Literaturverzeichnis

Abraham E, Wunderink R, Silverman H: Efficacy and safety of monoclonal antibody to human tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with sepsis syndrome, JAMA 1995:273:934-941

Adams HA, Baumann G, Ganssten A: Die Definition der Schockformen, Intensivmed 2001:38:541-553

Altura BM, Altura BT: Peripheral vascular actions of glucocorticoids and their relationship to protection in circulatory shock, J Pharmacol Exp Therap 1974:190:300-315

Angelucci L: The glucocorticoid hormone: from pedestal to dust and back, European Journal of Pharmacology 2000:405:139-147

Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Clermont G, Griffin MF, Clark RH: Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome and associated costs of care, Crit Care Med 2001:29:1303–10

Annane D: Correlation between low cortisol response to corticotropin an vessels hypocontractility in human septic shock, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994:149:A648

Annane D, Bellissant E, Sebille V et al: Impaired pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline in septic shock patients with and without impaired adrenal fuction reverse, Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998:46:589-597

Annane D, Trabold F, Sharshar T et al: Inappropriate sympathetic activation at onset of septic shock, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999:160:458-465

Annane D, Sebille V, Troche G, Raphael JL, Gajdos P, Bellissant E: A 3-level prognostic classification in septic shock based on cortisol levels and cortisol response to corticotrophin, JAMA 2000:283(8):1038-1045

Annane D: Effects of the combination of hydrocortisone-fludrocortisone on mortality in septic shock, Crit Care Med 2000:28:A46

Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C et al: Effect of the treatment with low doses of hydrokortisone and fludrocortisone on the mortality in patients with septic shock, JAMA 2002:288:862-871

Letters to Annane: Corticosteroids for patients with septic shock, JAMA 2003:1:289:41-43

Astiz ME, Defent GE, Lin Y, Rackow EC: Microvascular function and rheologie changes in hyperdynamic sepsis, Crit Care Med 1995:23:265-271

Astiz ME, Rackow EC: Septic Schock, Lancet 1998:351:1501-1505

Aygen B: Adrenal functions in patients with sepsis, Exp Clin Endocrinol Diab 1987:105:182-186

Baghat K, Collier J, Vallance P: Local venous response to endotoxin in humans, Circulation 1996:94:490-497

Bellissant E, Annane D: Effect of hydrocortisone on phenylepiphrine: mean arterial pressure dose-response relationship in septic shock, Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000:68:293-303

Bennett IL: The effectiveness of hydrocortisone in the management of severe infections: a double blind study, JAMA 1963:183:462-465

Berghe van den G, Wouters P, Weekers F et al: Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients, N Engl J Med 2001:345:1359–67

Bernard GR, Wheeler AP, Russell JA et al: The effects of ibuprofen on the physiology and survival of patients with sepsis, N Engl J Med 1997:336:912-918

Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF: Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis, N Engl J Med 2001:344:699-709

Besse JC, Bass AD: Potention by hydrocortisones of responses to catecholamine in vascular smooth muscle, J Pharma Exp Therap 1966:154:224-238

Bollaert PE, Charpentier C, Levy B, Debouverie M, Audibert G, Larcan A: Reversal of the late septic shock with supraphysiologic doses of hydrocortisone, Crit Care Med 1998:26:645-650

Bollaert PE, Fieux F, Charpentier C, Levy B: Baseline cortisol levels, cortisol response to corticotropin, and prognosis in late septic shock, Shock 2003:19:13-15

Bone RC: A controlled clinical trial of high-dose methylprednisolone in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock, N Engl J Med 1987:317:653-658

Bone RC: Sepsis, the sepsis syndrome and multiorgan failure: A Plea for comparable definitions, Ann Intern Med 1991:114:332-333

Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB et al: American College of Chest Physicans/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis, Crit Care Med 1992:20:864

Bone RC: Immunologic dissonance: a continuing evolutin in our understanding of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, Ann Intern Med 1996:125:60-87

Bone RC: Sir Isaac Newton, sepsis and cars, Crit Care Med 1996:24:1125-1128

Bornstein SR, Chrousos GP: ACTH- and non-ACTH-mediated regulation of the adrenal cortex: neural and immune inputs, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999:84:1729-1736

Bouachour B: Adrenocortical function during septic shock, Intensive Care Med 1995:21:57-62

Braams R, Koppeschaar HP, Pavoordt van den HP, Vroonhout van TJ: Adrenocortical function in patients with ruptured aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, Intensive Care Med 1998:24:124-127

Briegel J, Forst H, Hellinger H, Haller M: Contribution of cortisol deficiency to septic shock (letter), Lancet 1991:338:507-508

Briegel J, Kellermann W, Forst H et al: Low-dose hydrokortisone attenuates the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, Clin Investig 1994:72:782-787

Briegel J, Schelling G, Haller M, Mvraz W, Forst H, Peter K: A comparison of the adrenocortical respones during setic shock and after complete recovery, Intensive Care Med 1996:22:894-899

Briegel J, Forst H, Haller M et al: Stress doses of hydrocortisone reverse hyperdynamic septic shock: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-center study, Crit Care Med 1999:27:723-732

Briegel J, Jochum M, Gippner-Steppert C, Thiel M: Immunomodulation in septic shock: hydrocortisone differentially regulates cytokine responses, J Am Soc Nephrol 2001:12Suppl17:70-74

Briegel J: Substitutionstherapie mit Hydrocortison bei septischem Schock, Intensivmed 2001:38:211-215

Burry LD, Wax RS: Role of corticosteroids in septic shock, Ann Pharmacother 2004:38:464-472

Carrico JC, Meakins JL, Marshall JC, Fry D, Maier RV: Multiple organ failure syndrome, Arch Surg 1986:121:196-208

Clore J, Schoolwerth A, Watlington CO: When is cortisol a mineralcorticoid?, Kidney Int 1992:42:1297-1308

Cobb J, Danner R: Nitrc oxide and septic shock, JAMA 1996:275:1192-1196

Cooper M, Stewart P: Corticosteroid insufficiency in acutely ill patients, N Engl J Med 2003:348:727-34

Cunnion R, Schaer GL, Parker MM, Natanson C, Parillo JE: The coronary circulation in human septic shock, Circ 1986:73:637-644

Cronin L, Cook DJ, Carlet J et al: Corticoidsteroid treatment for sepsis: a critical appraisal and meta-analysis of the literature, Crit Care Med 1995:23:1430-1439

Deventer van SJH, Pajkart D: Neutrophil adhesion molecules and MOF, Intensive Care Med 1997:23:487-488

Dorin RI, Kearns PJ: High output circulatory failure in acute adrenal insufficiency, Crit Care Med 1988:16:296-297

Dotterhof ASM: Patterns of cytokines, plasma endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and acute phase proteins during the treatment of severe sepsis in humans, Crit Care Med 1992:20:188-198

Eisele B, Lamy M, Thijs LG et al: Antithrombin III replacement therapy in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, multicenter trial plus meta-analysis on all randomized placebo controlled double-blind trials with antithrombin III in severe sepsis, Intens Care Med 1998:24:663-672

Endres S, Eigler A: Hemmung der NO-Synthase im septischen Schock, Internist 1997:38:466-469

Engelmann M: Sepsis-Gesichertes in Diagnostik und Therapie, Medizin im Dialog, 2000

Faist E, Storck M: Suppression der zellvermittelten Immunität nach Brand- und Mehrfachverletzungen, Intensivmedizin 1989:26:102-110

Ferreira FL, Bota DP, Bross A, Melot C, Vincent JL: Serial evaluation of the SOFA score to predict outcome in critically ill patients, JAMA 2001:10:1754-1758

Finlay WE, McKee JI: Serum cortisol levels in severely stressed patients, Lancet 1982:1:1414-1415

Fisher CJ, Agosti JM, Opal SM et al: Treatment of septic shock with the tumor necrosis factor receptor: Fc fusion protein. The Soluble TNF Receptor Sepsis Study Group, N Engl J Med 1996:334:1697–702

Fluckiger U, Zimmerli W, Sax H, Frei R, Widmer AF: Clinical impact of an infectious disease service on the management of bloodstream infection, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2000:19:493–500

Forth W: Allgemeine und spezielle Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Urban und Fischer 2001; 8. Auflage, 705-719

Friedman G, Silva E, Vincent JL: Has the mortality of septic shock changed with the time [see comment], Crit Care Med 1998:26(12):2078-86

Fukuoka F, Nishimura M, Imanaka H, Taenaka N, Yoshiya, Takezawa J: Effects of norepinephrine on renal function in septic patients with normal or elevated serum lactate levels, Crit Care Med 1989:17(11):1104-1107

Gaillard RC, Turnhill D, Sappino P, Muller AF: Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits the hormonal response of the pituitary gland to hypothalamic releasing factors, Endocrinology 1990:127(1):101-106

Hamrahian AH, Oseni TS, Aratah BM: Measurements of serum free cortisol in critically ill patients, N Engl J Med 2004:350(16):1629-1638

Hayes MA, Timmins AC, Yan EH, Palazzo M, Hinds CJ, Watson D: Elevation of systemic oxygen delivery in the treatment of critically ill patients, N Engl J Med 1994:330(24):1717-1722

Hinshaw LB: Sepsis/septic shock: participation of the microcirculation: an abbreviated rewiev [see comment], Crit Care Med 1996:24:1072-1078

Jochum M: Hämostasefaktoren, Zytokine, leukozytäre Proteasen und lösliche Adhäsionsmoleküle bei Sepsis und SIRS, Anästhesiologie & Intensivmedizin 1999:40:40-49

Jurney TH, Cockrell JL, Lindberg JS, Lamiell JM, Wade CE: Spectrum of serum cortisol response to ACTH in ICU patients: correlation with degree of illness and mortality, Chest 1987:92(2):292-295

Keh D, Boehnke T, Weber-Carstens S et al: Immunologic and hemodynamic effects of "low-dose" hydrocortisone in septic shock: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003:2:512-20

Kilger E, Weis F, Briegel J et al: Stress doses of hydrocortisone reduce severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome and improve early outcome in a risk group of patients after cardiac surgery, Crit Care Med 2003:31(4):1068-74

Kirkeboen KA, Strand OA: The role of nitric oxide in sepsis: an overview, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999:43:275–288

Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmermann JE: APACHE II: A severity of disease classification system, Crit Care Med 1985:13(10):818-829

Kumar A, Thota V, Dee L, Oslon J, Uretz E, Parillo JE: Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta are responsible for in vitro myocardial depression induced by human septic shock, J Exp Med 1996:183(3): 949-958

Lam C: Microvascular perfusion is impaired in a rat model of normotensive sepsis, J Clin Invest 1994:94:2077-2083

Lefering R, Neugebauer EAM: Steroid controversy in sepsis and septic shock: a meta-analysis, Crit Care Med 1995:23:1294-1303

Lin LL, Lin AY, Knopf JL: Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is coupled to hormonally regulated release of arachidonic acid, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992:89(13):6147-6151

Loisa P, Rinne T, Kaukinen S: Adrenocortical function and multiple failure in severe sepsis, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002:46(2):145-151

Luce JM, Montgomery AB, Marks JD, Turner J, Metz CA, Murray JF: Ineffectivness of high-dose methylprednisolone in preventing parenchymal lung injury and improving mortality in patients with septic shock, Am Rev Respir Dis 1988:138:62-68

Marik PE, Zaloga, GP: Adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill: a new look at an old problem, Chest 2002:122(5):1784-1796

Marik PE, Zaloga GP: Adrenal insufficiency during septic shock, Crit Care Med 2003:31:141-145

Marino PL: The ICU book, Williams & Wilkins Verlag, Baltimore, Philadelphia, London, Paris, Bangok, Buenos Aires, Hong Kong, Munich, Sydney, Tokyo, Wroclaw 1998, 502-515

Martin C, Saux P, Eon B, Aknin P, Gouin F: Septic shock: a goal directd therapy using a volume loading, dobutamine and/or norepinephrin, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1990:34(5):413-417

Martin C, Papazain L, Perrin G, Saux P, Gouin F: Norepinephrine or dopamine for the treatment of hyperdynamic shock, Chest 1993:103(6):1826-1831

Martin C: Why, when and how I use Norepinephrin in the Treatment of Septic Shock, Yearbook of Intensive Care Medicine, Springer 1999:175-188

Martin C, Viviand X, Leone M, Thirioux X: Effect of norepinephrine on the outcome of septic shock, Crit Care Med 2000:28(8):2758- 2765

Martin C: How to use norepinehrine in septic shock patients, Intensivmed 2000:37:507- 513

McKee JL, Finlay WE: Cortisol replacement in severely stressed patients, Lancet 1983:1(8322):484

Meduri G: An historical review of glucocorticoid treatment in sepsis. Disease pathophysiology and the design of treatment investigation, Sepsis 1999:3:21-38

Meier-Hellmann A: Katecholamintherapie in der Sepsis, Anaesthesist 2000:49(12):1069-1076

Meisner M, Tschaikowsky K, Schnaberl S, Schmidt J, Katalinic A, Schuttler J: Procalcitonin-influence of temperature, storage, anticoaguation und arterial or venous asservation of blood samples on procalcitonin concentrations, Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1997:35(8):597-601

Members of the American College of Chest Physicans/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference Committee: American College of Chest Physicans/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis, Crit Care Med 1992: 20: 864-874

Mira JP, Carion A, Grall F et al: Association of TNF2, a TNF-α promoter polymorphism, with septic shock susceptibility and mortality:a multicenter study, JAMA 1999:282(6):561-568

Mitsuo T: Right ventricular dysfunction in septic shock, Crit Care Med 1993:20:630-634

Mokhlesi L: Corticosteroids for patients with septic shock, JAMA 2003:289(1):43

Molijn GJ, Koper JW, Uffelen van CJ et al: Temperature-induced down regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in peripheral blood mononuclear leucoycte in patients with sepsis or septic shock, Clin Endocrinol 1995:43(2):197-203

Moran JL, Chapman MJ, O´Fathartaigh MS, Peisach AR, Pannal PR, Leppard P: Hypocortisolaemia and adrenocortical responiveness at onset of septic shock, Intensive Care Med 1994:20(7):489-495

Moreno R, Vincent JL, Matos R et al: The use of the maximum SOFA score to quantify organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care. Results of a prospective, multicentre study, Intensive Care Med 1999:25:686-696

Moura AM, Worcel M: Dircet action of aldosterone on transmembrane 22Na efflux from arterial smooth muscle. Rapid und delayed effects, Hypertension 1984:6:425-430

Mutschler E: Lehrbuch der Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Stuttgart 2001; 8. Auflage 423-428

Neuhof H: Zur Rolle der Mediatoren bei der Sepsis, Intensivmed 1989:19:3-9

Opal SM: Corticosteroids for patients with septic shock, JAMA 2003:289(1):41-42

Oppert M, Reincke A, Graf KJ, Barckow D, Frei U, Eckardt KU: Plasma cortisol levels before and during “low–dose” hydrocortison therapy and their relationship to hemodynamic improvement in patients with septic shock, Intensive Care Med 2000:26(12):1747-1755

Parker MM: Pathophysiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in septic shock, New Horiz 1998:6:130–138

Parillo JE: Pathogenetic mechanisms of septic shock, N Engl J Med 1993:328:1471-1477

Pilz G, Werdan K: Scoresyteme in der Intensivmedizin, Internist 1989:30:82-87

Pilz G, Werdan K: Cardiovascular parameters and scoring systems in the evaluation of response to the therapy in sepsis and septic shock, Infection 1990:18:253-257

Popa C, Caulkins M: Hämodynamisches Management beim septischen Schock, Critical Care Medicine Service 2002

Pressemitteilung zur Gründungsveranstaltung der Deutschen Sepsis Gesellschaft, Charité Berlin, 2001

Prigent H, Maxime V, Annane D: Clinical review: Corticotherapy in sepsis, Crit Care 2003:8(2):122-129

Reincke M, Allolio B, Wurth G, Winkelmann W: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness: response to dexamethasone and corticotropin-releasing-hormone, J Endocrinol Metab 1993:77(1):151-156

Richards M, Richards JR, Culver DH, Gaynes RP: Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States.National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System [see comment], Crit Care Med 1999:27(5):887-92

Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al: Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock, N Engl J Med 2001:345(19):1368–77

Rothwell PM, Udwadia ZF, Lawler PG: Cortisol response to corticotropin and survival in septic shock, Lancet 1991:337:582-583

Schein RM, Sprung CL, Marcial E, Napolitano L, Chernow B: Plasma cortisol levels in patients with septic shock, Crit Care Med 1990:18(3):259-263

Schumer W: Steroids in the treatment of clinical septic shock, Ann Surg 1976:184:333-341

Schuster HP: Intensivtherapie bei Sepsis und Multiorganversagen, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2000, 3. Auflage

Slotman GJ, Fisher CJ Jr., Bone RC, Clemmer TP, Metz CA: Detrimental effects of high-dose methylpednisolone sodium succinate om serum concentrations of hepatic and renal function indicators in severe sepsis and septic shock, Crit Care Med 1993:21(2):191-195

Sibbald WJ, Short A, Cohen MP, Wilson RF: Variationes in adrenocortical responsiveness during severe bacterial infections, Ann Surg 1977:186(1):29-33

Span LF, Hermus AR, Bartelink AK, et al: Adrenocortical function: an indicator of severity of disease and survival in chronic critically ill patients, Intensive Care Med 1992:18(2):93-96

Sprung CL, Caralis PV, Marcial EH et al: The effects of high-dose corticosteroids in patients with septic shock, N Engl J Med 1984:311(8):1137-1143

Soni A, Pepper GM, Wyrunski PM et al: Adrenal insufficiency occuring during septic shock. Incidence, outcome, and realtionships to periphereal cytokine levels, Am J Med 1995:98(3):266-271

Spijkstra JJ, Girbes AR: The continuing story of corticosteroids in the treatment of septic shock, Intensive Care Med 2000:26(5):496-500

Stuber M, Petersen M, Bokelmann F, Schade U: A genomic polymorphismus within the tumor necrosis factor locus influences the plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations and outcome of patients with severe sepsis, Crit Care Med 1996:24(3):381-384

Suffredini AF, Fromm RE, Parker MM et al: The cardiovascular response of the normal humans to the administration of endotoxin, N Engl J Med 1989:321(5):280-287

Task Force Practice Parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients in sepsis. Task Force of the American College of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 1999:27(3):639-60

Toweill D, Sonnenthal K, Kimberly B, Lai S, Goldstein B: Linear and nonlinear analysis of hemodynamic signals during sepsis and septic shock, Crit Care Med 2000:28:2051-2057

Vincent JL, Moreno R, Takala J et al: The SOFA- (sepsis-related organ failure assessment) score to describe organ dysfunction/failure, Intensive Care Med 1996:22(7):707-710

Vincent JL, Mendonca A, Cantraine F et al: Use of the SOFA-Score to assess the incindence of organ dysfuction/Failure in intensive care units: results of a multicentric, prospektive study, Crit Care Med 1998:26(11):1793-1800

Vincent JL, Zhang H, Szabo C, Preiser, JC: Effects of nitric oxide in septic shock, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000:161(6):1781–1785

Vincent JL, Sun O, Dubois MJ: Clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapies in severe sepsis and septic shock, Clin Infect Dis 2002:34(8):1084–93

Veterans Administration Systemic Sepsis Cooperative Study Group: Effect of high-dose glucocorticoids therapy on mortality in patients withn clinical signs of systemic sepsis, N Engl Med 1987:317:659-665

Voerman HJ, Strack van Schijndel RJ, Groenveld AB, Boer de H, Nauta JP, Thijs LG: Pulsatile hormone secretion during severe sepsis: Accurancy of different blood sampling regimes, Metabolism 1992:41:934-940

Yan SB, Helterbrand JD, Hartman DL, Wright TJ, Bernard GR: Low levels of protein C are associated with poor outcome in severe sepsis, Chest 2001:120(3):915–22

Wade S, Bussow M, Hanisch E: Epidemiologie von SIRS, Sepsis und septischem Schock bei chirurgischen Intensivpatienten, Chirurg 1998:69(6):648-655

Walker BR, Best R, Shackleton CH, Padfield PL, Edwards CR: Increased vasoconstricotor sensitivity to glucocorticoids in essential hypertension, Hypertension 1996:27(2):190-196

Walmrath D, Grimminer F, Seeger W: Schwere Sepsis - neue Therapieverfahren, Internist 2001:42(12):1619-1630

Warren BL, Eid A, Singer P et al: Caring for the critically ill patient. High-dose antithrombin III in severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA 2001:286(15):1869-1878

Weigand MA, Bardenheuer HJ, Bottinger BW: Klinisches Management bei Patienten mit Sepsis, Anästhesist 2003:52(1):3-22

Wheeler AP, Bernard GR: Treating patients with severe sepsis, N Engl J Med 1999:340:207–14

Williams TJ, Hellewell PG: Endothelial cell biology, Am Rev Respir Dis 1992:146:45-50

Wood JB, Frankland AW, James VH, Landon J: Rapid test of adrenocortical function, Lancet 1965:1:243-245

Yard AC, Kadowitz PJ: Studies on the mechanism of hydrocortisone potentiation of vasoconstrictor responses to epinephrine in the anesthesized animal, Eur J Pharmacol 1972:20:1-9

Zilstra P: Corticosteroids for patients with Septic Shock, JAMA 2003:289(1):42

Zimmerli W: Internistische Notfälle, Stuttgart, New York: Georg Thieme Verlag; 2003. 257–60

Zonghai H: Study on glucocorticoid receptors during intestinal ischemia shock and septic shock, Circ Res 1987:23:27-36


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 4.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am:
25.08.2006