A 17: Results of the optimisation trials in irrigated rice at BBCH 65, respectively 80 DAT.

Pendulum
Parameters

Fresh Mass
versus Angle

Dry Mass
versus Angle

Pendulum
Angle

Standard
Deviation

Coefficient
of Variation

h P

h A0

m P

linear

square

linear

square

mean

min.

max.

mean

min.

max.

mean

(m)

(m)

(kg)

R 2

SE

R 2

R 2

SE

R 2

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(°)

(%)

0.400

0.100

0.497

0.94**

2.58

0.96**

0.93**

2.74

0.95**

42.0

25.2

55.5

0.47

0.16

0.91

1.11

0.400

0.200

0.450

0.96**

2.44

0.97**

0.96**

2.70

0.96**

27.0

9.4

45.3

0.75

0.36

1.47

2.78

0.500

0.100

0.519

0.92**

2.20

0.95**

0.91**

2.33

0.94**

52.1

39.0

61.8

0.23

0.15

0.52

0.45

0.500

0.100

1.000

0.92**

2.50

0.94**

0.91**

2.60

0.93**

44.4

29.4

55.2

0.14

0.06

0.22

0.32

0.500

0.100

1.500

0.90**

2.98

0.93**

0.89**

3.10

0.92**

39.3

23.3

50.9

0.35

0.20

0.48

0.90

0.500

0.100

2.000

0.89**

3.26

0.93**

0.88**

3.39

0.91**

34.9

17.2

47.4

0.54

0.26

1.15

1.54

0.500

0.100

2.500

0.89**

3.25

0.93**

0.88**

3.38

0.91**

31.1

12.4

44.5

0.26

0.07

0.59

0.84

0.500

0.200

0.497

0.94**

2.62

0.96**

0.93**

2.79

0.95**

42.2

24.8

55.8

0.37

0.14

0.74

0.88

0.500

0.200

1.000

0.94**

2.73

0.96**

0.93**

2.90

0.95**

32.3

14.3

46.7

0.32

0.11

0.55

0.98

0.500

0.300

0.450

0.96**

2.39

0.97**

0.96**

2.68

0.96**

26.7

9.7

45.2

0.46

0.10

0.94

1.71

0.600

0.100

0.533

0.92**

2.00

0.94**

0.91**

2.11

0.93**

46.7

35.3

55.3

0.14

0.08

0.20

0.30

0.600

0.200

0.497

0.93**

2.27

0.95**

0.92**

2.42

0.94**

37.5

22.8

48.5

0.43

0.16

0.96

1.15

0.600

0.300

0.497

0.93**

2.78

0.94**

0.92**

3.03

0.92**

24.1

9.0

39.2

0.57

0.26

0.89

2.37

0.600

0.400

0.450

0.86**

2.93

0.88**

0.84**

3.17

0.86**

11.2

3.2

25.3

0.65

0.40

0.89

5.81

0.700

0.200

0.519

0.93**

2.26

0.94**

0.92**

2.40

0.93**

33.4

20.3

43.8

0.22

0.07

0.43

0.67

0.800

0.100

0.576

0.92**

1.65

0.94**

0.91**

1.74

0.93**

39.4

29.9

47.0

0.24

0.10

0.39

0.60

0.800

0.200

0.556

0.93**

1.84

0.95**

0.92**

1.97

0.94**

31.2

20.2

40.5

0.29

0.15

0.46

0.93

0.800

0.200

1.000

0.93**

1.96

0.95**

0.93**

2.10

0.94**

25.2

12.4

35.1

0.22

0.15

0.36

0.87

0.800

0.300

0.533

0.93**

2.27

0.93**

0.92**

2.47

0.92**

19.6

7.6

31.2

0.52

0.32

0.77

2.64

0.800

0.300

1.000

0.94**

1.89

0.95**

0.93**

2.09

0.93**

13.7

3.6

24.7

0.21

0.08

0.31

1.55

0.800

0.400

0.519

0.87**

2.31

0.88**

0.85**

2.49

0.86**

9.5

3.0

20.2

0.73

0.33

1.10

7.72

0.800

0.500

0.497

0.66**

1.18

0.73**

0.63**

1.23

0.69**

2.5

0.4

6.7

0.69

0.16

1.36

27.90

0.900

0.200

0.576

0.94**

1.71

0.95**

0.93**

1.82

0.94**

29.27

18.5

37.97

0.18

0.10

0.29

0.60

1.000

0.200

0.604

0.94**

1.56

0.96**

0.93**

1.64

0.95**

27.2

17.4

35.2

0.14

0.08

0.25

0.53

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant ٪ no replicates


[page xx↓]

Table A 18: Linear regression equations for the change of the measured angle with increase of the height of pivot point hP by 1 m for 12 plots.

Winter Rye BBCH 39
h A0 0.2 m; m P 1 kg

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

65.1

63.3

67.0

74.4

63.8

12.0

Slope

-24.9

-23.8

-27.0

-29.3

-24.5

-4.1

R 2

0.93**

0.91**

0.91**

0.92**

0.90**

0.67**

FM (kg m -2 )

1.412

1.304

1.596

1.792

1.320

0.232

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

4.6

35.7

53.0

48.0

45.4

39.5

Slope

-1.0

-12.8

-21.2

-18.9

-16.8

-14.2

R 2

0.11**

0.76**

0.88**

0.84**

0.81**

0.82**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.192

0.740

1.092

0.920

0.816

0.732

Winter Wheat BBCH 39
h A0 0.2 m; m P 1 kg

      

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

41.2

68.1

86.0

77.0

88.9

83.0

Slope

-16.1

-30.6

-41.6

-35.4

-42.5

-38.8

R 2

0.88**

0.91**

0.93**

0.93**

0.93**

0.92**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.731

1.345

2.154

1.914

2.329

1.980

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

84.8

87

74.6

64.8

60.3

65.5

Slope

-40.1

-41.7

-33.5

-27.3

-24.2

-27.4

R 2

0.92**

0.93**

0.92**

0.92**

0.92**

0.91**

FM (kg m -2 )

2.025

1.942

1.469

1.125

0.975

1.373

Rice BBCH 39
h A0 0.1 m; m P 0.5 – 0.6 kg

      

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

46.4

53.7

46.70

46.1

42.7

43.7

Slope

-27.1

-33.3

-27.7

-28.0

-24.7

-24.7

R 2

0.92**

0.93**

0.93**

0.91**

0.92**

0.96**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.333

0.395

0.345

0.345

0.309

0.298

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

43.1

41.1

36.5

28.3

25.6

10.4

Slope

-26.5

-24.9

-21.4

-15.8

-13.3

-3.9

R 2

0.93**

0.90**

0.87**

0.87**

0.92**

0.81**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.301

0.223

0.195

0.171

0.120

0.054

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant


[page xxi↓]

Table A 19: Linear regression equations for the change of the measured angle with increase of the height of cylindrical body hA0 by 1 m for 12 plots.

Winter Rye BBCH 59
h P 1.1 m; m P 1 kg

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

76.7

83.5

83.6

83.6

81.2

39.3

Slope

-36.8

-32.7

-29.0

-26.5

-45.5

-43.6

R 2

0.92**

0.91**

0.91**

0.92**

0.90**

0.74**

FM (kg m -2 )

1.640

1.847

2.003

2.070

1.295

0.429

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

34.9

63.0

76.8

77.9

72.7

65.4

Slope

-37.8

-39.9

-38.4

-41.0

-40.4

-39.7

R 2

0.77**

0.91**

0.93**

0.92**

0.90**

0.94

FM (kg m -2 )

0.436

1.051

1.244

1.271

1.154

1.089

Winter Wheat BBCH 59
h P 1.1 m; m P 1 kg

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

80.7

81.7

81.6

78.6

62.5

64.0

Slope

-59.1

-67.3

-66.8

-71.9

-72.3

-69.2

R 2

0.87**

0.87**

0.88**

0.93**

0.98**

0.99**

FM (kg m -2 )

2.694

2.686

2.689

2.129

0.855

1.239

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

65.8

73.5

69.4

77.7

81.3

72.8

Slope

-70.6

-77.5

-69.5

-71.6

-72.8

-71.4

R 2

0.99**

0.97**

0.97**

0.91**

0.89**

0.97**

FM (kg m -2 )

1.513

1.520

1.773

2.347

2.426

1.140

Rice BBCH 65
h P 0.8 m; m P 0.5 - 0.6 kg

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

54.3

57.6

59.1

60.7

56.3

51.3

Slope

-103.0

-104.0

-99.1

-106.3

-107.0

-101.4

R 2

0.99**

0.99**

0.98**

0.98**

0.99**

0.99**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.635

0.641

0.853

0.899

0.755

0.633

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

49.6

41.5

40.9

41.5

33.9

41.9

Slope

-99.4

-88.7

-85.6

-88.1

-74.3

-91.6

R 2

0.99**

0.96**

0.96**

0.95**

0.89**

0.94**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.606

0.391

0.421

0.362

0.291

0.426

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant


[page xxii↓]

Table A 20: Linear regression equations for the change of the measured angle with increase of the mass of the pendulum m P by 1 kg for 12 plots.

Winter Rye BBCH 39
h P 1.1m; h A0 0.2m

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

41.3

41.0

40.9

45.7

41.2

11.1

Slope

-4.8

-5.0

-4.9

-5.0

-5.4

-3.5

R 2

0.98**

0.98**

0.98**

0.98**

0.98**

0.92**

FM (kg m -2 )

1.412

1.304

1.596

1.792

1.320

0.232

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

6.1

25.1

33.8

31.3

31.5

28.3

Slope

-1.9

-4.4

-5.1

-5.1

-5.3

-5.2

R 2

0.86**

0.95**

0.98**

0.98**

0.98**

0.98**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.192

0.740

1.092

0.920

0.816

0.732

Winter Wheat BBCH 39
h P 0.8m; h A0 0.2m

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

38.0

49.6

58.4

54.4

59.9

57.4

Slope

-9.4

-7.2

-7.4

-6.9

-6.9

-7.1

R 2

0.98**

0.99**

0.99**

0.98**

0.98**

0.98**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.731

1.345

2.154

1.914

2.329

1.980

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

57.8

58.5

54.4

50.2

49.0

50.5

Slope

-7.1

-7.0

-7.9

-7.9

-8.4

-7.5

R 2

0.99**

0.99**

0.98**

0.98**

0.98**

0.98**

FM (kg m -2 )

2.025

1.942

1.469

1.125

0.975

1.373

Rice BBCH 39
h P 0.5m; h A0 0.1m

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

35.5

40.7

36.20

33.8

32.3

35

Slope

-10.5

-11.1

-11.0

-9.6

-10.0

-11.1

R 2

0.96**

0.98**

0.95**

0.96**

0.93**

0.97**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.333

0.395

0.345

0.345

0.309

0.298

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

32.5

31.1

27.0

22.4

21.3

9.9

Slope

-10.6

-10.7

-9.0

-9.2

-9.1

-5.3

R 2

0.93**

0.97**

0.94**

0.90**

0.91**

0.84**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.301

0.223

0.195

0.171

0.120

0.054

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant


[page xxiii↓]

Table A 21: Multiple regression equations for all 12 plots in winter wheat at BBCH 39 for the three independent variables: height of pivot point hP, height of cylindrical body hA0, and mass of pendulum m P.

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

68.5

98.6

115.5

107.3

116.9

113.9

h A0 (m)

-106.5

-121.6

-106.5

-118.8

-100.6

-115.9

m P (kg)

-8.4

-6.8

-7.6

-6.4

-7.4

-7.2

h P (m)

-14.3

-31.1

-43.4

-36.7

-44.2

-40.7

R 2

0.95**

0.95**

0.93**

0.94**

0.92**

0.93**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.731

1.345

2.154

1.914

2.329

1.980

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

115.0

115.8

106.4

95.7

91.0

97.1

h A0 (m)

-110.6

-105.7

-120.5

-121.4

-120.7

-128.9

m P (kg)

-7.5

-7.4

-7.6

-7.0

-7.3

-6.5

h P (m)

-42.0

-43.2

-34.8

-28.0

-24.3

-28.0

R 2

0.92**

0.92**

0.94**

0.96**

0.97**

0.96**

FM (kg m -2 )

2.025

1.942

1.469

1.125

0.975

1.373

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant

Table A 22: Multiple regression equations for all 12 plots in rice at BBCH 39 for the three independent variables: height of pivot point hP, height of cylindrical body hA0, and mass of pendulum m P.

Plot

1

2

3

4

5

6

Intercept

58.5

69.0

59.1

58.8

54.4

56.0

h A0 (m)

-134.2

-154.2

-139.1

-137.4

-131.5

-133.5

m P (kg)

-11.1

-11.5

-11.1

-10.7

-10.9

-10.7

h P (m)

-17.0

-24.4

-17.5

-18.9

-15.0

-16.7

R 2

0.91**

0.95**

0.91**

0.91**

0.90**

0.91**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.333

0.395

0.345

0.345

0.309

0.298

Plot

7

8

9

10

11

12

Intercept

54.7

52.5

46.5

36.5

33.8

14.2

h A0 (m)

-131.4

-124.2

-112.3

-88.6

-83.5

-38.0

m P (kg)

-11.1

-11.4

-10.1

-10.1

-9.6

-5.6

h P (m)

-16.4

-15.3

-12.7

-7.9

-6.5

excluded

R 2

0.90**

0.89**

0.87**

0.85**

0.87**

0.85**

FM (kg m -2 )

0.301

0.223

0.195

0.171

0.120

0.054

** Significance > 0.99 * Significance > 0.95 † not significant


[page xxiv↓]

Figure A 9: Linear regressions for four growth-stages in winter wheat 1999, measured with 0.8 m hP, 0.3 m hA0, 1 kg m P, 75 Hz frequency, and 2.5 m s-1.

Figure A 10: Linear regressions for four growth-stages in irrigated rice, measured with 0.4 m hP, 0.1 m hA0, 0.497 kg m P, 75 Hz frequency, and 2.5 m s-1.


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