Agrawal, S. and Martin, R. R. (2003): Was induction of HIV-1 through TLR9?, J Immunol 171 [4], pp.1621; author reply 1621-2.

Aho, K.; Heliovaara, M.; Maatela, J.; Tuomi, T. and Palosuo, T. (1991): Rheumatoid factors antedating clinical rheumatoid arthritis, J Rheumatol 18 [9], pp.1282-4.

Akhtar, M.; Watson, J. L.; Nazli, A. and McKay, D. M. (2003): Bacterial DNA evokes epithelial IL-8 production by a MAPK-dependent, NF-kappaB-independent pathway, Faseb J 17 [10], pp.1319-21.

Akira, S. (2003): Mammalian Toll-like receptors, Curr Opin Immunol 15 [1], pp.5-11.

Akira, S. and Hemmi, H. (2003): Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by TLR family, Immunol Lett 85 [2], pp.85-95.

Akira, S.; Takeda, K. and Kaisho, T. (2001): Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity, Nat Immunol 2 [8], pp.675-80.

Alarcon, G. S.; Schrohenloher, R. E.; Bartolucci, A. A.; Ward, J. R.; Williams, H. J. and Koopman, W. J. (1990): Suppression of rheumatoid factor production by methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence for differential influences of therapy and clinical status on IgM and IgA rheumatoid factor expression, Arthritis Rheum 33 [8], pp.1156-61.

Altus, R.E. (2001): Soziale und volkswirtschaftliche Aspekte, Gräfenstein, Ed, Klinische Rheumatologie, pp. 29-32, ecomed, Landsberg/Lech.

An, H.; Xu, H.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, M.; Qi, R.; Yan, X.; Liu, S.; Wang, W.; Guo, Z.; Qin, Z. and Cao, X. (2002): Up-regulation of TLR9 gene expression by LPS in mouse macrophages via activation of NF-kappaB, ERK and p38 MAPK signal pathways, Immunol Lett 81 [3], pp.165-9.

Anderson, K.V.; Jurgens, G. and Nusslein-Volhard, C. (1985): Establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo: the induction of polarity by the Toll gene product., Cell 42, pp.779-791.

Arnett, F. C.; Edworthy, S. M.; Bloch, D. A.; McShane, D. J.; Fries, J. F.; Cooper, N. S.; Healey, L. A.; Kaplan, S. R.; Liang, M. H.; Luthra, H. S. and et al. (1988): The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum 31 [3], pp.315-24.

Bauer, S.; Kirschning, C. J.; Hacker, H.; Redecke, V.; Hausmann, S.; Akira, S.; Wagner, H. and Lipford, G. B. (2001): Human TLR9 confers responsiveness to bacterial DNA via species-specific CpG motif recognition, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 [16], pp.9237-42.

Botstein, D. and Risch, N. (2003): Discovering genotypes underlying human phenotypes: past successes for mendelian disease, future approaches for complex disease, Nat Genet 33 Suppl, pp.228-37.

Bresnihan, B. (2002): Anakinra as a new therapeutic option in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical results and perspectives, Clin Exp Rheumatol 20 [5 Suppl 27], pp.S32-4.

Brookes, A. J. (1999): The essence of SNPs, Gene 234 [2], pp.177-86.

Calin, A.; Elswood, J. and Klouda, P. T. (1989): Destructive arthritis, rheumatoid factor, and HLA-DR4. Susceptibility versus severity, a case-control study, Arthritis Rheum 32 [10], pp.1221-5.

Chaudhary, P. M.; Ferguson, C.; Nguyen, V.; Nguyen, O.; Massa, H. F.; Eby, M.; Jasmin, A.; Trask, B. J.; Hood, L. and Nelson, P. S. (1998): Cloning and characterization of two Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like genes TIL3 and TIL4: evidence for a multi-gene receptor family in humans, Blood 91 [11], pp.4020-7.

Chuang, T. H. and Ulevitch, R. J. (2000): Cloning and characterization of a sub-family of human toll-like receptors: hTLR7, hTLR8 and hTLR9, Eur Cytokine Netw 11 [3], pp.372-8.

Cohen, S.; Hurd, E.; Cush, J.; Schiff, M.; Weinblatt, M. E.; Moreland, L. W.; Kremer, J.; Bear, M. B.; Rich, W. J. and McCabe, D. (2002): Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with anakinra, a recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, in combination with methotrexate: results of a twenty-four-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Arthritis Rheum 46 [3], pp.614-24.

Collins, F. S.; Brooks, L. D. and Chakravarti, A. (1998): A DNA polymorphism discovery resource for research on human genetic variation, Genome Res 8 [12], pp.1229-31.

Cotran, R; Kumar, V and Collins, T (1999): Acute and chronic Inflammation, Cotran, R; Kumar, V and Collins, T, Eds, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease 1, pp. 50-88, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Cotran, R; Kumar, V and Collins, T (1999): Diseases of Immunity, Cotran, R; Kumar, V and Collins, T, Eds, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease 1, pp. 188-259, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Craft, J. and Fatenejad, S. (1997): Self antigens and epitope spreading in systemic autoimmunity, Arthritis Rheum 40 [8], pp.1374-82.

Deng, G. M.; Nilsson, I. M.; Verdrengh, M.; Collins, L. V. and Tarkowski, A. (1999): Intra-articularly localized bacterial DNA containing CpG motifs induces arthritis, Nat Med 5 [6], pp.702-5.

Dorner, T.; Egerer, K.; Feist, E. and Burmester, G. R. (2004): Rheumatoid factor revisited, Curr Opin Rheumatol 16 [3], pp.246-53.

Du, X.; Poltorak, A.; Wei, Y. and Beutler, B. (2000): Three novel mammalian toll-like receptors: gene structure, expression, and evolution, Eur Cytokine Netw 11 [3], pp.362-71.

Dunne, A. and O'Neill, L. A. (2003): The interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor superfamily: signal transduction during inflammation and host defense, Sci STKE 2003 [171], p.re3.

Ebringer, A. and Wilson, C. (2000): HLA molecules, bacteria and autoimmunity, J Med Microbiol 49 [4], pp.305-11.

Edwards, J. C. and Cambridge, G. (2001): Sustained improvement in rheumatoid arthritis following a protocol designed to deplete B lymphocytes, Rheumatology (Oxford) 40 [2], pp.205-11.

Edwards, J. C.; Szczepanski, L.; Szechinski, J.; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, A.; Emery, P.; Close, D. R.; Stevens, R. M. and Shaw, T. (2004): Efficacy of B-cell-targeted therapy with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, N Engl J Med 350 [25], pp.2572-81.

Elkins, K. L.; Rhinehart-Jones, T. R.; Stibitz, S.; Conover, J. S. and Klinman, D. M. (1999): Bacterial DNA containing CpG motifs stimulates lymphocyte-dependent protection of mice against lethal infection with intracellular bacteria, J Immunol 162 [4], pp.2291-8.

Equils, O.; Schito, M. L.; Karahashi, H.; Madak, Z.; Yarali, A.; Michelsen, K. S.; Sher, A. and Arditi, M. (2003): Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR9 signaling results in HIV-long terminal repeat trans-activation and HIV replication in HIV-1 transgenic mouse spleen cells: implications of simultaneous activation of TLRs on HIV replication, J Immunol 170 [10], pp.5159-64.

Firestein, G. S. (2001): Etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, Ruddy, S.; Harris, E.D. and Sledge, C.B., Eds, Kelley´s textbook of rheumatology 2, pp. 921-966, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Firestein, G. S. (2003): Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis, Nature 423 [6937], pp.356-61.

Fortin, A.; Stevenson, M. M. and Gros, P. (2002): Susceptibility to malaria as a complex trait: big pressure from a tiny creature, Hum Mol Genet 11 [20], pp.2469-78.

Glossop, J. R.; Nixon, N. B.; Dawes, P. T.; Hassell, A. B. and Mattey, D. L. (2003): No association of polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor receptor I and receptor II genes with disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis, J Rheumatol 30 [7], pp.1406-9.

Gonzalez-Escribano, M. F.; Torres, B.; Aguilar, F.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, A.; Valenzuela, A. and Nunez-Roldan, A. (2003): MCP-1 promoter polymorphism in Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Hum Immunol 64 [7], pp.741-4.

Gordon, S. (2002): Pattern Recognition Receptors: Doubling Up for the Innate Immune Response, Cell 111, pp.927-30.

Grabe, N. (2002): AliBaba2: context specific identification of transcription factor binding sites, In Silico Biol 2 [1], pp.S1-15.

Gregersen, P. K. (1997): Genetic Analysis of Rheumatic Diseases, Kelley, W.N.; Harris, E.D.; Ruddy, S. and Sledge, C.B., Eds, Textbook of Rheumatology, 5th. ed., pp. 209-227, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Gregersen, P. K.; Shen, M.; Song, Q. L.; Merryman, P.; Degar, S.; Seki, T.; Maccari, J.; Goldberg, D.; Murphy, H.; Schwenzer, J. and et al. (1986): Molecular diversity of HLA-DR4 haplotypes, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83 [8], pp.2642-6.

Gregersen, P. K.; Silver, J. and Winchester, R. J. (1987): The shared epitope hypothesis. An approach to understanding the molecular genetics of susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum 30 [11], pp.1205-13.

Hacker, H.; Mischak, H.; Miethke, T.; Liptay, S.; Schmid, R.; Sparwasser, T.; Heeg, K.; Lipford, G. B. and Wagner, H. (1998): CpG-DNA-specific activation of antigen-presenting cells requires stress kinase activity and is preceded by non-specific endocytosis and endosomal maturation, Embo J 17 [21], pp.6230-40.

Haff, L. A. and Smirnov, I. P. (1997): Single-nucleotide polymorphism identification assays using a thermostable DNA polymerase and delayed extraction MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, Genome Res 7 [4], pp.378-88.

Hamann, L.; Hamprecht, A.; Gomma, A. and Schumann, R. R. (2004): Rapid and inexpensive real-time PCR for genotyping functional polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor -2, -4, and -9 genes, J Immunol Methods 285 [2], pp.281-91.

Harris, E.D. (2001): Clinical Features of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ruddy, S.; Harris, E.D. and Sledge, C.B., Eds, Kelley´s Textbook of Rheumatology 2, pp. 967-1000, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Harris, E.D. (2001): Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ruddy, S.; Harris, E.D. and Sledge, C.B., Eds, Kelley´s Textbook of Rheumatology 2, pp. 1001-1022, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Heil, F.; Hemmi, H.; Hochrein, H.; Ampenberger, F.; Kirschning, C.; Akira, S.; Lipford, G.; Wagner, H. and Bauer, S. (2004): Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8, Science 303 [5663], pp.1526-9.

Hemmi, H.; Takeuchi, O.; Kawai, T.; Kaisho, T.; Sato, S.; Sanjo, H.; Matsumoto, M.; Hoshino, K.; Wagner, H.; Takeda, K. and Akira, S. (2000): A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA, Nature 408 [6813], pp.740-5.

Hoffmann, J. A.; Kafatos, F.C.; Janeway, C. A., Jr. and RAB, Ezekowitz (1999): Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity, Science 284, pp.1313-18.

Hornung, V.; Rothenfusser, S.; Britsch, S.; Krug, A.; Jahrsdorfer, B.; Giese, T.; Endres, S. and Hartmann, G. (2002): Quantitative expression of toll-like receptor 1-10 mRNA in cellular subsets of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sensitivity to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, J Immunol 168 [9], pp.4531-7.

Janeway, C. A., Jr. and Medzhitov, R. (2002): Innate immune recognition, Annu Rev Immunol 20, pp.197-216.

Janeway, C. A., Jr.; Travers, P; Walport, M and Capra, D (1999): The Development of Lymphocyte Repertoires, Immunobiology, 4th. ed., pp. 195-260, Garland Publishing.

Janeway, C. A., Jr.; Travers, P; Walport, M and Capra, D (1999): Immune responses in the absence of infection, Immunobiology, 4th. ed., pp. 489-536, Garland Publishing.

Jonsson, T.; Steinsson, K.; Jonsson, H.; Geirsson, A. J.; Thorsteinsson, J. and Valdimarsson, H. (1998): Combined elevation of IgM and IgA rheumatoid factor has high diagnostic specificity for rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatol Int 18 [3], pp.119-22.

Kaarela, K. (1985): Prognostic factors and diagnostic criteria in early rheumatoid arthritis, Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 57, pp.1-54.

Kaczynski, J.; Cook, T. and Urrutia, R. (2003): Sp1- and Kruppel-like transcription factors, Genome Biol 4 [2], p.206.

Kiechl, S.; Lorenz, E.; Reindl, M.; Wiedermann, C. J.; Oberhollenzer, F.; Bonora, E.; Willeit, J. and Schwartz, D. A. (2002): Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and atherogenesis, N Engl J Med 347 [3], pp.185-92.

Kirschning, C. J. and Schumann, R. R. (2002): TLR2: cellular sensor for microbial and endogenous molecular patterns, Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 270, pp.121-44.

Kremer, J. M.; Weinblatt, M. E.; Bankhurst, A. D.; Bulpitt, K. J.; Fleischmann, R. M.; Jackson, C. G.; Atkins, K. M.; Feng, A. and Burge, D. J. (2003): Etanercept added to background methotrexate therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: continued observations, Arthritis Rheum 48 [6], pp.1493-9.

Krieg, A. M. (1995): CpG DNA: a pathogenic factor in systemic lupus erythematosus?, J Clin Immunol 15 [6], pp.284-92.

Krieg, A. M.; Love-Homan, L.; Yi, A. K. and Harty, J. T. (1998): CpG DNA induces sustained IL-12 expression in vivo and resistance to Listeria monocytogenes challenge, J Immunol 161 [5], pp.2428-34.

Krieg, A. M. and Wagner, H. (2000): Causing a commotion in the blood: immunotherapy progresses from bacteria to bacterial DNA, Immunol Today 21 [10], pp.521-6.

Krieg, A. M.; Yi, A. K.; Matson, S.; Waldschmidt, T. J.; Bishop, G. A.; Teasdale, R.; Koretzky, G. A. and Klinman, D. M. (1995): CpG motifs in bacterial DNA trigger direct B-cell activation, Nature 374 [6522], pp.546-9.

Krug, A.; Luker, G. D.; Barchet, W.; Leib, D. A.; Akira, S. and Colonna, M. (2003): Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) activates murine Natural Interferon-Producing cells (IPC) through Toll-Like Receptor 9, Blood.

Kyburz, D.; Rethage, J.; Seibl, R.; Lauener, R.; Gay, R. E.; Carson, D. A. and Gay, S. (2003): Bacterial peptidoglycans but not CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate synovial fibroblasts by toll-like receptor signaling, Arthritis Rheum 48 [3], pp.642-50.

Latz, E.; Schoenemeyer, A.; Visintin, A.; Fitzgerald, K. A.; Monks, B. G.; Knetter, C. F.; Lien, E.; Nilsen, N. J.; Espevik, T. and Golenbock, D. T. (2004): TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome, Nat Immunol 5 [2], pp.190-8.

Lazarus, R.; Klimecki, W. T.; Raby, B. A.; Vercelli, D.; Palmer, L. J.; Kwiatkowski, D. J.; Silverman, E. K.; Martinez, F. and Weiss, S. T. (2003): Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 9 gene (TLR9): frequencies, pairwise linkage disequilibrium, and haplotypes in three U.S. ethnic groups and exploratory case-control disease association studies, Genomics 81 [1], pp.85-91.

Leadbetter, E. A.; Rifkin, I. R.; Hohlbaum, A. M.; Beaudette, B. C.; Shlomchik, M. J. and Marshak-Rothstein, A. (2002): Chromatin-IgG complexes activate B cells by dual engagement of IgM and Toll-like receptors, Nature 416 [6881], pp.603-7.

Lemaitre, B.; Nicolas, E.; Michaut, L.; Reichhart, J. M. and Hoffmann, J. A. (1996): The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spatzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults, Cell 86 [6], pp.973-83.

Li, W. H. and Sadler, L. A. (1991): Low nucleotide diversity in man, Genetics 129 [2], pp.513-23.

Lipford, G. B.; Bauer, M.; Blank, C.; Reiter, R.; Wagner, H. and Heeg, K. (1997): CpG-containing synthetic oligonucleotides promote B and cytotoxic T cell responses to protein antigen: a new class of vaccine adjuvants, Eur J Immunol 27 [9], pp.2340-4.

Lipsky, P. E. and Kavanaugh, A. (1999): The impact of pharmaco-economic considerations on the utilization of novel anti-rheumatic therapies, Rheumatology (Oxford) 38 Suppl 2, pp.41-4.

Liu, Z. Q.; Deng, G. M.; Foster, S. and Tarkowski, A. (2001): Staphylococcal peptidoglycans induce arthritis, Arthritis Res 3 [6], pp.375-80.

Lorenz, E.; Mira, J. P.; Cornish, K. L.; Arbour, N. C. and Schwartz, D. A. (2000): A novel polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 gene and its potential association with staphylococcal infection, Infect Immun 68 [11], pp.6398-401.

Lorenz, E.; Mira, J. P.; Frees, K. L. and Schwartz, D. A. (2002): Relevance of mutations in the TLR4 receptor in patients with gram-negative septic shock, Arch Intern Med 162 [9], pp.1028-32.

Lund, J.; Sato, A.; Akira, S.; Medzhitov, R. and Iwasaki, A. (2003): Toll-like receptor 9-mediated recognition of Herpes simplex virus-2 by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, J Exp Med 198 [3], pp.513-20.

MacGregor, A. J. and Silman, A. J. (1991): Rheumatoid factors as predictors of rheumatoid arthritis, J Rheumatol 18 [9], pp.1280-1.

MacGregor, A. J.; Snieder, H.; Rigby, A. S.; Koskenvuo, M.; Kaprio, J.; Aho, K. and Silman, A. J. (2000): Characterizing the quantitative genetic contribution to rheumatoid arthritis using data from twins, Arthritis Rheum 43 [1], pp.30-7.

Maini, R.; St Clair, E. W.; Breedveld, F.; Furst, D.; Kalden, J.; Weisman, M.; Smolen, J.; Emery, P.; Harriman, G.; Feldmann, M. and Lipsky, P. (1999): Infliximab (chimeric anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving concomitant methotrexate: a randomised phase III trial. ATTRACT Study Group, Lancet 354 [9194], pp.1932-9.

Medzhitov, R. and Janeway, C. A., Jr. (1998): Innate immune recognition and control of adaptive immune responses, Semin Immunol 10 [5], pp.351-3.

Medzhitov, R. and Janeway, C.A., Jr. (1998): An ancient system of host defense, Curr.Opin.Immunol. 10 [1], pp.12-15. PM:9523104

Medzhitov, R.; Preston-Hurlburt, P. and Janeway, C. A., Jr. (1997): A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity, Nature 388 [6640], pp.394-7.

Muzio, M.; Bosisio, D.; Polentarutti, N.; D'Amico, G.; Stoppacciaro, A.; Mancinelli, R.; van't Veer, C.; Penton-Rol, G.; Ruco, L. P.; Allavena, P. and Mantovani, A. (2000): Differential expression and regulation of toll-like receptors (TLR) in human leukocytes: selective expression of TLR3 in dendritic cells, J Immunol 164 [11], pp.5998-6004.

Nepom, G. T.; Byers, P.; Seyfried, C.; Healey, L. A.; Wilske, K. R.; Stage, D. and Nepom, B. S. (1989): HLA genes associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Identification of susceptibility alleles using specific oligonucleotide probes, Arthritis Rheum 32 [1], pp.15-21.

Newkirk, M. M. (2002): Rheumatoid factors: host resistance or autoimmunity?, Clin Immunol 104 [1], pp.1-13.

Newkirk, M. M. and Rauch, J. (1994): Monospecific but not polyreactive human hybridoma rheumatoid factors exhibit preferential binding specificities for IgG3 and IgG4, Rheumatol Int 13 [5], pp.203-9.

Nussbaum, R. L.; McInnes, R. and Huntington, F. W. (2001): Genetic Variation in Individuals: Mutation and Polymorphism, Nussbaum, R.L., Ed, Thompson & Thompson genetics in medicine, pp. 79-94, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Ogura, Y.; Bonen, D. K.; Inohara, N.; Nicolae, D. L.; Chen, F. F.; Ramos, R.; Britton, H.; Moran, T.; Karaliuskas, R.; Duerr, R. H.; Achkar, J. P.; Brant, S. R.; Bayless, T. M.; Kirschner, B. S.; Hanauer, S. B.; Nunez, G. and Cho, J. H. (2001): A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, Nature 411 [6837], pp.603-6.

Ollier, W. and Worthington, J. (1997): Small fish in a big pond, Br J Rheumatol 36 [9], pp.931-2.

Ozinsky, A.; Underhill, D. M.; Fontenot, J. D.; Hajjar, A. M.; Smith, K. D.; Wilson, C. B.; Schroeder, L. and Aderem, A. (2000): The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 [25], pp.13766-71.

Paimela, L.; Palosuo, T.; Leirisalo-Repo, M.; Helve, T. and Aho, K. (1995): Prognostic value of quantitative measurement of rheumatoid factor in early rheumatoid arthritis, Br J Rheumatol 34 [12], pp.1146-50.

Pope, R. M.; Lessard, J. and Nunnery, E. (1986): Differential effects of therapeutic regimens on specific classes of rheumatoid factor, Ann Rheum Dis 45 [3], pp.183-9.

Pugner, K. M.; Scott, D. I.; Holmes, J. W. and Hieke, K. (2000): The costs of rheumatoid arthritis: an international long-term view, Semin Arthritis Rheum 29 [5], pp.305-20.

Richardson, B.; Scheinbart, L.; Strahler, J.; Gross, L.; Hanash, S. and Johnson, M. (1990): Evidence for impaired T cell DNA methylation in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum 33 [11], pp.1665-73.

Risch, N. (2001): The genetic epidemiology of cancer: interpreting family and twin studies and their implications for molecular genetic approaches, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10 [7], pp.733-41.

Roche (1998): The LightCycler - the smartest innovation for more efficient PCR, Biochemica 2, pp.4-7.

Rock, F. L.; Hardiman, G.; Timans, J. C.; Kastelein, R. A. and Bazan, J. F. (1998): A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95 [2], pp.588-93.

Rose, HM; Ragan, C; Pearce, E and Lipman, MO (1949): Differential agglutination of normal and sensitized sheep erythrocytes by sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, p.68:1.

Rozen, S. and Skaletsky, H. (2000): Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers, Methods Mol Biol 132, pp.365-86.

Rynes, R.I. (2001): Antimalarial Drugs, Ruddy, S.; Harris, E.D. and Sledge, C.B., Eds, Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology 1, pp. 859-867, W.B. Saunders, Philadephia.

Sanchez, E.; Orozco, G.; Lopez-Nevot, M. A.; Jimenez-Alonso, J. and Martin, J. (2004): Polymorphisms of toll-like receptor 2 and 4 genes in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, Tissue Antigens 63 [1], pp.54-7.

Schaeverbeke, T.; Renaudin, H.; Clerc, M.; Lequen, L.; Vernhes, J. P.; De Barbeyrac, B.; Bannwarth, B.; Bebear, C. and Dehais, J. (1997): Systematic detection of mycoplasmas by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures in 209 synovial fluid samples, Br J Rheumatol 36 [3], pp.310-4.

Schroder, N. W.; Hermann, C.; Hamann, L.; Gobel, U. B.; Hartung, T. and Schumann, R. R. (2003): High frequency of polymorphism Arg753Gln of the Toll-like receptor-2 gene detected by a novel allele-specific PCR, J Mol Med 81 [6], pp.368-72.

Scott, D. L. (2003): Genotypes and phenotypes: should genetic markers and clinical predictors drive initial treatment decisions in rheumatic diseases?, Curr Opin Rheumatol 15 [3], pp.213-8.

Seibl, R.; Birchler, T.; Loeliger, S.; Hossle, J. P.; Gay, R. E.; Saurenmann, T.; Michel, B. A.; Seger, R. A.; Gay, S. and Lauener, R. P. (2003): Expression and regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 in rheumatoid arthritis synovium, Am J Pathol 162 [4], pp.1221-7.

Smirnova, I.; Mann, N.; Dols, A.; Derkx, H. H.; Hibberd, M. L.; Levin, M. and Beutler, B. (2003): Assay of locus-specific genetic load implicates rare Toll-like receptor 4 mutations in meningococcal susceptibility, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 [10], pp.6075-80.

Smolen, J. S. and Steiner, G. (2003): Therapeutic strategies for rheumatoid arthritis, Nat Rev Drug Discov 2 [6], pp.473-88.

Sorensen, T.I.; Nielsen, G.G. ; Andersen, PK and Teasdale, TW (1988): Genetic and environmental influences on premature death in adult adoptees, N Engl J Med 318 [12], pp.727-732.

Sparwasser, T.; Miethke, T.; Lipford, G.; Borschert, K.; Hacker, H.; Heeg, K. and Wagner, H. (1997): Bacterial DNA causes septic shock, Nature 386 [6623], pp.336-7.

Stacey, K. J.; Sweet, M. J. and Hume, D. A. (1996): Macrophages ingest and are activated by bacterial DNA, J Immunol 157 [5], pp.2116-22.

Steiner, G. and Smolen, J. (2002): Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis and their clinical significance, Arthritis Res 4 Suppl 2, pp.S1-5.

Stuhlmuller, B.; Ungethum, U.; Scholze, S.; Martinez, L. ; Backhaus, M. ; Kraetsch, H.G. ; Kinne, R.W. and Burmester, G.R (2000): Identification of known and novel genes in activated monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum 43, pp.775-90.

Sweet, M. J.; Campbell, C. C.; Sester, D. P.; Xu, D.; McDonald, R. C.; Stacey, K. J.; Hume, D. A. and Liew, F. Y. (2002): Colony-stimulating factor-1 suppresses responses to CpG DNA and expression of toll-like receptor 9 but enhances responses to lipopolysaccharide in murine macrophages, J Immunol 168 [1], pp.392-9.

Takeda, K.; Kaisho, T. and Akira, S. (2003): Toll-like receptors, Annu Rev Immunol 21, pp.335-76.

Takeuchi, O. and Akira, S. (2002): Genetic approaches to the study of Toll-like receptor function, Microbes and Infection 4, pp.887-895.

Takeuchi, O.; Hoshino, K.; Kawai, T.; Sanjo, H.; Takada, H.; Ogawa, T.; Takeda, K. and Akira, S. (1999): Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components, Immunity 11 [4], pp.443-51.

Thomas, C. (1998): Entzündungen, Thomas, C., Ed, Histopathologie, p. 19, Schattauer, Stuttgart, New York.

Tighe, H. and Carson, D. A. (2001): Rheumatoid Factor, Ruddy, S.; Harris, E.D. and Sledge, C.B., Eds, Kelley´s textbook of rheumatology 1, pp. 151-158, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.

van der Heijden, I. M.; Wilbrink, B.; Tchetverikov, I.; Schrijver, I. A.; Schouls, L. M.; Hazenberg, M. P.; Breedveld, F. C. and Tak, P. P. (2000): Presence of bacterial DNA and bacterial peptidoglycans in joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other arthritides, Arthritis Rheum 43 [3], pp.593-8.

Villiger, P.M. and Brühlmann, P. (1999): Rheumatoide Arthritis, TIM - Thiemes innere Medizin, pp. 1622-1631, Thieme, Stuttgart, New York.

Visintin, A.; Mazzoni, A.; Spitzer, J. H.; Wyllie, D. H.; Dower, S. K. and Segal, D. M. (2001): Regulation of Toll-like receptors in human monocytes and dendritic cells, J Immunol 166 [1], pp.249-55.

von Aulock, S.; Schroder, N. W.; Gueinzius, K.; Traub, S.; Hoffmann, S.; Graf, K.; Dimmeler, S.; Hartung, T.; Schumann, R. R. and Hermann, C. (2003): Heterozygous toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism does not influence lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release in human whole blood, J Infect Dis 188 [6], pp.938-43.

Vyse, T. J. and Todd, J. A. (1996): Genetic analysis of autoimmune disease, Cell 85 [3], pp.311-8.

Waaler, E (1940): On the occurrence of a factor in human serum activating the specific agglutination of sheep blood corpuscles., Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand, p.17:172–188.

Weinblatt, M. E.; Keystone, E. C.; Furst, D. E.; Moreland, L. W.; Weisman, M. H.; Birbara, C. A.; Teoh, L. A.; Fischkoff, S. A. and Chartash, E. K. (2003): Adalimumab, a fully human anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients taking concomitant methotrexate: the ARMADA trial, Arthritis Rheum 48 [1], pp.35-45.

Wittwer, C. T. (1991): Buffers and reaction compounds for rapid cycling, The RapidCyclist, Idaho Technology 1 [83].

Wittwer, C. T.; Ririe, K. M.; Andrew, R. V.; David, D. A.; Gundry, R. A. and Balis, U. J. (1997): The LightCycler: a microvolume multisample fluorimeter with rapid temperature control, Biotechniques 22 [1], pp.176-81.

Wolfe, F.; Cathey, M. A. and Roberts, F. K. (1991): The latex test revisited. Rheumatoid factor testing in 8,287 rheumatic disease patients, Arthritis Rheum 34 [8], pp.951-60.

Wyllie, D. H.; Kiss-Toth, E.; Visintin, A.; Smith, S. C.; Boussouf, S.; Segal, D. M.; Duff, G. W. and Dower, S. K. (2000): Evidence for an accessory protein function for Toll-like receptor 1 in anti-bacterial responses, J Immunol 165 [12], pp.7125-32.

Yung, R. L.; Quddus, J.; Chrisp, C. E.; Johnson, K. J. and Richardson, B. C. (1995): Mechanism of drug-induced lupus. I. Cloned Th2 cells modified with DNA methylation inhibitors in vitro cause autoimmunity in vivo, J Immunol 154 [6], pp.3025-35.

Zarember, K. A. and Godowski, P. J. (2002): Tissue expression of human Toll-like receptors and differential regulation of Toll-like receptor mRNAs in leukocytes in response to microbes, their products, and cytokines, J Immunol 168 [2], pp.554-61.

Zeuner, R. A.; Ishii, K. J.; Lizak, M. J.; Gursel, I.; Yamada, H.; Klinman, D. M. and Verthelyi, D. (2002): Reduction of CpG-induced arthritis by suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides, Arthritis Rheum 46 [8], pp.2219-24.

Zhang, D.; Zhang, G.; Hayden, M. S.; Greenblatt, M. B.; Bussey, C.; Flavell, R. A. and Ghosh, S. (2004): A toll-like receptor that prevents infection by uropathogenic bacteria, Science 303 [5663], pp.1522-6.

© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 4.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am: