Hein, Jakob : The Specific disorder of arithmetical skills. Prevalence study in an urban population sample and its clinico-neuropsychological validation. Including a data comparison with a rural population sample study.

Aus Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters der Medizinischen Fakultät Charité der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin


Dissertation
The Specific disorder of arithmetical skills. Prevalence study in an urban population sample and its clinico-neuropsychological validation. Including a data comparison with a rural population sample study.

Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades doctor medicinae (Dr.med.)

vorgelegt der Medizinischen Fakultät Charité der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

von Jakob Hein,
aus Leipzig

Dekan: Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. R. Felix

Gutachter:
1. Prof. Dr. med. K.-J. Neumärker
2. PD. Dr. med. M. von Aster
3. Prof. Dr. D. Geary

Datum der Promotion: 30.10.2000


Pages: [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93]

Table of Contents

Front pageThe Specific disorder of arithmetical skills. Prevalence study in an urban population sample and its clinico-neuropsychological validation. Including a data comparison with a rural population sample study.
Preface Preface
1 Introduction
1.1The importance of mathematics
1.2A brief historical outline of mathematics
1.3Definition of the Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
1.4Research on the field of Acalculia and the Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
1.4.1Research until 1960
1.4.2Research from 1960 to present
1.4.2.1Mental calculation in adults and acalculia
1.4.2.1.1R. Cohn
1.4.2.1.2H. Hécaen and colleagues
1.4.2.1.3Reaction time models of mental calculation
1.4.2.1.4Imaging studies for mental calculation
1.4.2.1.5Neuropsychologic models
1.4.2.2The development of calculation abilities in children with a Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
1.4.2.2.1Basic mathematics skills in children
1.4.2.2.2Gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability
1.4.2.2.3Hemisphere specialization and arithmetical abilities
1.4.2.2.4Didactic models of learning mathematics
1.4.2.2.5Definition and demographic data on the Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
1.4.2.2.6Problem solving characteristics of children with a Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
1.4.2.2.7Neuropsychological models of the Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
1.4.2.2.8Socio-emotional characteristics of children with a Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
1.4.2.2.9Comorbidity in children with a Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
1.4.2.2.10Etiological indications for the Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
2 Objectives of the present study
3 The screening process
3.1Methods and design of the screening process
3.1.1Description of the study population sample
3.1.2Applied screening instruments
3.1.2.1Diagnostic calculation test for third grades (Diagnostischer Rechentest für 3.Klassen - DRE 3)
3.1.2.2Diagnostic spelling test for third grades (Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest für 3.Klassen - DRT 3)
3.1.2.3Teacher questionnaire
3.2Screening Results
3.2.1DRE 3 (Diagnostic calculation test for third grades)
3.2.2DRT 3 (Diagnostic spelling test for third grades)
3.2.3 3.2.3. Teacher questionnaires
3.2.3.1Mathematics
3.2.3.2Spelling
3.3Discussion of the screening results
4 Clinical and neuropsychological validation of a suspected Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
4.1Selection of probands with a suspected Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
4.2Methods and design of the validation process
4.2.1Clinico-neurological and psychopathological examination of the probands
4.2.2Neuropsychological testing of the probands
4.2.2.1Attention and perseverance
4.2.2.2Laterality preference
4.2.2.3Intelligence testing
4.3Case summaries of the probands with a suspected Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
4.3.1M.W.
4.3.1.1Clinico-neurological findings
4.3.1.2Neuropsychological test results
4.3.2Y.Z.
4.3.2.1Clinico-neurological findings
4.3.2.2Neuropsychological test results
4.3.3S.P.
4.3.3.1Clinico-neurological findings
4.3.3.2Neuropsychological test results
4.3.4T.H.
4.3.4.1Clinico-neurological findings
4.3.4.2Neuropsychological test results
4.3.4.3Clinico-neurological findings
4.3.4.4Neuropsychological test results
4.4Discussion of the clinical and neuropsychological validation process
5 Data comparison with a study of the prevalence for the Specific disorder of arithmetical skills in a rural population sample
5.1Outline of the Methodology of the rural population sample study
5.2Results of the rural population sample study
5.3Comparison of both studies
5.4Discussion of the comparison
6 General discussion
6.1The terminology of the Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
6.2The validity of the diagnosis of a Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
6.3Neuropsychological models
6.4Diagnostic criteria for the Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
6.5Conclusions
7 Summaries
Bibliography References
Vita
Acknowledgements
Declaration

Table of Tables

Tab.1: Average arithmetical achievement scores
Tab.2: Average spelling raw scores
Tab. 3: Selection criteria for a suspected Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
Tab. 4. Criteria for a likely learning disorder of the rural population sample.
Tab.5: Comparison of the frequency of suspected Learning disorders in a city vs. rural population sample if the standardization norms of the screening instruments would have been applied.

Table of Figures

Fig.1 Contemporary illustration of phrenology. The proposed site for underlying calculation abilities is marked ’X‘ (from Hunt, 1993 ).
Figure 2: Triple code model for arithmetical learning
Fig.3: Arithmetical achievement scores for male probands
Fig.4: Arithmetical achievement scores for female probands
Fig.5: Spelling raw scores for probands with German as their first language
Fig.6: Spelling raw scores for probands with German not as their first language
Fig.7: Teacher‘s evaluation of the mathematical potential of a student compared to this student‘s arithmetical achievement test result.
Fig.8: Teacher‘s evaluation of the spelling potential of a student compared to this student‘s spelling test result.
Fig. 9: cMRI of proband Y.Z. Note the poor differentiation between cortex and white matter in the occipital region. T2-weighted images.
Fig. 10: cMRI of proband T.H. Note the hyperintensity located subependymal on the lateral side right of the trigonum. T1-weighted image on left, T2-weighted image on right side.
Fig. 11: cMRI of proband T.H. Note the hyperintensity located on the medial, occipital aspect of the left posterior horn. T1-weighted image on left, T2-weighted image on right side. 4.3.5.D.B.
Fig.12.: cMRI of proband D.B. Note the lesion in the white matter, right of the trigonum with slight enlargement of the trigonum proximate to the lesion. The lesion is hypointense in the T1-weighted image (left) and hyperintense in the T2-weighed image (right).
Fig.13.: cMRI of proband D.B., coronar slices of T1-weighed images. Note the slight enlargement of the trigonum, proximate to the lesion in the white matter, right of the trigonum.

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