The central purpose of libraries is to provide access to information to support the objectives of their parent institutions or interests of the communities they serve. Information has become a key resource in contemporary social and economic life upon which countries, organizations, and individuals depend in managing their affairs. It is an indispensable ingredient in educational and professional development and also a medium of leisure and source of knowledge, which enables people to manage and enrich their lives. At the same time the advancement of research cannot take place without adequate availability of the relevant information. In this sense libraries take part directly in research process and hence are components of knowledge innovation, and are involved in the diffusion and conversion of knowledge thereby acting as bridges for turning the results of knowledge into realistic productive entities.1 Therefore libraries as centres for collection, processing, storage and distribution of information and knowledge represent a crucial link in the development of knowledge and are important ideological and cultural force with far reaching implications for the society.2
Information may be obtained in various ways: orally, through lectures and personal contact, purchasing documentary materials, through electronic networks and by access to libraries and information services. However libraries are perceived to be not only important but also cost-effective mechanisms for delivery of essential information and literature.3 After acquiring carefully selected books, journals and other formats, library services make these materials widely available and foster their intensive use. They also add value by organising information for effective use, providing guidance on the range of [page 19↓]information that exists and by providing mechanisms to access the required materials from other sources.
Universities represent a major investment in the economic and social development of human resources of any country. As summarised in a World Bank report, institutions of higher learning have the main responsibility for equipping individuals with advanced knowledge and skills required in positions of responsibility in government, business and profession. They also produce new knowledge through research and serve as conduits for the transfer, adaptation and dissemination of knowledge generated elsewhere in the world.4 According to Tanui and Kitoi, university education contributes to socio-economic development by equipping individuals with the means to improve their skills, knowledge and capability for productive work. It also enriches the political and cultural life of the community and strengthens the community's ability to productively use technology for social and economic development.5
U.N statistical data shows that there is a clear link between educational achievement and economic betterment through enhanced income levels.6 This evidence shows that although investment in primary education is higher than investment in higher education, higher percentage of individuals completing higher education means substantial benefit for a country's social and economic development. According to a UNESCO policy [page 20↓]statement, without a good training and research at a higher level, no society can ensure a level of development that matches the needs and expectations of its people.7
Available statistics show that enrolment ratios in higher education average 51% in the countries that belong to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and compares with 21% in middle-income countries and 6% in low-income countries.8 Consequently, if these figures are anything to go by, in the developing world, the university is expected to be an instrument of social and economic development of the country and contribute to the advancement of the people it serves and that is why since independence in Africa, investment in advanced training has been seen as a vital part of national strategy.9
Universities have had the traditional function of maintaining, increasing and diffusing knowledge through research, intellectual creation, teaching and spreading knowledge. According to UNESCO, the university through its research and enquiry, its courses of study and training, its co-operative activities and its partnerships with various social actors, is called upon to make key contribution to opening up and highlighting new paths to a better future for the society and the individual and to give direction and shape to the future.10 Arising from this standpoint, university education has been seen to have a twofold mission. The first is taking an active role in finding solution to major global, regional and local problems, such as poverty, hunger, illiteracy, and the widening gap between industrialised and developing countries. Secondly, it should draw alternative proposals and recommendations to promote sustainable development, the sharing of knowledge, human rights, equal rights for women and men, justice and the application of democratic principles within the society.11
Particularly, African universities are seen as having a bigger role as ‘developmental engines’ than elsewhere, especially because they are often among the few institutions in the country with the resources, skills, logistics, organisation and network to undertake quality training and conduct advanced research. They are the only singularly endowed institutions with the capacity to initiate study programmes to support small and medium enterprises and provide services to community and covering issues of national interest such as health and education.12 The mission of a university in Africa can therefore be defined as to contribute to national development and the community through first long term and sustainable development policies, and secondly promoting social justice such as human rights, equity, democratic values, as well as the rights of children, minorities and disadvantaged groups.
The justification for investing in higher education libraries lies in the extent to which a linkage can be demonstrated between such an investment and improvement in quality, efficiency and achievement in university education. At the university, the library has been seen as an instrument of teaching alongside lecture and discussion methods and the librarian serves as a teacher, guiding the student in the ways of investigation and research. This is achieved by first acquiring information materials to support every course in the curriculum and every research project of the faculty, and secondly organising them in a manner that permits easy access to their contents and finally, ensuring that such access is facilitated by giving users the necessary skills to retrieve the required information.13 It is widely believed that university education values self-motivated discovery on the part of students which presumes the existence of large collections of information resources that provide a rich variety of ideas and diverse viewpoints to the student. Therefore the library is an instrument of education contributing to the intellectual development of the student.
On the one hand access to up-to-date scientific information is the first condition to quality research while on the other it is only through a well equipped and endowed library with books and journals that scholars can keep pace with developments in various disciplines and transmit the same to students. Indeed the creation of academic centres for undergraduate, postgraduate and research programmes cannot be achieved without good library facilities.14 A strategy to develop a university library and information service is therefore a fundamental component of ensuring high standard of the teaching, learning and research process in the university. The library is therefore directly linked to the principle of improvement of quality by contributing to the enhancement of the quality of student output, maintaining as well as improving the standards of teaching in higher education and facilitating research initiatives. Similarly it has been argued that the level of information and literature support to higher education directly translates to the quality of future professionals, scientific and managerial personnel. Therefore unless library and information services for universities are adequately provided, the educational output will be retarded and the socio-economic development of the country will be endangered.15
At the university level the library is a partner with the schools and departments of the university in meeting the teaching, research and learning commitments of the university. This role is embodied in four components: information transfer, partnership in teaching and livelong learning, partnership in research, and preservation of intellectual records. In other words, the university library facilitates the identification and delivery of information regardless of format, in support of the universities’ teaching, research and learning guided by an ongoing assessment of the information needs of its user community.
As the role that higher education institutions play in lifelong learning becomes increasingly clear, so does the role of the library in helping individual acquire the skills of lifelong learning. Through partnership with other teaching faculty, the university library offers programmes of information literacy, which emphasises critical thinking skills, and [page 23↓]addresses the use of information in a variety of formats and by so doing prepares university students for a lifelong learning.
Through collaborative efforts with faculty disciplines, the university library is expected not only to respond to trends in higher education affecting teaching, but also participate in shaping curricular innovations made necessary by changes in institutional needs. It is the duty of the library to ensure that information resources required in support of these innovations are identified and access is facilitated as part of a broadened process at the university. The library should therefore maintain an ongoing awareness of the curriculum and use this information in building and maintenance of relevant and quality collections as well as designing appropriate services. In relation to research the library ought to continually gather information regarding the research interests of university faculty, and ensure that information resources required in support of the university’s research initiatives are thus identified and access to them facilitated, regardless of location.
In general terms therefore, in achieving the mission of the university, the library has the unique role of providing access to a carefully selected portion of the global intellectual record through carefully planned acquisitions programme, information literacy programmes, and user oriented information service provision. Besides the library has repository and archival responsibility for university publications, and provides a physical environment and remedial treatment conducive to longevity for library materials.
In this section we examine the main issues related to efficient management of an information service organisation. We will consciously adopt a strategic approach because of global recognition and practice of ‘strategic management’ not only in information services but also in the commercial sector. Strategic management has been seen as enabling information service organizations to influence external forces in accordance [page 24↓]with their chosen objectives and initiate new activities conducive to their market needs rather than adjust or respond to those imposed on them.16 According to Hayes, strategic management is “…the part of management of organization that emphasizes the relationship to external environments, evaluates the current status and the effect of future changes in them, and determines the most appropriate organizational response”.17 As a method of making decisions relative to between five to ten years, strategic management is based on continuous process of making entrepreneurial decisions and with the greatest knowledge of future consequences, systematically organising the efforts to carry out these decisions against the expectations through organised, systematic feedback. It is therefore oriented towards long-range institutional goals and objectives by identifying them, creating a political consensus concerning them, establishing priorities among them, determining the necessary resources and creating environment within which these resources can be marshalled.18
The library is an organic combination of people, collections and buildings, whose purpose is to assist users in the process of transforming information into knowledge and applying it in their specific situations. Bryson has stressed that the purpose of information services, be they libraries, corporate records, global information networks or information systems is to facilitate access or disseminating information to assist people and organizations predict the future and facilitate decision making.19 This decision-making can be in relation to a range of issues such as business investment, national planning, research proposals or conclusions, or those of a student making an argument for a stand he has taken in an academic discourse.
The components of a university library consist of a number of factors. In the first place there are inputs such as staffing, collections and accommodation. secondly, we can talk of processes such as collection development, organisation and management and thirdly, are [page 25↓]outputs such as reference services, usage of finding tools, document delivery services and continuous training of users through direct contact and finally ongoing feedback from stakeholders.20 All these components contribute in different ways and proportions to ensure that the ultimate goal of the library, that of providing fruitful interaction between information seekers and the information resources is achieved with maximum effectiveness and efficiency.
The fact that the ultimate goal of the university library is to support learning, teaching and research in the university has many implications. In the first place the library collection ought to support every curriculum and research activity going on in the university and also include a good representation of major subjects that are not in the curriculum. Secondly, the collection must be organised in a manner that facilitates easy access to their contents and the access privileges must be as generous as possible. Thirdly, it is important that patrons be informed about library resources and services available and be given skills of using these resources. Fourthly the library building should be designed to facilitate the anticipated functions and finally, a competent staff is required to give direction and vitality to the service endeavour. This underlines the fact that the development of library and information services in university education is a multifaceted and complex process that involves strategic planning, identification and acquisition of information, the management of information materials, the design and implementation of automated systems, building of efficient staff teams and the overall management of economic and sustainable library and information services.21
Today information services are operating in new environments that impact on the consumers of information. A number of forces of change have been seen to influence the management of information services at the present and are likely to be felt even more in the future. These factors include:
These challenges require new leadership skills and competencies so as to ensure that the information needs of the organization or community are met in the new information environment.
According to Bryson, several factors that impact on university library service and their parent organisation include economic conditions, availability of financial resources, degree of technological integration and innovation, historical development of the information centre and its parent organisation, customers and markets, availability of human resources and the political climate.23 Economic conditions reflects the general economic health of the country and sector in which information services operate and influence both demand and customer usage of services and the demand of resources. Globally, budgets and purchasing power of libraries and information services have fallen [page 27↓]over the past years whilst their customer demands have increased.24Due to shortage of financial resources, the cost of provision of services is being passed directly to the customer and therefore library managers need to be more accountable and market oriented. It also demands seeking different sources of income to fund services such as grants or sponsorships and income generating schemes.
Technology is the generally available knowledge and techniques to produce goods and services. The complexity of present information technology influences the skills and competencies required by information service employees and customers. It also determines the organisation’s ability to quickly adapt to change. Therefore any technology application should be aimed at delivering more appropriate services or increased productivity
The present and the future are always shaped by the past. The historical development and current policies of the parent organisation will impact on the values and culture of the organisation as well as the allocation of resources and the way services are delivered. In the first place the political climate, in terms of the organisational environment, how employees and customers are valued, and the types of services delivered will all impact on the management and performance of information services. Secondly, in order to deliver effective services managers must be aware of their market in terms of their present and potential customers and their status. Consequently market expectations and demands should influence the type and level of service provision. The needs of potential customers should be considered, as the information may not be reaching its full market potential and therefore market research is critical in defining the market base as well as capturing the changing needs of an existing market.
Information services, like all organizations rely on a knowledgeable workforce and availability of human resources. Without adequate supply of appropriately trained and skilled personnel, the ability to provide quality information services may be inhibited. [page 28↓]The quality and quantity of the supply of labour is dependent upon the type, level and number of courses in universities and training institutions.
Efficient administration requires forecasting and planning in relation to library objectives. These include appropriate organisation of library activities, calculation of material and personnel requirements and the selection, assignment, training and supervision of staff. The drawing of a programme for development of resources and services needs a sound appraisal of the resources and an assessment of the conditions in which the library is operating. There is need to qualify and quantify the financial and administrative support that the university or the government is willing to allocate for library development. The library management needs to have at its disposal adequate resources in the form of sufficient and well trained staff as well as adequate finance to access information in print or electronically.
In the light of all these the characteristics of successful information organisation25 would include:
Human capital is the organisation’s most valuable resource and its successful planning and management are critical for overall organisational effectiveness. The library is labour intensive and relies on skilled human resources to achieve its goals and therefore any effort at quality assurance requires first, the identification of needed skills, secondly, laying down a policy of staff selection based on merit, and thirdly, applying it vigorously.26 These skills are required to select, acquire, process and organise the library's collections and provide access to information in local collections and those of other libraries. The underlying principle however is that the process should ensure that people are given the opportunity to develop both their personal and professional competencies so as to maximise their output and contribution to the organisation’s effectiveness through motivation, training and personal development.27
Planning and management of human resources can be viewed from either strategic (macro) or operational (micro) perspectives. The strategic approach involves planning and forecasting in view of the overall organisational objectives and is dependent on the organisation’s strategic plans for its future. It includes human resource needs analysis, resource assessment, and identification of the existing human resource gaps and creating skills inventory in line with the needs. Operational human resource management activities relate to personnel processes that affect individuals such as job appraisals, job description, job specification, recruitment and selection. However, since human resource planning is a continuous and proactive process, an integrated approach is more useful. This goes beyond the input level through micro and macro activities to include the [page 30↓]management process that produce the expected outcomes such as motivated, productive and happy staff and low staff turnover.
According to Bakewell, the essence of a good personnel management in a user-centred library is to motivate staff so that they will wish to be part of this user-centred approach.28 This is achieved by creating the conditions in which staff will make the greatest possible contribution to the organization by trying to make the objectives of the organizations and those of the individual to coincide.29 Therefore there has to be appropriate induction, training and development, compensation and rewards as well as communication, constant review and performance monitoring with the view to ensuring that staff attain a sense of achievement, recognition and responsibility.30
Issues critical to human resources include first the level of staffing and secondly, the kinds of staff required. The level of staffing is determined by among others the kind programs offered, the number of buildings and service points, and the hours of service. The kinds of staff include librarians and other professionals, support staff, clerks and students to provide services at different levels. The proportions of each group are determined by the programs supported and the locations served. It is important to establish some guidelines of staffing to ensure adequate coverage in the first place and to establish a basis for planning and financing. Crucial to this is the formulation of valid and reliable staffing criteria based on the classification of both professional and non-professional positions and determination of the number and grade of positions required in relation to size and nature of clientele. This could also serve as basis for setting salary schedules and standards. A third issue in staffing is the actual selection of staff whereby good staff selection is essential for effective library service just as it is for effective teaching and research. Therefore for all positions it is desirable to have a description of [page 31↓]duties as well as qualifications. This will facilitate selection of staffing with appropriate education, professional training and appropriate experience.
In an attempt to clarify staffing patterns in libraries, the American Library Association created a statement that attempts to recommend categories of library personnel and levels of training and education appropriate to the preparation of personnel for those categories which will support the highest standards of library service for all kinds of libraries and most effective use of the variety of skills and qualification needed to provide it.31 This statement recognises that skills other than those of librarianship may have important place in the provision of superior library service and that non-librarians must have equal recognition in both professional and support ranks.
Librarians need to keep abreast with the changes in library and information science as well as other disciplines. The staff and library administration have a joint responsibility for the development of skills and knowledge. For this to be possible the administration need to provide leadership, resources and management to foster co-operation in staff development to ensure that the library retains the skills needed to provide service to the university community at the proper level. The staff should contribute to meet the goal of keeping up-to-date by taking personal initiative to expand their own academic and professional knowledge.32
The management style should be geared towards creating an appropriate working environment for the library staff. As a service organisation, the library has interest in people as providers of service. An issue of concern here is to have appropriate policies that recognise the needs of librarians as professional workers in the field of information. Librarians need to be protected to ensure intellectual freedom in the matters of copyright, instruction and selection of materials. So as to exercise independent professional judgement, within rules, policies and codes governing professional conduct. They also [page 32↓]need to advance professionally by involvement in research and work of professional organizations as well as undertake consulting and professional tasks. Above all there is need for a provision within the organisation to find advancement within the library without necessarily having to undertake administrative and supervisory positions.
The library represents one of the largest cumulative capital investments on any campus and therefore it requires ongoing annual investment for it to retain its value and achieve its goals.33 Financial planning involves the process of identifying, costing and allocating revenue to the resources and activities that allow the objectives of the information service and its parent organisation to be achieved. At the macro level economic analysis can be achieved through the budget process while at the micro level, economic analysis can be used to determine the optimum use of staff and resources in order to achieve cost effectiveness.
All information service activities are subject to expenditure and revenues and must be accounted for in the budget and therefore for smooth operation of any productive institution, the budget is indispensable. It is a definite financial plan, a forecast of the means of putting the plan into effect, a current guide or a cost summary of operations and a basis for the formulation of future policy.34 In discussing budgetary requirements, we can distinguish entities such as capital expenditure and operating budget. Capital expenditure includes allocation for fixed assets such as new buildings, renovation, and installation of automated systems. It also includes budgetary provisions for maintenance, replacement, repair, and renovation and for investment in new and improved means of information access and delivery. On the other hand operational budget includes those [page 33↓]funds required to sustain all operations such as salaries, purchase of information materials, and maintenance and running of automated systems.
The librarian, who is responsible for the preparation of the library budget, must understand the budget process within the parent organisation so as to succeed in budget arguments. The librarian is concerned with establishing and maintaining satisfactory relations with officials responsible for academic, financial and business affairs, the sources of library funds, preparation and administration of the budget and with business procedures in general. The governing authority of the university is responsible for providing adequate library funds which may come from the government, the university, grants from agencies other than the government, gifts endowments and student fees. The government funds are rarely allocated directly to the library but are usually awarded in the university budget. At the same time funds may be given in the form of lump sum for the whole university or highly detailed schedules setting forth precisely how much is allocated for each purpose. The funds are usually awarded for a definite period such as the academic or fiscal year.
University funds are usually the largest single source of income for the library and allocations may be directly transferred to the library or directly to academic or research units. Direct allocation of library funds to the latter is not conducive to centralisation or co-ordination of library activities. In ordinary circumstances budgeted university or government funds must be spent within the budget period and unused funds reverted to budget source. Endowment and gifts may be general and unrestricted in which case current income from them may be used for a variety of purposes including library development. These may come from a variety of sources outside the university or the government such as private foundations, individuals and international agencies.
Depending on the organisation and control of the university and the sources of its income, the university librarian may have to deal with government officials, university governing authorities, heads of faculties, school and university business officials. In a state-controlled university the librarian does not directly deal with the government but may nevertheless be required to provide supporting data to government budget officials, auditors, inspectors and other government officials. Within the university, the librarian is [page 34↓]expected to be in good relationship with one or more officials depending on whether budgeting is centralised or decentralised. In the first case he may present his budget directly to the director or his designed representative for library affairs. After the budget is determined, the librarian will be required to deal with the business office in regard to purchasing and related procedures. One also has to deal with deans, directors and heads of departments in regard to the selection of materials for acquisition. It has been suggested that the library must be responsible for its internal allocation and control of the approved budget. As long as there is a provision for appropriate consultation and transactions are carried out in accordance with the accounting practices of the university, this autonomy will make it possible for the library to operate without undue constraint.
Standards are important in helping the library and university administration in determining and evaluating as well as optimising performance of the library in terms of the mission of the university.35 The key role of the university library is to provide information service in support of teaching, research and public service of the university. The achievement of this mission requires the development of standards to address the ways, in which goals are to be developed and measured, needed resources estimated and success in goals evaluated. They set forth the process by which expectations may be established and indicate which topics are to be addressed in evaluation of the university library performance.
There exist various standards world over for objectives, funding, administration, space requirements, equipment, type and quantity of information materials as well as service provision in university libraries. For example literature on German librarianship is abound with explicit and detailed recommendations and guidelines for standards as well as legislation relating to financial, staffing and accommodation requirements and for provision of equipment and nature and size of stockholdings to various documents expressing expert opinion as well as guidelines for library development which although [page 35↓]are not legally binding have been useful in planning and managing libraries. Plassmann and others have extensively discussed the various documents dealing with considerations for library development in Germany such as the Bibliotheksplan ’73, and Bibliotheken ’93 36, and their conclusion is that these recommendations have heavily contributed to giving German librarianship a sense of direction since 1960s and that the conducive conditions under which university libraries in Germany have thrived is linked to these sustained efforts to keep standards at the centre of library debate.37
In the U.S.A various statements on library standards have been issued by various library organizations such as the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL).38 These statements provide clear guidelines for determining priorities and evaluating the performance of university libraries in terms of the mission of the university. While most documents are non-prescriptive and do not offer mandatory expectations, they set forth the process by which these expectations can be established and the crucial issues to be considered such as budgetary support, equipment, human resources, collections, building resources and services provided.
In the developed countries there is an ever-present awareness that libraries are an imperative infrastructure for the development of knowledge and well being of the society. For example libraries have received very close attention with vigorous programs to support their development by the E.U Commission among the member states.39
In conclusion therefore it should be noted that the relevance of legislation and setting of standards in the area of library and information services should be not underestimated. In order to fulfil their objectives, libraries require rules and regulations. These consist of [page 36↓]regulations governing issues such as purchase, registration and use, and preservation as well as well-laid down rules to govern the everyday functioning of the library.
It has been observed that operational facilities and physical setting of information and library services have a significant effect on the quality of services and therefore represent an important part of the resource management responsibilities of all information professionals.40 At the bottom line, a library should be housed in a building adequate to its role in the university and should reflect coherent planning effort. This means that the space should be adequate to house collections, staff, space for study and research and space for associated processing and public service functions. It is important to bear in mind that the successful library building is one which clearly and directly expresses and provides for the functions that are performed in it. Therefore the university library is a complex and specialised structure and its construction and equipping require thorough understanding of library functions and requirements. Basic issues in library operations are purchasing, cataloguing, reading, accessing, retrieving and preservation and in designing a successful library building full attention has to be paid to these functions. In other words it is important to investigate every department of the library, understand every step of the work and create good conditions of lighting, ventilation, floor, painting and easy use by readers and librarians.41
A number of factors have been cited as affecting library buildings. This include:
The library building has also been viewed as one of the most enduring, most used and socially inclusive institutions in modern society where people not only learn but also interact and therefore the need for its design to emphasize people-centred orientation and their use of collections, information technology, services and also the dynamic and evolving relationship between these elements.43
One of the approaches to fulfilling the expectations of library buildings is what Plassmann has referred to as “flexibility as a building principle and the intermingling of readers and book space as normative structural principle” which entails creating an atmosphere of warmth, hospitality and privacy, open access to all the library holdings and cutting down fixed structural boundaries between books, readers, and circulation and administration.44 Flexibility emphasizes the notion of adaptability which implies issues such as a layout, structure and services which are easy to adapt for example floor loading sufficient for book stacks and reader services through out the building, and distribution of space to facilitate present or future installation of telecommunications infrastructure to support the variety of services that depend on electronic delivery of information throughout the building. The idea of intermingling of books, readers, circulation and administration emphasises the principle of openness, which provides readers with the [page 38↓]most freedom, convenience and ease in obtaining knowledge.45 This can be achieved through placing all reading areas in positions that can be seen and reached, reading areas with open stacks which creates a convenient access to reading materials, consideration for the disabled people
The second approach is whereby the choice of the physical set-up of the library is made in terms of its anticipated use tampered by efficiency and environmental friendliness. This entails a number of issues which include consideration of advances in electronic age, transmission and retrieval of information catering for present activities yet being adaptable enough to future changes in the requirements of the library service, saving on space including centralisation in one building as opposed to dispersal among several faculties, departments and colleges. The emphasis is an effort to minimise running and maintenance costs, delivering value for money and conforming to environmental policies and standards.46
A third principle is that of multi-functionalism in which the orientation of the library building is carefully balanced to accommodate the range of library and related functions as well as methods of service delivery. For example the library has lately been involved in teaching of information literacy and therefore apart from staff working and service provision, administration and reading areas, it requires lecture halls or exhibition halls for meetings, lectures, special seminars and information workshops. Another example is that besides traditional books in print form, the library also provides audio-visual materials, electronic products and Internet services. There could be multimedia rooms with the appropriate equipment to provide the services related to these techniques.
Appropriate and sustainable collection management is one of the key issues in the development of a university library and information system. This includes the purchase of new materials (acquisition), deselecting (weeding) and providing access to other collections outside the campus through resource sharing and co-operation. The primary goal is to select, organise and provide access to all varieties of information for users. Therefore the library should select and acquire materials in all formats to the level required to support academic programs, research and teaching.
A number of factors have been singled out as determining the selection and acquisition policy. Foremost is the size of the university and geographical location of its faculties, which may require a degree of duplication in the purchase of individual titles as well as availing more Internet connection points so that clients can access information from the information superhighway. A university with a large enrolment is likely to have large faculty and a high variety of courses with many areas of specialisation, each of which will have its own library needs. On the other hand a small institution with more limited programmes will have fewer subject courses. Each curriculum requires its own books and journals. It should be noted that lecture-textbook courses make the smallest demand on the library unless the students are also required to write many reports. Seminars, tutorials and other teaching methods, which require extensive individual study and written work of students, call for rich library collections. Graduate studies and research also demand extensive collections of secondary as well as primary source materials.
Secondly, the anticipated future development plans of the university can also affect book selection and acquisition directly. For example a plan for gradual addition of new faculties or schools over a period of years with provisions for building library collections can give a sense of direction to a library buying programme. It also provides the library with an opportunity to make selections and purchase in an orderly and discriminative way.
The degree of financial support that can be provided to the library is also crucial to the selection and acquisition policy. While it is the goal of collection development to meet the information needs of the university community, this is not usually realised due to financial constraints, the diversity of user information needs, and the vast amount of information available. Ideally expenditures for library materials should be large enough to provide for adequate materials for every research or study programme that is sponsored by the university. If the university does not receive adequate funds for its purpose, the library may be compelled to curtail some of its crucial teaching and research materials acquisition activities and defer the introduction of new programmes. This has a direct bearing on the activities of the university.
On the operational level, book selection and acquisition is determined first by the official statement of policy, which explains the manner in which the library is to go about the business of collection development. It addresses questions such as what should be the policy of the university regarding foreign books, purchase of rare books, research materials, and use of information technology in accessing information. The policy should ensure that library collection consist of well-balanced stock of among others general materials, books, journals, newspapers, government publications, pamphlets and suitably selected reference works. It should address the application of modern information technology such as use networks, online catalogues and Internet to satisfy the information needs of the university community. Secondly, it also depends upon the type and range of teaching or research that the institution wishes to provide. It is also true that the coverage of a discipline by a library requires an over-spill of provision into other related areas.47
The library’s primary task is to select, maintain, and provide access to relevant and representative information sources. In order to facilitate this many authors agree on the need to have a written collection development policy.48 The primary function of a [page 41↓]collection development policy is to provide guidance to staff when selecting and deselecting resources for the local collection. In this case it serves as a guideline for each of the stages of materials handling such as selection, acquisition, processing, housing weeding, retention, preservation, relegation and discarding of all types of library materials. This reduces personal bias by setting individual selection decisions in the context of the aims of collection building practice. It also clarifies the purpose and scope of local collections, allows selection decisions to be evaluated, which reduces the need of selectors to raise recurrent questions, as well as assists in the training of new staff.49
A policy document provides a sound foundation for future planning, thereby assisting in determining priorities, especially when financial resources are limited. This provides a basis for the fair allocation of resources, and in accounting for library funds by explaining the rationale behind acquisition activities. Having a formal publication to refer to ensures continuity and avoids confusion.50 The stated aims also help other collection related activities such as cataloguing, preservation and storage to form a coherent strategy, for example by identifying areas in need of de-selection, or more suitable for interlibrary loan.
Formal policy statements can be useful in making the case for the library when dealing with its users, administrators and funding bodies. They support the stated objectives of the organisation, demonstrating accountability and commitment to agreed goals. The compilation of the statement involves the participation of both users and administrators hence improving communication between the library and its clientele. It serves as a contract with library users, which demonstrates to individuals within the institution what they can expect of the library both in terms of collections and of the service.51 Therefore the collection development policy acts as a public relations tool for the library to its sponsors and other stakeholders.
Selection is at the heart of the collection development process. In his classic, McColvin argued that book selection and acquisition is the first task of librarianship in that it precedes all other processes such as cataloguing, classification, or administration. No matter how thorough and efficient the rest of the work may be, the ultimate value of a library depends upon the way in which the stock has been selected.52 To be effective the library must provide books and other materials that are appropriate to the teaching and research requirements of the university. The principle of appropriateness implies that selection is planned with well-defined policies and procedures, indicating the depth and breadth of the collection. It is the responsibility of the university librarian to ensure that the right books, periodicals and other sources are being added to the library. However selection is a co-operative affair involving the library staff, the faculty and to a degree as already noted, the students. Therefore the library must develop close working relationship with the teaching staff and readers should be encouraged to make recommendations for additions to the collection as a way of making the library discover deficiencies that ought to be attended.
Effective management of a library collection requires a well planned and ongoing weeding programme whose rationale is the need for periodic or continuous assessment of resources intended to remove items that are no longer useful from the collection and ensure that what is kept in the collection is useful and accessible.53In line with this notion, weeding has been defined as the process of removing material from the open shelves of a library by re-assessing their value in terms of the current needs.54 The removal of materials can be through relegation (materials are removed from the open shelves or from easy access and stored in stacks or some remote location), discarding [page 43↓](materials are removed from records and destroyed) or through transference of the ownership of the material through sale or donation.
One of the justifications for weeding of library resources is limitation on the space available to house print collections. However according to Gorman, while it is necessary to go through the collection on a regular basis and to weed material to make room or other material, this should not be regarded as the only reason for weeding.55 Other reasons for weeding of library collections include the fact that the material and information may be out of date, deteriorated physically, better editions of a specific title may be available or the institutional objectives may have changed and therefore the need for the collection to change over time to reflect changes in the user community and library goals. Above all when libraries do not weed regularly or consistently, customers have trouble finding relevant materials and therefore removing outdated or worn out items makes the collection not only more visually attractive and more inviting to users but also the library is able to supply information that is easy to find and up-to-date.56
Therefore the ultimate aim of weeding must be to increase accessibility, to improve efficiency and to reduce cost and hence the criteria of doing it should be essentially those that are used in the selection process and whose emphasis is on qualitative judgement rather than quantitative considerations.57 According to Reed-Scott, an effective weeding programme must be closely linked to the library’s mission, goals and programmes, the users served by the library, its limitations, the characteristics of its collections as well as the academic programmes of the parent institutions in the case of university libraries.58 However she concedes that at the end of the day this programme will be a compromise between the in-depth review of the collections that would be done under ideal [page 44↓]circumstances and the more limited assessment of priority areas that promise immediate results such as increased space and enhanced browsability.59
Over time two main approaches to library collection weeding have emerged namely: the value/quality approach and the “self-renewing” library approach. The value /quality approach is based on weeding of materials depending on factors such as relevance to the curriculum, historical importance, availability of the information in other editions or in more current works on the subject, age of the work, its citations in standard bibliographies and indexing or abstracting journals and the frequency of use.60 The most critical and perhaps the most difficult part is how to determine the continued value of the item.61 The concept of the self-renewing library is based on ensuring that a library does not grow beyond a particular size by balancing its acquisition with withdrawal of obsolete or unconsulted material each year.62 The main concept in this approach is that a library of a certain size should maintain itself at very close to that size by discarding each year as much materials as it takes in. However this approach has been criticised in that it ignores the fact that in the case of universities, research and learning needs continue to change and that if pursued to the extreme can lead to discarding of materials that may later be in great demand. The positive thing about the approach is that it underlines the view of a library as an active service facility whose sole vision of a collection is to satisfy users not the number of books in it.
The debate on how to go about library collection weeding is far from concluded. However there seems to be agreement that the criteria for weeding should consider factors such as:
Basically, libraries are involved in collecting and preserving the records of the ‘past’-where ‘past’ is used as a relative term ranging from very distant past to the very recent. Preservation here refers to all management activities including storage and accommodation provisions, staffing levels, policies, techniques and methods involved in library materials and the information contained in them.63 The rationale for preservation is that if materials are allowed to deteriorate then it becomes difficult and finally impossible to use them or access the information they contain. Therefore preservation has been identified as one of the main library management functions and according to Clarkson it is inseparable from the work of building, maintaining and using all library collections.64
Almost all library physical materials deteriorate by losing quality, which decreases their ability to carry out their intended functions as a result of some inherent instability in the material itself or action external to it. Since most materials are organic in nature, they deteriorate because the molecules from which they are built up of breakdown into simpler molecules through a natural process, which can only be slowed down but not stopped. For example paper decays rapidly because of its inherent unstable chemical [page 46↓]structure and this deterioration is speeded up if it is exposed to radiant energy such as heat and ultraviolet light. Materials used in modern book production; leather, cloth, paper, and thread all have chemical properties whose interaction and reaction to paper may increase the rate of deterioration.
Library materials also deteriorate through human activities. One of these is increased use of library materials in cases where more people chase fewer materials with the result of rapid deterioration in the physical condition of the collections. Others include poor handling, abuses such as burning, looting, vandalism and theft.
By far environmental factors account for the greatest level of deterioration of library materials. When both humidity and temperature in the library are high they speed up the rate at which chemical reaction takes place, which increases the rate of deterioration. They also encourage the growth of biological agents such as moulds and fungi, which damage materials. As water evaporates its absence causes brittleness in paper, leather and some plastics. Damage also occurs in library materials when they are exposed to direct sunlight, fluorescent light and ultraviolet light. For example too much light speeds up the rate of oxidation and hastens chemical breakdown, it bleaches paper and ink and causes the fading of images. Closely related to these are the environmental hazards and disasters such as air pollution, dust and dirt particles, floods, fires and earthquakes. All these lead to both deterioration and in cases of severe environmental disasters, to destruction of large amounts of library materials.
There are several approaches to preservation of library materials. However, in this case an overview of three main approaches is made. One of the approaches is through preventive approach, which encompasses all those actions, which have effect of preventing deterioration of library materials from the time they are added to the collection. According to Banks, preventive preservation includes safe housing and proper handling of materials and includes provision of optimum environmental conditions, the provision of adequate stack space and suitable storage containers, training programmes for staff to ensure that the materials are handled in ways that prevent wear and tear, establishment and enforcement of use regulations to prevent damage to holdings during [page 47↓]consultation, organisation and participation in co-operation in preservation, microfilming projects, and in disaster planning.65
Another approach is preservation of the intellectual content of materials by putting it in another, more durable physical format through activities such as microfilming, photocopying, and digitisation into optical discs such as CD-ROMs and magnetic media. A third method is that of preserving the artefacts such as books through making minor or regular repairs on materials through binding and rebinding.
The underlying goal of the library is to provide services to the university community and indeed all other activities in the library are geared towards the program of service and their effectiveness should be measured in terms of meeting user needs. The ways in which information is selected, stored and retrieved and disseminated within the university will affect the level and the success of teaching, scholarship and research. Therefore the university requires clear policies concerning access to and provision of information. In considering service delivery we have to consider the two most critical issues of access and information literacy.
Libraries are partners with departments of the university in meeting the teaching and research commitments of the university. They facilitate the identification and access of information regardless of format in support of the university’s teaching and research, guided by an ongoing assessment of the information needs of the libraries’ primary user population. For example faculty, researchers and postgraduate students rely on the library for awareness of developments in different research fields and for identification of potential research fields. Therefore the library program should ensure optimal access to its own collections and needed resources elsewhere by developing appropriate policies [page 48↓]and procedures. For this to be possible there is need to establish user profiles and proactive selective dissemination of information services based on concrete awareness of user needs.66 A more basic approach is the analysis of the university curricula in relation to the required academic support material ranging from textbooks to the current published materials or suitable Internet sites on given topics. This calls for a proactive library personnel and establishment of university system that facilitates their participation in the process of curriculum analysis and review. The role of the library personnel in the analysis stage is to search, identify and expose available and accessible academic support materials relevant to the courses.67
For purposes of daily access to information, the library cannot operate without a set of rules and regulations but these should ensure that the library and its collections are open to users. The goal is to make library resources accessible to all members of the institutional community in accordance with the needs and with regard for preservation of materials, compliance with legal requirements such as copyright and the right to personal privacy. Promoting access will also require availing appropriate bibliographic tools such as easy to use catalogues, indexes and abstracts. These tools, whether manual or electronic should be comprehensive, current and adhere to national and international standards. The physical collections should also be systematically arranged using a readily understandable classification scheme. For Internet sources, the library should facilitate access through identifying suitable sources and creating electronic links to them.
The ability of students to obtain and critically evaluate information as well as the skill of self-directed learning has been cited as critical in university education.68 This can be achieved through information literacy activities of the library aimed at helping individuals acquire skills of livelong learning. Information literacy can be defined as the ability to locate, evaluate, manage and use information from a range of sources for [page 49↓]problem solving, decision-making and research.69 In order to facilitate efficient use of available information the library personnel need to train customers at various levels of skill development to empower them for self-sufficiency in accessing and exploitation of both print and electronic resources and integrate the various information sources in the production of knowledge. The case for information literacy programmes is even stronger for undergraduates who enter the university with limited experience and information skills. This is best done through teaching the identification, structure, intellectual access and the physical access of information, information sources and information systems through the design of instructional programmes and services which include teaching by personal contact and through the preparation and use of instructional materials in various approaches such as group instruction, reference service library, orientation and library instruction.
Marketing has been defined as the systematic orientation of all operational functions including processing, production, storage, and sales to the customer needs. It embraces not only the satisfaction of demand but also the creation and awakening of new and increasing the existing demand. According to Kotler marketing is, “a managerial process of analysing market opportunities and choosing market positions, programmes and controls that create and support viable businesses that serve the organisation’s purposes and objectives.”70 He has also defined marketing as the “analysis, planning, implementation, and control of carefully formulated programmes designed to bring about voluntary exchanges with target markets for the purpose of achieving organisational [page 50↓]objectives.”71 Therefore it relies heavily on designing the organisation’s offering in terms of the target market needs and desires and on using effective pricing, communication and distribution to inform, motivate and service the market.72 These definitions underscore the emerging focus on how the library interacts with its community, target population or customers and encompasses the key steps of effective marketing which requires that first, the library identify its objectives and secondly, identify its target market, study it to identify its real needs and wants, and finally develop products and services aimed at this market based on the real needs and wants of the users. In this case the library has to become a market-oriented organisation, which focuses on the needs of customers and wants so as to fulfil them to the highest level of satisfaction through creation and delivery of appropriate service.
Traditionally, libraries have not marketed their products or services because they have felt there is a basic human need for information and as Borchardt has observed it is only in the last five to ten years that appreciation and understanding of the necessity of marketing concept has developed in library circles.73 He has further argued that in librarianship it is common to equate marketing with terms like publicity, advertising and public relations. According to Booth, libraries have in the past tried to convince individuals to use library resources because they are inherently good for them.74However every organisation has its market, that is to say that the group of existing and potential users of its goods and services and as such relationship with the market is an important ingredient of corporate planning and policy making.75 For the library, public is not just the active library users but also the total population of the surrounding area or the community in which the library exists.76For every library, communication with its public has become more than before highly ranked and according to Plassmann has great [page 51↓]and lasting implications on acquisition, collection development, and use of the library and information services.77
Communication finds expression in various forms including contacting the public and maintaining that contact by way of making the public aware of available services. In business terms this refers to marketing. Regardless of the type of library, the need to develop customer-centred services and strategic marketing is now part of the vocabulary of effective library management.
The relevance of marketing has been discussed widely in literature. According to Leisner, the basis for library marketing is the need first to enhance the quality of services, and secondly to improve the perceived value of these services and thus achieve the highest level of customer satisfaction which ensures survival of the organisation.78 In explaining the relationship between these issues, he has noted that the need for profit or increased funding could be a result but that alone is not a reason to implement a marketing programme, rather it follows that increased customer satisfaction will result in willingness to use and pay for services offered. An enhanced perception of value of the library will result in increased support and usage, which are necessary for its continued survival and existence.79
Wiegand has proposed four reasons why marketing is imperative for library effectiveness: drop in library support, increased competition, changing customer expectations and rapid change in information technology.80 She argues that financial support for libraries was in the past assumed by librarians because of the view that libraries had an inherent value but today like in any other sector, funding and other forms [page 52↓]of support need to be earned, based on the proven quality and value of service to customers. This means that the library must be both active and proactive instead of passively relying on the goodwill of others. Unlike in the past the library is one among many sources of information. Many of the services provided by the library are also available through other information agencies. This calls for the need for the library to consolidate its position in the midst of the prevailing competition. Customers normally gauge the usefulness of a library by past experiences and an awareness of the quality and types of services on offer and therefore what the customers know about the library, the kind of communication done with them, their past experiences on library use, their level of education and the quality of interaction with library staff are all issues relevant that will determine how far the service measures up to customer expectation. Critical to the quality of services therefore is not only ease of access, pleasant physical environment, scope and currency of collections but also how far the customers feel that the library is responsive to their needs and convenience and this is what underlies the concept of marketing.
To fulfil the marketing goal it is important to use the appropriate marketing tools of product creation, pricing and distribution. The commercial world has for a long time concentrated on the operational activities and the market demand for their customers. The operational aim is serving and satisfying actual and potential customer demand in the best way possible so as to successfully secure the market. Similar developments have been witnessed in the last two decades in library thinking, however like it is in the case of other not-for-profit organisations, library marketing focuses mainly on services, whereas profit organisations focuss on products. The difference between the two as seen by Ashcroft and Hoc is that services are mainly dependent on satisfied customers telling others about the institution while products depend more on advertising.81 Customers evaluate their use of the library based on their personal experience while using the library services and this calls for appropriate approaches in marketing the services and personal public relations by the library personnel. These involves a marketing plan with three [page 53↓]basic steps namely: identifying targeted user groups and specifying their unique needs, developing marketing strategies to meet those needs, planning and executing the marketing process and finally carrying out ongoing evaluation of the marketing process.
Identification of distinct user groups also referred to as market segmentation involves the specification of the different user categories that are served by the library. In the case of a university library these include faculty staff and students in different subject areas, as well as researchers and graduate students. The key question is what information each group needs. Through marketing research strategies, which include informal and formal surveys, focus groups and internal library statistic, data is collected on the users’ awareness and attitude to the library service, customer satisfaction levels, and the major strengths and weaknesses of the library in terms of staff, resources, programmes and facilities.82 This marks departure from promotion of existing service towards a package of services designed to meet the various target groups in the university such as academics, researchers, and undergraduate as well as postgraduate students. Studying the organisation and users helps create appropriate library services and programmes as well as guide the planning of the right marketing strategy.83
There are various approaches to collecting information on these issues such as image analysis, SWOT analysis and customer satisfaction studies. Image analysis helps to determine the library’s image to the university authorities and various categories of users by measuring the perceptions held by particular user groups and the way they perceive the services offered.84 The different categories of users are surveyed in order to determine their attitudes, awareness, interests and desires in terms of the services provided. SWOT analysis and customer satisfaction studies provide evidence whether academic staff and students are satisfied by the current services and can be used to evaluate the services of [page 54↓]the library as a whole or individual services or components of those services.85 Both methods are useful in the university library setting in revealing the quality of services and the users’ perception of the whole or individual services offered by the library service such as opening hours, quality of collections, lending procedures, study facilities, reference services, and information literacy and can be a good basis for restructuring operations, human resource planning and to arguing for maintaining or increasing existing levels of funding depending on whether the results are positive or negative.
The development of an effective marketing strategy requires the specification of the marketing mix which incorporates the four “Ps” of marketing: product, price, promotion and place and according to Lee, it is “...the blue print for the development, implementation and evaluation of specific services and initiatives”.86 Efforts have been made to explain what implication the four “Ps” of marketing; product, price, promotion and place have on library marketing. Product can refer to the tangible goods and services offered by the library such as a reference service, selective dissemination of information or library instruction courses. Place includes consideration of the services and resources the library provides in relation to the efforts to make them available to target user groups. In the latter case a number of issues can be examined including location of the service, forms of access e.g. remote, web-based, number of copies of print sources. Discussions of library marketing initiatives often omit the price but this is a critical component especially today when users have to pay in monetary terms for the services they receive. It can also be considered in terms of “implicit price” imposed by libraries in terms of barriers to effective use and which costs the users time. Promotion includes all the activities undertaken by the library to communicate its resources and services to the target user groups through advertising, public relations and direct selling. The benefits accruing [page 55↓]for the library from promotion activities include increased library usage, increased value in the organisation, better awareness on the part of users and a changed perception.87
Public relations and advertisement are critical for the image of the library. Public relations imply efforts to win the total confidence of customers while advertising is geared towards bringing to the attention of customers of specific services. Through systematic use of PR, the library can gain the support of the community. This includes several methods such as advertising, corporate image, contact relationships, information presswork, annual reports, friends and user circles. In order to successfully promote the true value of library services and products the librarian must move outside the library and become a personal advocate for the library as a way of creating a personal relationship between potential customers and the professional service providers.
The final step in the marketing process is evaluation, which measures the outcomes of marketing strategies, and provides feedback into the marketing process for future marketing initiatives. Evaluation can be done on two levels of evaluation: program monitoring as the marketing campaign progresses and a final evaluation when it is complete.88 In either case, evaluation should address question whether the marketing programme met its goal, its strengths or weaknesses and above all whether it has resulted in improved library services to the various user segments.
Performance measurement and evaluation are important management activities in that they facilitate assessment of how the information service is performing and provide a means of accountability to the stakeholders. This has been defined as “the process by which the information service determines whether it is on course towards the achievement of the parent organisations’ objectives and therefore at the centre is the issue of quality of service which includes reliability, competence, responsiveness, [page 56↓]understanding, security, access, and credibility.89 It involves the collection of statistical and other data describing the performance of the library and analysis of these data in order to evaluate the performance.90 According to Abbott, a number of reasons can be cited as making performance measurement in library and information services very critical:
In this case performance indicators are decision support tools which can help managers among others to understand what the library is achieving, monitor library’s progress, gauge efficiency and take decisions about future management of the service based on hard information of past performance rather than intuition. The process entails first, the development of specific objectives, and the establishment of performance indicators to measure progress, secondly, the establishment of an appropriate evaluation process, thirdly, measuring and evaluating the performance, and finally, adopting procedures for acting upon the outcomes and recommendations of the evaluation.92 The specific objectives define the intended level and quality of service, the outcomes to be achieved and the time frame and resources available to achieve the outcomes. The timing and the format of the evaluation depends on whether the management is evaluating the continuous performance of the library service as a whole or each of the work units or a [page 57↓]specific project or aspect of the service. Of importance is that action should be initiated in response to any findings or recommendations that arise out of the evaluation.
Bryson has come up with a number of sets of indicators for measuring performance: outputs and outcomes, and quality and value.93 Outputs refer basically to what the information service is able to accomplish in a specified amount of time and with particular amount of resources. Therefore outputs provide a measure of cost-effectiveness and can be compared with inputs to measure efficiency and with the parent organisation objectives to measure effectiveness. On the other hand outcomes are the intended consequences of the information service activities as indicated by changes in circumstances and behaviour or needs that are satisfied? Therefore a customer’s ability to utilise the services offered by the information services to create further output is an outcome measure of its performance.94 All these can be assessed in four separate value measures. In the first place it’s the value of the service to the parent organisation in achieving its objectives and its level of competitiveness. Secondly we have to consider the perceived social value of the information service in improving the quality of life of individuals. The third factor is the perceived role of the service in providing information as a resource or commodity in creating or adding value to information products and services. Finally an important issue is the perceived economic value of information to different people. The quality of the service may be recognised by customers or stakeholders or service management but it is often difficult to apply concrete measures that can be directly attributed to the information service.
Quality and value as measures of performance are problematic in that many of the benefits of information are intangible and therefore difficult to prove in quantitative and qualitative terms. However Orr observes that the ultimate criterion for assessing the quality of a service is its capability for meeting the user (client) needs it is intending to serve, and that the value of a service must ultimately be judged in terms of the beneficial [page 58↓]effects accruing from its use as viewed by those who sustain the costs.95 If the service provides the necessary and timely information in an efficient manner that enables the parent organisation achieve its objectives, it will be perceived as being valuable by the authorities and will be supported. This support is reflected in the level of funding that the information service receives. Burk and Horton have suggested five ways in which the performance and value of information may be measured.96 They consider as important, first the quality of the information itself: accuracy, comprehensiveness, credibility and currency. Second is the quality of the information holdings in terms of accessibility, adaptability, ease of use and format. Third is the impact upon productivity such as greater returns, improvement in decision-making, more efficient operations and on organisational effectiveness, increased customer satisfaction, meeting goals and objectives. Even more important is the effectiveness in supporting the activity it was designed to support and the strategic importance of the information resource (or service) to the activities of the parent organisation.97
For more than twenty-five years, university libraries have been investing in information technology due to the awareness that to effectively and efficiently function in the face of increasing stock and variety of media, and provide services to an increasing number of users, they need up-to-date technical equipment. Therefore the fundamental motive behind the rapid adaptation of information technology is the desire for efficiency and rationalisation in distribution and management. Paper library has been seen to have serious limitations that make automated and electronic libraries a matter of necessity. For [page 59↓]example it is a strictly localised medium since the resource and the user must be in the same place at the same time and only one person can in general, use a single paper document at a time. Secondly, paper, as a medium is rather inflexible since no reformatting can be done, and finally collections on paper become bulky and create storage problems 98
One of the factors that have favoured application of Information Technology in libraries is the present technological trends characterised by improved performance by computers leading to computing power becoming extremely inexpensive, increasing ubiquity of telecommunications and very low cost data storage costs. Other favourable factors include decline in the price of personal computers, new forms of wide area networks using even virtual connections and availability of high density distribution media e.g. the CD-ROM. Library services are labour intensive and about two-thirds of library budget usually goes for labour and therefore since machines can be made more cost-effective in ways that human beings cannot, the use of machines is a viable alternative to increasing labour costs. In contrast, automation of library operations makes easy and less tedious the task of accurate updating of records in files, is likely to improve cost-effective performance by reducing the labour intensive activities and lead to increased effectiveness through decentralised access to records.99
Initial automation covered repetitive library processes such as cataloguing, circulation and the aims were to reduce the cost and improve the timeliness of these operations.100 One of the significant results of automation activities is that electronic data processing in libraries has greatly revolutionised library and information services across the world. It has eradicated time-consuming routine activities, improved the performance of operational activities, and facilitated the collection of useful statistics. Therefore the use of electronic processing systems has enabled libraries to reorganise their work and make them rationalised through the use of detailed statistics thereby being able to conduct user [page 60↓]studies and expand services. Through useful reports and more accurate information base more reasonable strategic and operational decision-making is possible.101
Online public catalogues with good data organisation and user guidance helps the user more accurately than paper catalogues in providing needed information and searches of all kinds are possible with better results while automated lending systems provide information to the user and the librarian on the location and lending status of a particular media and make it possible to renew or reserve it. Most other areas of library operation can also benefit from electronic data processing. These include collection building and budgeting, ordering and acquisition, journal administration, cataloguing and indexing.
As experience has shown, automation is not the panacea to all problems presented by the paper library. Although the automated library represents a significant improvement for those providing the service, it perpetuates some of the problems of the paper library. For example since collections are still in paper there is still need for a local collection, and the separation of documents from users. Issue of opening hours and competition for the use of copies of the same documents in the collection remain as much a problem in the automated library as paper library.102
The steady growth of digital information as a component of major research collections has had significant implications for college and research libraries. Libraries are currently burdened by the explosive growth of printed academic documents to digitise and also the great quantity of digital data published over the Internet to deal with. Many libraries have been creating or collecting digital information in a range of standards and the role of librarians has changed to include activities like developing web-based resources and [page 61↓]services as well as playing an active role in electronic publication, virtual teaching and learning.
The creation of digital libraries is dependent on the libraries’ ability to access the growing digitally published information through digital technology. The greatest advantage of this is that, digital libraries are available on 24-hour basis from anywhere in the world, offering flexible arrangements for students and scholars103. Though still in infancy, the creation of digital libraries is gaining momentum. In the area of electronic books, efforts have been done to transform books in print into digital form through efforts such as the ‘Gutenberg Project (USA) and the German Project (Deutsche Gutenberg Project). In the case of Germany, the German Research Community (Deutsche Forschung Gemeinschaft) has made it its aim to integrate electronic publication and information service into science and research through retrospective digitisation of relevant scientific research literature.104
The latest developments of digital libraries are the so-called virtual libraries, which come through networking through the Internet of local content into a common electronic databank. An example of this is the Karlsruher Virtuelle Katalog ( www.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/kvk.html) of the Karlsruhe University in Germany through which one can access catalogues of many universities in Germany and the world at large. Key to development of these virtual libraries is the access to telecommunication means of data transfer. This has been possible in the developed countries such as Germany due to liberalisation of telecommunications and electronic data transfer which has lowered costs and has led to greater innovation such as the use of fibre optics and satellite technology which are a prerequisite to participation of libraries in the information superhighway.
Endres and Fellner have argued that the notion of digital library embraces two related concepts: the digitisation of all media, which results in the electronic library and the ‘virtualisation’ of the library service, which leads to virtual libraries.105 Consequently [page 62↓]they see digital libraries as encompassing three issues namely, storage of text and images in electronic devices (electronic library), provision of library services to remote based customers (virtual library), and integration of library stock and services in an efficient and access through standard methods by use of intelligent systems.
According to Digital Library Federation (DLF):
„Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialised staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily available for use by defined community or set of communities“106
This is a comprehensive working definition because it enables us to understand the different issues encapsulated in the concept. While Digital libraries employ and display a variety of resources, especially the intellectual resources embodied in specialised staff, they need not be organised on the model of conventional libraries. Though the resources that digital libraries require functions similar to those within conventional libraries, they are in many ways different in kind. For example, for storage and retrieval, digital libraries are dependent almost exclusively on computer and electronic-network systems, and systems engineering skills, rather than the skills of traditional cataloguers and reference librarians. The notion that digital libraries “preserve the integrity of and ensure the persistence” of digital collections are critical in that these are and subject to the unique constrains and requirements of operating in a rapidly evolving electronic and network environment. The electronic technology is rapidly changing with software and hardware obsolescence, which has implications for organisational models and financial means. While presently there is a tendency to distinguish between collections in terms of their digitalness, the key question today and in the near future is how to integrate collections of materials in digital form with materials in other forms
The notion of making information “readily and economically available” underlines the need to develop criteria for measuring their performance in an evolving and highly [page 63↓]competitive environment. Two ways of measuring quality of service is to evaluate performance in terms of cost and taking account of how responsively the digital library makes information available to its patron communities. The last part of the definition “use by a defined community or set of communities” revolves around the fact that like other libraries, the digital library is a service organisation. Therefore the needs and interests of the communities they serve will ultimately determine the trend of development for digital libraries including the investment they make in content and technology.
It has been observed the phenomenon of digital library presents a new paradigm that challenges librarians to rethink their roles in the networked environment. This ranges from the centrality of some library functions such the selection and organisation of digital resources to the very usefulness of librarians in a digital era.107 The digital environment will require new models of executing the present library functions such as collaborative activity. Advances have been made in software that does a lot of what is being done by librarians. Sloan for example finds a striking lack of reference or librarians in the literature on digital libraries108 Instead, according to Sloan; the emphasis is on universal access to distributed information resources. Therefore the fundamental question is being asked whether the software is going to replace the librarian.109 Perhaps the answer to this question lies in the fact that although intelligent agents can be designed based on what reference librarians do, software cannot replace the personal assistance the user gets from personally interacting with the librarian. Particularly librarians assists users learn how to find and use technology-based information resources and tools, following through when the software fails and thus creating the vital human-to-human interaction that cannot be replicated by software. Indeed more human agents will be needed to help an ever-[page 64↓]growing population of computer users use expanding computational resources effectively”110
Therefore it appears that collaboration between librarians and information seekers will yield the best outcome in finding information. There is a rich potential for librarians to provide services within the digital library in which case the issue is not whether or not librarians have a role to play in the digital library but what is the best balance of digital library investments in information resources, people, and technology.111
Users’ expectations are also changing with exposure to automated services. Just as it happens with online bibliographical services, users expect print sources to be as quickly available. As the electronic library is more and more able to supply information needs, reliance on print collections and services is increasingly less attractive and demand for such will decline. Apart from this, as computer literacy becomes more and more the norm, preference will be for self service including renewing books online. This change of user expectations has profound implications for the library profession as well as the print library. While there might still be need to maintain quality of traditional library as digital library is being developed, there will be not be enough funds to run the two parallel systems and therefore reallocation of financial and personnel resources from print-based services to digital information will be inevitable.
One implication of all these changes is an urgent need for the traditional organisational set ups to be re-thought, and re-organised. Above all library staff must develop new expertise and build alliances and collaborative relationships with partners inside and outside the university. This is a basic requirement in meeting the challenge of investing in digital libraries that is part of the revolution in the scholarly and information environments in which libraries find themselves in the midst of.
In this new era, it is the responsibility of selectors to identify, evaluate, and designate Internet resources-particularly materials of research or of special importance to the local [page 65↓]university community either for cataloguing or simply for linking to a library’s various subject home pages which is of enormous value since home pages provide the academic community with points of reference and departure for finding information.
A major concern amidst today’s rapid technological change is how to make wise IT investments. Administrators, scholars and librarians have a common interest in ensuring that investments result in better access to information and improved services to users. A number of investments have been identified as likely not only to improve services but also lay foundation for subsequent changes. These include infrastructure and automation, investments in information literacy, collaboration, staff development, and design of collection development policies and procedures.
Investments in infrastructure improve users experience and provide capacity for future service improvements. The most basic investment is in creating and maintaining a viable campus network. Secondly there is need to lay down strong standards which facilitate the exchange of digital objects and tools. A distributed digital library requires community agreement on best practices so that access to distributed repositories appears seamless to the user and so that digital resources can be archived. Thirdly there is need to develop interfaces among campus systems and library systems which will support an exchange of administrative information, eliminating duplicate data entry.
Investing staff time in focussed collaboration between libraries and strategic partners to reduce duplication of effort, create a broader knowledge base and develop standards that are useful on long term. Hannel Rader, a pioneer in this field stresses the importance of developing partnerships between library staff and faculty. This requires a proactive approach whereby librarians spearhead the role of library resources in enhancing learning environments.112
People provide the values, energy, commitment and knowledge to ensure that the digital library meets research and teaching needs and therefore investments in other areas such [page 66↓]as hardware, software, networks and digital content has limited effectiveness if not accompanied by strategic investments in staff training. It is widely agreed that in the electronic information era library staff will still be needed to enable students and academic staff to effectively interact with information sources and therefore need training in areas such as electronic acquisition, electronic document delivery, and distributed systems and how to use them.113 The digital library is not just information—it is the services and tools that support learning and research and it requires the expertise of specialists across many organisational units in the university to create these services and tools. Thus, the digital library requires greater integration and involvement of librarians and information technologists in academic life particularly teaching and learning.
Collection policies and procedures must be created for local developers of virtual libraries and for co-operative virtual collection programmes just as they are for physical library collections. These policies will have to address the following issues among others. The first is the cost of these resources. There are questions that demand attention such as where does responsibility for funding reside? Is it with individual researchers and students or with the library? The second issue is that of the preferred format: CD-ROM, web or other online forms or print? Besides the library will have to undertake to publicise alternative formats to help create or shape new user needs in the information access and usage. 114
Adding digital format into the information collection, libraries will need to address the issue of information literacy as it applies in the electronic environment. This addresses competency in recognising information need, development of a search strategy-query formulation and selection of sources, evaluation, synthesis and effective use of the new [page 67↓]information.115 Libraries will need to be involved in teaching these classes through for example developing internet –based instruction modules.
Scholarly activity culminates in the communication to colleagues and students of results, observations and interpretations from one’s research in scholarly journals. In this case academic publication is a tool for the advancement of the state of knowledge within a domain, which provides the mechanism to assess the quality of contributions that individuals make to a discipline as well as a channel through which individual faculty demonstrate their worthiness for tenure, promotion, grants, and fellowships.116 For universities and colleges, which are at the centre of knowledge creation, it is critical as an instrument of certification, dissemination, indexing, and archiving of research and scholarship.117
The advent of new information technologies, and in particular the World-Wide Web, offers advantages in terms of rapidity of scientific and scholarly communication and access to information which has prompted the transition from publishing of journals in print to electronic formats. E-journals, unlike those in print have the advantages of speedy delivery, availability unlimited by time or geography and searching facilities. Text in electronic form is instantaneously transmittable thus removing the main impediments to resource sharing such as cost and inefficiency of interlibrary services based on print material. The transition to electronic journals also eliminates space requirement and makes it possible to publish materials for which print publication is inadequate such as three dimensional, graphic, moving simulations or animations or dynamic visual representations.
There has been much discussion in literature about the issues related to the development and use of e-journals but of focus here are those particular issues which affect service provision by university libraries and which have remained largely unresolved. These include cost, administration, access and archiving of e-journals. Journal costs has been the subject of much discussion in the library world for many years due to the continued increase in the percentage of the budget devoted to their subscription. With the advent of the electronic access, there was hope that electronic formats would be less expensive and prices would actually decrease after converting from print to electronic subscription.118 However the development of e-journal collections has turned out to be expensive both in terms of subscription and the staff resources needed to manage the process of acquisition, cataloguing and access as well as costs in training users and staff. While it has been argued that savings of upto70% are possible, publishers claim that savings for e publishing would not be more that 30%.119 Though a number of studies have been carried out to determine the savings accruing from transition to electronic journals, it has been observed that most of these journal analyses use subscription costs and ignore operational costs associated with a journal collection.120 For example, in a research carried out using data available in the Association of Research Libraries database, Odlyzko has concluded that operating costs are at least twice as high the acquisition expenses.121
One of the problems libraries face is the cost of e-journals whereby, in bid to protect their revenue from declining, some publishers link pricing to the print copy, whether one wants [page 69↓]to receive it or not.122 In an effort to stem the high prices associated with e-journal, librarians have attempted various solutions which include access instead of ownership which involves using documentary delivery services to provide articles on individual basis as needed instead of subscribing to a journal, acting in a consortium of libraries to access several electronic journals and creating and managing archives of journals for continued access.123While there is no conclusive evidence on many strategies proposed, Schäffler, discussing the case of library consortium in Bavaria, Germany, has reported significant price reduction in the case of consortium access.124
When all factors are put together, there is agreement that when printed journals are finally replaced with their electronic equivalents, the library can make savings in terms of subscription, human and other resources. For example the transition to electronic journals essentially eliminates space requirement and libraries will no longer have to shelve or bind their journals, or replace lost or damaged issues.125 The elimination of print versions will also reduce publishers’ costs, which if passed on to consumers will result in reduction of library costs.126
The transition to electronic journal presents fresh administrative challenges to librarians, which include how to carry out processes such as selection, acquisition, cataloguing, and indexing of contents. Libraries are required to acquire the right subscription information, successfully place orders, retrieve and download the texts, and provide readers with adequate access information. The increasing quantity of unfiltered electronic information has made it even more important to apply stringent standards to any publication before it is included in the library collection. At the same time, while the selection of print-based journals has been based on factors such as level of demand, suitability of journals to the institutional needs and impact factors based on the analysis of citation indexes and the [page 70↓]reputation of the publishers, in the case of e-journals other factors such as the format of files, the quality of delivery and price based on number of potential users, simultaneous users and contractual restrictions have to be considered.127
E-Journals are acquired under licences for using the material over a specified period of time and under stipulated conditions and therefore some of the key issues are to ensure that URLs remain valid and active, new information is added according to schedule announced by the publisher and that published materials remain available for a sufficiently extended period of time.
While one option of managing e-journals is to list them on the web page accessible in a database separate from the OPAC, cataloguing facilitates systematic and coherent access as well as integrates them into the rest of the library collection. Providing access to users by listing journals on Web pages is especially necessary for those libraries, which do not have a Web interface to their OPACs. At the same time, cataloguing of e-journals challenges existing rules since there is little uniformity in the presentation of e-journals, some publishers publish articles as they are received with the complete issue being compiled subsequently. Furthermore, apart from the fact that some publishers deposit articles into the database rather than maintain them as discrete back issues, which makes it impossible to know the first or the earliest issue of a title, there is a possibility of articles changing their content after cataloguing.128
There are a number of issues that libraries have to consider in relation to access: technology requirements, user restriction, access via publisher or aggregator, and making library patrons awareness of the online access.129 In relation to technology requirements it is to be noted that one of the stumbling blocks to the use of e-journals is the existence of several interfaces and delivery mechanisms with which the user may be required to [page 71↓]become familiar. Even though the Web has become the main method of access and PDF (Acrobat) as the dominant method of delivering full-text, the implementation of the features of the Web by different publishers varies considerably, with a variety of search options and navigational tools. Again multi media features are appearing in electronic articles such as sound or video clips, which require users to install appropriate software and hardware to access them.130
Most licences for electronic journals will allow access to bona fide members of the institution holding the licence. One of the methods of providing access while restricting the use of E-journals to members of the institution holding the licence is by use of the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the user’s computer or by issuing password(s) to the subscriber. While use of IP is convenient there is always need to establish the range of permitted IP addresses for the institution and changes notified to the publisher. Secondly, access by users will be restricted to their institutions and they will not be able to access a journal from home or office, which negates one of the main advantages of e-journals. While passwords overcome this problem, the library has to create a mechanism for issuing passwords only to authorised users, which ensures that they can get access to e-journals from any Internet terminal.
A decision has to be made whether to access full-text journals directly from publisher or through aggregators who conglomerate journals of several publishers under one interface and search system. The advantage of accessing journals directly from publishers is that of lower cost due to absence of intermediaries and value added features.131 However there are advantages of using aggregators or agents such as: first, they maintain up-to-date journal and price information and thus provide a single source of information on serials consistent with the needs of customers. Secondly, they provide infrastructure to access [page 72↓]electronic journals and alleviate the administrative workload of libraries such as, handling back issues, renewing old and processing and ordering new subscriptions.132
Keeping library patrons informed of online access is a challenge for libraries when so much full text information is becoming online. The primary means of access to these journals is creating records for them in the library catalogue and providing links from the library web page. There is also need to catalogue the journals so as to provide access by title, subject or author.
As electronic journals replace print journals in the scholarly communication, the issue of archiving and how libraries will guarantee access to them still remains unresolved. While some journals are housed locally, the majority are accessed via remote servers. Local storage gives the library greater control over its information and accessibility but it is costly in terms of development and storage. On the other hand, remote access such as supplier’s site removes the assurance of permanent access in the future.
Archiving of e-journals is far more complex than the preservation of print collections and there are technological, legal and organisational issues which have yet to be resolved. In terms of technology, preservation efforts have to cope with factors such as hardware obsolescence, software dependence as well as degeneration of the physical medium. This calls for measures such as ‘migration’- the periodic transfer of digital materials from one hardware or software configuration to another, or from one generation of computer technology to subsequent generation which both preserves the integrity of the digital objects and maintains the ability of clients to use them in spite of constantly changing technology.133
Publishers and vendors licence specific rights of use of a journal or a group of journals for a limited period of time and the terms of licence may exclude copying, distributing and storage for long-term use, which limits the libraries’ control of the information [page 73↓]materials. This raises questions relating legal issues such as the right of libraries to undertake archiving activity, access volumes already in the publishers’ archives and perpetual availability of journals even when the publisher goes out of business. However some publishers such as the John Hopkins Press permit university libraries within the terms of licensing to download and archive their publications134
Organisational issues that surround long term archiving include decisions about who should preserve and what should be preserved. Proposals have been suggested that publishers, aggregators or libraries undertake this task. According to Getz, aggregators have the advantage over both publishers and libraries since they are able to offer all available advantages of scale in managing electronic storage, optimising the use of networks for distribution, providing superior search interfaces and engines and taking steps to integrate materials from disparate sources into coherent whole.135
Libraries may be better able to control information and service if they engaged in archiving activities but they have to incur high costs of archiving and management of materials. However, since it is critical to libraries and their constituents that they ensure permanent archival access to information, especially if that information exists only in electronic form, they cannot rely solely on external providers to be their archival source. Therefore it has been suggested that agreements to procure e-information must include provisions to purchase and not just to lease or provide temporary access.136
Electronic information is being more and more used in scholarly communication and libraries have been engaged in incorporating e-journals into their collections. In this section some of the key issues that confront libraries worldwide in the transition from print to electronic formats have been discussed. However there are other basic but critical [page 74↓]factors to this transition in any particular institution. In the first place it is fundamental to have a proper infrastructure in the institution including a high speed and widespread computer network and Internet connections. Secondly there is need for a computer literate faculty and student body if the e-journal collection is to be effectively used. In the absence of this then there is need for training of users in basic computer literacy as well in information retrieval that will ensure that they can access electronic journals without difficult. Most important is a supportive administration that provides increased funding. This is essential for setting up networks, purchase of computers, training of staff and subscriptions to e-journals, especially in the initial stages when the library may be forced to purchase both the print and electronic formats. At the national level, the full realisation electronic scholarly communication requires the development of an adequate national telecommunications infrastructure that can facilitate the transfer of large quantities of data.
Distance education is practised in all parts all over and in recent years its scope has developed enormously and rapidly to become an intrinsic part of many national education systems and an academic discipline in its own right.137 Earlier distance education was dominated by correspondence courses but today institutions at all levels are providing instruction to remote and local users through the use of computers and the Web which has made it possible for teachers to provide their instruction to mass audiences at the same time. 138
Like other forms of education, the aims of distance education cover a wide spectrum, from the development of personality and cognitive structure through guided learning and problem solving, to training of knowledgeable and well-adapted professionals. This implies that distance education aims at more than merely conveying information or imparting knowledge. According to Rogers, like other forms of teaching, distance learning is geared to goals such as examination, self-realisation, or professional competence and therefore its aims should therefore include promoting productive and critical thinking.139
With the increasing popularity of distance education a lot of attention world-wide is being focussed on the role of libraries in supporting distance learning community whether on the campus or off campus. Questions are even being asked whether libraries have a role in distance education.140 Review of existing literature has tended to turn up dim prospects. For example, according to Beangle, a review he contacted of articles on the topic of distance education written by faculty revealed that only a few mentioned issues related to library access or resource integration.141 Searching in several databases, Roccos arrived at a rather pessimistic conclusion that there is almost no interest in the education field for studies about library resources. She notes that libraries are rarely noted in distance education courses and books, other than reference to online catalogues and electronic resources.142
Distance learning courses have been broadly categorised into two forms; the ‘self –contained course’ whereby students study from packaged materials and are not expected to read or consult sources beyond the supplied material and secondly the ‘expandable package’ wherethey study from packaged materials but where wider reading would be [page 76↓]recommended for certain sections of the course.143 The first type ‘self-contained’ course has been justified on grounds of equity, whereby some students may not have access and also on grounds that the academics should set the boundaries of study by choosing the necessary sources. However such arguments can be questioned on the grounds that they do not fully address the aspirations of the learners.
Stephens and Unwin have also documented ambivalent attitudes to the relationship existing between libraries and distance education and also arguments that first, the main motivation for academics to embrace distance learning is the power of market forces and secondly, that for both students and course providers, pragmatism outweighs pedagogic principles.144 In another research carried out in England, they observe a mismatch of expectations between students and course providers about the role of libraries in relation to courses delivered in distance learning mode. According to this research, while some course providers regarded the issue as irrelevant to their students, the students themselves felt the need to supplement the provided course material with additional reading.145
Some experts feel that there is need to find a balance between a market-driven approach and a commitment to the development of students who can operate as independent thinkers and researchers. According to the above-mentioned research, in spite of strong work or career-related motives, students do not wish their studies to be confined within a prescriptive framework.146 It argues that an approach that ignores the role of libraries in the learning process provides a narrow experience for the learners and fails to encourage the expected research led inquiry and is against one of the fundamental aims of university education of developing abilities for critical thinking. The obvious conclusion from this line of argument is that unless libraries are encouraged to play a central role in the learning process and supported in the effort, distance learners will face a future in which their experiences as learners are tightly bound and controlled and such an attempt not [page 77↓]only fails to give students vital skills of independent thinking but also has the potential to reduce providers of distance education to mere designers of pre-packaged programmed learning.
The guiding principle behind any library services for distance education is that access to adequate library services and resources is essential for the attainment of superior academic skills in post-secondary education, regardless of where students, faculty and programs are located. Distance learning students require access to the full range of library services, from reference assistance and bibliographic instruction to interlibrary loan, course reserves, and information network connections.147 Library research is an essential component of the academic learning experience and at the same time, lifelong learning skills through general bibliographic and information literacy instruction in academic libraries is a primary outcome of higher education.148 Therefore like in any other setting libraries should provide distance learners with the library resources and services that are required for successful completion of coursework, research papers and projects, and independent reading and research.
One of the challenges of distance-learning is that until very recently most library collections as well as services were designed for on-campus programs and therefore are not well suited for the needs of distance learning students. The very characteristics of distant locations of students demand for fresh ways to deliver services, based on constantly evolving technologies, new programs offerings, increasing enrolments and learner needs.149 In some cases traditional on-campus library services themselves cannot be stretched to meet the library needs of distance students and faculty who face unique challenges in library access and information delivery and therefore host institutions’ libraries have the primary responsibility for identifying, developing, co-ordinating, providing and assessing the value and effectiveness of resources and services, designed to [page 78↓]meet both the standard and the unique information and skills development needs of the distance learning community.150
Secondly, the provision of library services for distance education has implications for all aspects of library activities including administration, collection management, acquisitions, cataloguing, circulation, reference services, user education and also the use of information and communication technology. There is need to set up an infrastructure that integrates library services for distance education within the programme plans, re-assess funding with the idea of identifying, tracking and understanding the cost factors involved, re-allocating funds and using additional funding avenues besides the regular budget processes. There is also need to further assess the existing library support for distance learning, its availability, appropriateness, and effectiveness and develop methodologies and policies for the provision of library materials and services to distance learning community designed to ensure an equitable service to the off-campus population.
Another key issue in developing library services for distance education is putting in place personnel to manage and co-ordinate this services. This includes appropriate personnel such as the library co-ordinator to manage the services, subject specialists, additional professional staff in the institution as well as support staff from a variety of departments all who work together to provide this service. Therefore staff need to be re-allocated and trained for new responsibilities while issues such as extending library services to distant places even across national borders need to be dealt with.151
A number of issues relating to collection management also come into play. Those involved in collection development need to bear in mind the needs of distance learners. There is need for more funds for distance education library purchases of information resources as well as expertise in handling licensing agreements and negotiating electronic [page 79↓]purchases. Such funding should be related to the formally defined needs and demands of the distance learning community and be catered for in the institution’s budget layout.
The most challenging area is perhaps that of services. The library services offered to the distance learning community should be designed to meet effectively a wide range of informational, bibliographic, and user needs. Services necessary include reference assistance, information literacy, and computer based bibliographic and informational services. There is need for reliable, rapid and secure access to institutional and other networks including print and Internet based resources as well as consultancy services and a programme of library user instruction designed to instil independent and effective information literacy skills. The delivery of documents should be prompt and the library should carry out promotion of library services to distance learning community, including documented and updated policies, regulations, and procedures for systematic development and management of informational resources. This means that not only is there increased workload but also in electronic environment, training staff in the use of new technologies, such putting materials on the Web and handling electronic requests is necessary. The interlibrary loans in many cases is the first or even the only point of contact with many distant education students therefore it has to be worked out well together with an efficient document delivery.
Instructing distance education students on library use requires new methods of delivery such as use of videos, interactive Web-based tools and even video conferencing. It calls for a close working relationships with others such as IT persons for technical solutions and preparing documentation for electronic tools, and sometimes re-writing them to make sure that they are specific to distance education student needs. Indeed working out a working electronic system that among others takes account of the need for technical skills among the students, and restricted access is the greatest challenge.
Germany has a long tradition in education, science and research and the history of many higher education institutions extends back over many centuries. Following the destruction caused by the second world war, an education and research has evolved in Germany which, particularly after Germany unification is as extensive today as never been before. Germany university education is characterised by particular variety and versatility and at present there are over 255 state and state recognised higher education institutions of university status divided into three main categories.152
The traditional university concept in Germany dates back to Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835).153 His principle of the ‘indivisibility of research and teaching’ has prevailed [page 81↓]whereby Germany universities are not merely institutions, which provide education and training but are also places which independent, pure and applied research is pursued. In the traditional university pure education and science demands the students to engage in strict academic work. Consequently the length of studies is higher than in many other countries. For admission into this type of university requires students to have passed the Abitur an examination after 13 years of consecutive primary and secondary school education. These institutions award academic degrees of Diplom, Magister Artium, as well as doctorates, after four to six years depending on the field of study. They have also the right to confer Habilitation, the professional qualification to teach in a university and can qualify university professors. Such degrees, Magister Artium or Diploma are equivalent to British or American masters degrees. University faculties incorporate the following fields of study: medicine, science, engineering, arts and humanities, law, theology, economics and social science as well as agriculture and forestry. Examples of this type of universities are Karlsruhe, Tübigen, Humboldt University (Berlin) and Bremen.
Technical universities as the name suggests restrict their teaching to technical and engineering disciplines. Examples of these are Darmstadt and Clausthal. On the other hand the comprehensive university could be seen as a combination of the traditional concept of the university and other institutions such as a technical university, a Fachhochschule, and a college of art and music or even with a teacher training college. Therefore comprehensive universities combine engineering and science on both Universität and Fachhochschule level (i.e. theoretical and applied level) as well as arts and humanities. This is a relatively recent development dating back to the 1970s. They offer two types of degree programmes, which take a minimum of seven to nine semesters. The degrees awarded after completing the seven semesters is equivalent to that issued by Fachhochschule while those awarded for successful completion of nine semester programmes is identical to the traditional university degree and with it one can do a doctoral degree. Examples of these are comprehensive universities of Kassel, Essen, Paderborn, Duisburg, and Wuppertal
Germany has a number of universities, which focus on very specific subject areas such as the school of medical and veterinary science in Hanover, or the medical university in Lübeck as well as the Deutsche Sporthochschule (college of physical education) in Cologne.
The establishment of Fachholschulen is a result of the educational policy debates held in the 60s. The need to help Germany maintain its competitiveness in the international field led to increasing demand for better qualified personnel with the capacity to solve practical tasks quickly and successfully on the basis of academic training. This demand formed the starting point for the Fachhochschulen. Therefore the Fachhochschule have the task of providing students with practical training on academic or artistic basis. Degree programmes and teaching at Fachhochschulen are therefore strongly oriented towards vocational training and the practical requirements of working life.
Fachhochschulen were established on the basis of institutions, which in most cases earlier only offered professional training in individual subjects and with no particular academic claim; such institutions were for example engineering schools, or advanced business colleges. A decree issued by the Ministers of Education and Culture of the Federal States154 in 1969 and the Federal Framework Law on Higher Education, passed in 1976 raised the status of the Fachhochschulen to an equal standing with the universities and university-status institutions. Within the context of the laws passed by the federal states, the Fachhochschulen are also autonomous, meaning that freedom of teaching, research and academic self-administration are guaranteed rights.
The range of subjects offered by the Fachhochschulen comprises around 15 main subject areas, which in turn are also subdivided; engineering alone has 30 specialisations on offer. Other main subject areas are: business administration, industrial engineering, social [page 83↓]services studies, design studies, computer and information science, mathematics, archive, documentation and library studies, nutrition and household management, agricultural and forestry science, building restoration, navigation and nautical science, as well as translation and interpretation. By offering such a range of subjects, the Fachhochschulen have become a fundamental pillar of German higher education. Around 440,000 students of which more than 24,000 are foreign students now study at the Fachhochschulen.
This group is unique because it brings together institutions with artistic creation rather than academic work or academically based practical work. Admission to a college of art or music depends more on evidence of artistic ability and less on specific entrance qualification. At colleges of art the subjects of study include sculpture, stage design, glass blowing, the art of blacksmith, free graphics, applied graphics and painting. At the colleges of music all aspects of the discipline as well as in some colleges, the performing art (courses for singers, actors and dancers) are taught. The students in these institutions do either state examinations or college ones; state examinations are compulsory for those who want to become art and music teachers.
Since the revision of the Federal University Law in 1998, German universities have introduced Bachelor and Master Programmes along to the Anglo-American model. Today, a lot of German universities offer these study programmes, leading to an internationally recognised degree such as Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Science or master’s degrees. In this case it is only those with master’s degree who can pursue doctoral studies.
University libraries in Germany can be categorised more or less along the same lines as the university institutions. The libraries of universities, technical universities, comprehensive universities and other university status colleges are a relatively homogeneous group in terms of organisation and function. However they differ in terms of holdings, size of budget and number of staff. Like their parent organisations they have [page 84↓]different origins. Some of them started as university libraries right from the beginning for example the university of Göttingen University (1737), others were re-founded after the second world war such as Mainz and Saarbrücken while others were started as a result of the educational reform movement of the 60s and the 70s as there was a need to create universities to cater for large influx of young people seeking to study.155 Examples of the latter are Bochum, Dortmund, Bielefeld and Regensburg.
The basic objective and sphere of activity of university libraries is to identify and make available information and literature to the members of the university including teaching faculty, researchers and students. Simultaneously some act as ‘Stadtbibliothek’ or ‘Landesbibliothek’ (city or regional library) whereby they serve as library for the city or regional populations of the area they are situated. The third function, which is enshrined in the law, is that of participating in co-operative library activities. In this case some have been assigned specific subject areas in which to collect.156
The collection size differs from one library to another depending on factors such as its history and enrolment but range from several millions to a few thousands.157 University libraries such as those of Humboldt University, Berlin and the city and university library of Frankfurt (Main) have collections between 3-4 million volumes while those of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Jena and Tübingen have each between 2-3 million volumes. Most technical universities have about 1 million titles while those of specialised colleges such as education, philosophy and theology have between 100,000-500,000 volumes in their stock. These figures give only an idea of the great variety in size of collections.
The libraries of Fachhochschulen or the colleges of applied sciences are dated back to the 1970s when these institutions emerged. They differ from one another in the extent and character of subjects covered and size of their client populations (students, and teaching [page 85↓]staff). Those created through amalgamation of many independent establishments have large libraries with wide holdings between 100,000-500,000 volumes and about 1000 periodicals. The smaller ones have modest libraries without qualified staff and instead run by a lecturer entrusted with part-time management of the library. Libraries of Fachhochschulen are responsible strictly to acquire and make available specialist literature for the teaching staff and students. Therefore their duty, unlike those of universities does not extend beyond the colleges immediate teaching areas. However they carry out activities such as interlibrary loan service and allow outsiders to the college to consult materials in the library. Notably, they operate on open access systems and their holdings contain textbooks in the form of multiple copies.
The student population in colleges of art and music are mostly less than 1000 and so are the library collection sizes, mostly less than 100,000 volumes. This category also displays differences in themselves almost to the point that no tenable generalisations can be made. Their collections include books, photographs, slides, paintings, and collection of scores, music disks and tapes. Notably books play a limited role due to the nature of expression in both music and art.
The existence of libraries in Germany is seen as grounded in the very constitution of the country which guarantees personal freedom of the individual as well as the right to free opinion and expression in spoken word, written word, or image.158 Indeed the work of every library in Germany, irrespective of the sponsorship is regulated by a set of legislation, which determines the acquisition of materials, manner of library use, and the type of personnel and method of financing.159 Consequently, in German librarianship there exist explicit and detailed recommendations and guidelines for standards as well as [page 86↓]legislation relating to financial, staffing and accommodation requirements and for provision of equipment and nature and size of stockholdings. Notable examples are various documents dealing with considerations for library development such as the Bibliotheksplan ’73, and Bibliotheken ’93. These have contributed to giving German librarianship a sense of direction since 1960s and created conducive conditions under which university libraries in Germany have thrived. In addition there are various documents expressing expert opinion as well as guidelines for library development, which although not legally binding have been useful in planning and management of libraries. There exists national as well as regional laws that govern the functioning of libraries generally and university libraries in particular which are embedded in the legislation regarding universities themselves. National legislation of academic libraries is based on the principle of making research findings known. An example of this is the “Gesetz über das Deutsche Bibliotheksinstitut (Mai, 1979) which defines the organisational structure, role, financing and service of the German Library Institute which contributed a lot to the development of libraries in Germany. Examples of laws enacted by different federal states include:
German university libraries display great variety in their administrative structures but some generalisations can be made. In the older universities there have prevailed dual systems whereby the central library co-exists with branch libraries run by faculties, [page 87↓]institutes or even departments.161 While the main library is devoted to serving the entire university community, branch libraries are oriented to serving only the institute, department or faculty and rarely assume responsibilities outside the university. This institutional and administrative separation between main and branch libraries in older universities is seen in activities such as book selection, acquisition, cataloguing and reader services in which case the institute director is entirely responsible for the running of the institute library while the director of the main library concerns him/herself with matters restricted to the operations of the main library. While the autonomy of the institute library is regarded as part of the freedom of research and teaching, it often leads to lack of co-ordination between the two libraries demonstrated by duplication of expenditure in the purchase of duplicates or multiple copies of expensive standard works and duplication of work in terms of processing.
The relationship between university and branch libraries has been the subject of intense discussion with the central question being whether any form of integration between the two should be co-operative or should entail amalgamation of the two into one unified library.162 Worth noting is that there has been changes aimed at improving the situation. Following the recommendations of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association), efforts have been made towards reduction of the purchase of duplicates and multiple copies, creation of union catalogues of book stocks in both main and branch libraries, standardisation of cataloguing rules throughout the system, opening institute libraries to non members and establishment of large library reading halls to receive the large library traffic. As opposed to earlier practice, the head of the university library is regarded as the head of the all the different smaller libraries within the university and his involvement in all matters of the entire university library system is recognised by the university legislation of the state.163There is also indication that over the years several federal states have enacted laws that facilitate the creation of one single unified library [page 88↓]system for the university by amalgamating all the existing branch libraries into one organic entity with the central or the main library. A good example of such legislation is the “Verwaltung für das Bibliothekssystem der Universität Stuttgart (1987).” This legislation brings together the various branch libraries and also elaborates the functions of the university library and its unified future development and use, the creation of a general catalogue, and the position of the library director as the overall authority on the whole library system.164
Unlike the dual system in the older libraries, the new libraries in new universities were based on the concept of “unified library for the whole university” with the sole responsibility of fulfilling every function for the entire university including acquisition to the appropriate depth, and providing reader and reference services. Acquisition and processing of reading materials is done by the central/main library and then distributed to the branches, which are organically part of the main library rather than independent entities. All components including the personnel are part of the integrated library and are administered by the university librarian.
Today the basic scheme of internal organisation of German university libraries is characterised by existence of three main departments namely; acquisitions, cataloguing, and reader services. In some cases one finds special departments such as manuscripts, and maps and also a technical department to undertake copying and binding. Personnel management, budgetary control as well as “Fachreferenten” (subject specialists responsible for selecting materials for the library) are under direct leadership of the library director.
This scheme is applied in varied ways in different universities depending on the size of the library. In very large libraries each of the departments is divided into sections such as reading rooms, issue desk, interlibrary loans and textbook collection. In large libraries we also have subject librarians to supervise the use of materials in specific subject areas. In [page 89↓]small libraries e.g. Fachhochschule libraries it is common to find a single person in charge of the whole department.
For a very long time the idea of universitas literarum dominated the German and European universities and this was reflected in the “Universalbibliothek” (universal library) approach to the acquisition policy in German university libraries. Provided that all the major academic subjects are represented at the university concerned, then the library has a “universal acquisitions” mandate and therefore there is need to balance between the current demands of teaching and research which have to be satisfied on one hand and the long term “universal” prerogative165 Another character is acquisition to cater for commitments made by the university library other than those restricted to the academic work of the university. As mentioned earlier some university libraries also serve as regional or city libraries and therefore have to acquire to cater for this wider information need. At the same time some university libraries have been assigned specific subject areas (“Sondersammelgebiet”) in which to acquire for national purposes. This role is set out in the state regulations on library development and is therefore reflected in the acquisition policies.
Due to large student populations especially in the 60s there has been need to purchase several copies and textbook collections almost in all university libraries. Subject specialists of the university library and representatives of the teaching and research in the appropriate areas co-operatively carry out book selection. Apart from collections of monographs and journals, there are holdings whose special character is determined by [page 90↓]their content e.g. collections of microforms, incunabula, rare materials, rare books, music, maps, and audio-visual materials.166
Method of acquisitions involves the checking of titles for purchase, which is facilitated by a wealth of sources including publications of the Deutsche Bibliothek (German National Library), national bibliographies of other countries, and publisher and distributor catalogues. The collection and acquisition profiles of new universities are highly limited to the curriculum of the universities. The collection profiles of the Fachhochschule and the art and music colleges are for example very specific to the subject spectrum of the colleges.
In German university libraries, the details of use, the obligations and rights of readers and of the library are fixed in legally binding reader service regulations, which are promulgated by the university authorities.167 Different services are provided for the whole readership or for special groups however the main services is the provision of books and other media through mainly open access systems whereby most materials are available for immediate loan (“Sofortausleihe”). There are restrictions in some areas especially of valuable holdings such as manuscripts and some reference works and also restricted works such as those of ‘national socialism’, which are strictly availed to people doing research. In some cases less used materials are removed from main library buildings and stored in separate auxiliary and storage places to create space for the increasing holdings.
Another service is reference and reader services. This includes provision of information through word of mouth, writing, electronic formats or telephone, provision of literature irrespective of media, creation of collections and information searching tools such as bibliographies and providing access to databanks e.g. CD-ROMs, data files, etc. Recommendations by the German Research Association have particularly been very useful in the promotion of reference and information services in all libraries. However [page 91↓]individual libraries depending on the resources available and the special demands that are placed on the library decide the extent and limit of the service and this is specially aided by the largely available interlibrary loan system.168
Application of information technology in German university libraries has been characterised by:
The use of computers in libraries in West Germany started in the 1960s and was characterised by slow adaptation caused by lack of appropriate software for library operation, lack of skills of normal computer operations among librarians, the high cost of computers in terms of price and the necessary human resources.170 Automation of libraries in West Germany took place long before East Germany where it started after the unification of Germany in 1990. After 1990, computerisation spread fast due to lower [page 92↓]cost of computers combined with increased performance by personal computers, which meant that they could be used in libraries. Computerisation in Germany was aided by organisations like Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association). There has also been rapid creation of digital libraries for example the German Project (Deutsche Gutenberg Project). In the case of Germany, the German Research Community has made it its aim to integrate electronic publication and information service into science and research through retrospective digitalisation of relevant scientific research literature.171
German libraries work together in many ways and the basis of this co-operation is first the awareness that it is only through networking that all libraries can offer the services that an evolving society and its members need and secondly, the realisation of the need to link the library structure with the whole education and information structure. To co-operate libraries in Germany have created organisations and institutions, which give foundation, permanence and also fresh stimulus to such co-operation. These include Deutscher Bibliotheksverband DBV (German Library Association), Verein Deutscher Bibliothekare, the Bundesvereinigung Deutscher Bibliotheksverbände, Deutsches Bibliotheksinstitut and the Library Committee and Library Department of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association).
The Deutscher Bibliotheksverband (German Library Association) was among the first library associations on the federal level to cover all types of libraries. Founded in 1949 as Deutscher Büchereiverband, this organisation changed its name to the former to emphasize its intention of developing into a general organisation of the different types of libraries and bodies responsible for libraries. Membership therefore includes libraries, public book centres and other bodies. The purpose of the organisation is the promotion of librarianship and promotion of co-operation between libraries as well as professional expertise. It has especially concerned itself with issues such as library planning, [page 93↓]legislation and copyright. It is administered by a president and an executive committee with seven representatives of public and academic libraries. It also has a 26 member advisory council representing the Standing Conference of Ministers of Culture, the German Research Association, finance ministers of different federal states, independent bodies responsible for libraries, other library professional associations among others. It has five sections for public libraries, general academic libraries, special libraries, regional libraries as well as library schools which co-ordinate activities at these levels.
The Verein Deutscher Bibliothekare (Association of German Librarians), founded in 1900 and later re-launched in 1949 is basically an association of academic librarians. The basic purpose is to encourage co-operation between German librarians, to pursue their professional interests and assist in the development and exchange of professional knowledge. In so doing it has made crucial contribution to the development of German libraries. It was originally responsible for the publishing of “Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie” (Journal for Library Science and Bibliography). This association has restricted itself to librarianship as a profession and thus has three committees, for professional education, salaries for librarians and legal affairs.
The Deutsches Bibliotheksinstitut (German Library Institute) was founded in 1978 by a law of the Berlin state as an independent statutory institution under direct control of the state. Later it became an institution for the whole nation financed by the various federal states. It has its own administration, with state supervision being exercised by the member of the Berlin senate responsible for cultural affairs. It is recognised as one of the national research bodies and according to its founding law, it is responsible for providing services to libraries across the country and engaging in research and development in the field of libraries and librarianship. It has been responsible for publishing of the journal “Bibliotheksdienst” (Library Service), creation and management of the periodicals databank, co-operative index to corporate bodies, network catalogue of machine readable catalogue data, collection and compiling of library statistics, and providing services and advice on data processing and library technology. In engaging in all these activities the DBI has been instrumental to the development of library development of German libraries. After a controversial assessment by an advisory council the DBI was dissolved [page 94↓]in 1991. Its activities were divided up among other institutions. The Foundation of Prussian Culture, Berlin under the newly founded Institute for Library Innovation and Development, took some up.
The Bundesvereingung Deutscher Bibliotheksverbände was established in 1989 and is an umbrella body for libraries and other related organisations. It has the aim of establishing and facilitating the co-operation between German libraries and other related organisations both in Germany and in the international arena, ensuring that libraries as establishments of culture, education and research guarantee free access to information for every citizen and finally to represent the interest of library personnel and their institutions to the wider society. Because of the nature of the organisation, its membership is institutional including Deutsche Bibliotheksverband, Goethe Institute International and other organisations.
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association) has been providing funds to academic libraries for specific projects to support supra-regional information provision activities such as those aimed at creating union catalogues, cataloguing of special collections such manuscripts and archival materials, and automation programmes.
The fundamentals of library co-operation in Germany were laid down by the position paper Bibliotheksplan ‘73 and reinforced in Bibliotheken ’93. The former was the first ever comprehensive draft for a network of the libraries in the former West Germany and not only created consciousness for library co-operation but also made recommendations through which this co-operation could be achieved. It led to the foundation of German Library Association and the establishment of the Deutsches Bibliotheksinstitut. These were instrumental in the exchange of experiences between librarians and libraries.
In both these papers we find recommendations on how the different information needs of the country could be fulfilled. All libraries were divided into 4 categories and each group assigned the responsibility of collecting and supplying information of a particular type to [page 95↓]a well-specified region.172 Each category of libraries starting from category 1 which consists of the smaller libraries to category 4 consisting of the university and national libraries is assigned responsibility of collecting and supplying information in line with its level of financing and national importance. For example those libraries in category 4 have the responsibility of supra-regional coverage of information and literature by acquiring and supplying comprehensively in all fields of learning including highly specialised research literature and documentary material. In varying degrees each category assumed additional functions of bibliographical control and interlibrary loans.
These position papers have had a positive impact in the development of library co-operation and were the basis for many action plans in different regions as far as library co-operation is concerned and also for joint ventures such as consortia for data processing, book evaluation and interlibrary loan systems. Examples of these are plans such as “Die Bayerischen Bibliotheken in der Landesentwicklung” (Bavarian Libraries in the Development of the Land) and the “Empfehlungen zum Ausbau des Bibliothekwesens in Nordrhein-Westfalen” (Recommendations for Development of Libraries in Northrhine-Westphalia). An example of one such joint venture is the “Verbund Bibliotheksregion Südostniedersachsen (The Bison Library Network in South East Lower Saxon).
Other forms of co-operation also exist between German libraries. The first among these is in book selection and cataloguing. This takes the form of arrangements for specific libraries to collect in specific subject fields and also co-operative checking and ordering especially those with automated acquisitions and cataloguing. Cataloguing in publication (CIP) services are provided by the Deutsche Bibliothek to participating institutions. Libraries use these entries as sources of information in book selection that are up to date and as ordering records for acquisition purposes hence saving on work. In former times academic libraries used the national bibliography as a basis for their own cataloguing by subscribing to magnetic tapes of the Deutsche Bibliothek, which they use to prepare catalogue entries; today it goes online, of course. There also exist a regional cataloguing consortia, which comprise of university and comparable libraries.
Another area of co-operation is that of interlibrary lending and union catalogues. For many decades German libraries have tried to meet the user expectation that if materials are not available in the local library then it would be borrowed from elsewhere. Interlibrary lending has evolved between branch and central libraries, and between libraries maintained by different bodies in one town. There are also interlibrary systems on regional, supra-regional and international levels. All these are based on the principle of reciprocity. The costs are bone by the lending libraries and whenever possible photocopies are sent. It is important to note that there exists legislation that govern and regulate interlibrary lending. This has supported and encouraged libraries to participate in the activity.
In Germany, a clearinghouse exists at the Staatbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin for handling international requests. Application for materials in the other countries is not sent via this clearinghouse but rather directly to a specific foreign library thought to be able to satisfy the request. For materials in Britain requests are made to the British Library Lending and Documentation Centre.
In the large university libraries, the library building is divided into three main areas: storage area where most books and periodicals are kept, the user space, including the reading hall, borrowing and catalogue area and finally the administration area which includes the acquisitions and processing. This set up can still be found in the older university libraries. However in the last two decades there has been evidence of new building ideas, which do not follow this principle. Notably, there has been demolition of boundaries between readers and the reading materials. Smaller reading rooms have replaced the large reading room. Many university libraries have their collection open and accessible to the readers and apart from reading areas, they have consultation areas, halls for lectures, meeting, or exhibition. These functions are reflected in the modern building formats.
Education for those who work in the academic libraries including the university libraries can be divided into three categories: clerical, administrative and the executive. This kind of classification is linked to the existing grades within the German civil service. All libraries in Germany apart from those by business, non-governmental or church organisations are supported by the state, including university libraries and the professionally qualified staff is usually appointed to established posts as civil servants. The education for these groups was therefore organised in conformity with the general regulations governing the civil service that controls education and certification; today they are trained mostly in Fachhochschulen (universities for applied sciences). Majority of librarians in university libraries are on the executive grade and are known as “Diplom-Bibliothekare” (diploma librarians) and normally have university training. Their training includes a period of practical attachment.
1 Cao Yi: The Reorientation of Libraries in the Knowledge Economy Era. – In: Library Work and Research (1999) 6, p. 17-19
2 Wedgeworth, Robert: A View Towards Library Users. In: IFLA Journal 49(1996) 4, p. 277
3 Wolpert, p. 34
4 Higher Education Library and Information Services for Development: Strategies for Investment / International Library and Information Action for Development. - London: The British Council, 1995. - p.10
5 Tanui, Tirong arap and Kitoi, Andrew S. : Why Marketing? The Experience of Moi University Library, Kenya. – In: Library Management 14(1993) 4, p. 43-47
6 Higher Education in the 21st Century: Vision and Action / UNESCO. - Paris: UNESCO, 1998. - p. 2
7 Higher Education: the Lessons from Experience / World Bank. - Washington D.C: World Bank, 1994. - p. 29
9 Matos, Narciso: North-South Co-operation to Strengthen Universities in Africa. – Accra: AAU, 1999. - p. 2
10 Higher Education in the 21st: Towards an Agenda 21 for Higher Education: Working Document / UNESCO. – Paris: UNESCO, 1998. - p. 20
12 Matos, p. 2
13 Higher Education and Information Service Development: Strategies for Investment, p. 114
14 Wolpert, p. 34
15 British Council: Proceedings of the Conference on Textbook Provision and Library Development in Africa: Manchester, October 1991. – London: The British Council, 1992. - p. 10
16 Drucker, Peter: Top Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. – Chicago: Harper and Row, 1974. - p. 25
17 Hayes, Robert M. : Strategic Management for Academic Libraries: A Handbook. – London: Greenwood, 1993. – p. 3
19 Bryson, Jo: Effective Library and Information Centre Management. - Aldershot, Hampshire: Gower, 1995. - p.13
20 Raseroka, Kay: The Role of University Libraries. – Accra: African Association of Universities, 1999. - p. 2
21 Morris, B: Arbeitshilfen für Spezialbibliotheken, Band 11: Erste Schritte im Management. – Berlin: DBI, 1999. - p. 17-20
22 Bryson, p. 22
24 Ibid., p. 25
25 Ibid., p.29-30
26 Higher Education in the 21st Century: Vision and Action, p.1
27 Sullivan, M: A New Leadership Paradigm: Empowering Library Staff and Improving Performance. – In: Journal of Library Administration 14(1991) 2. p. 71-85
28 Bakewell, K.G.B. : Managing User-oriented Libraries and Information Services. – London: Mansell, 1996. – p. 101
29 Liddle, David: What Public Library Boss Does. – London: Association of Assistant Librarians, 1985. – p. 20
30 Shaffer, D.E.: Management Concepts for Improving Libraries. – Salem, Ohio: Dale E. Shaffer, 1979. – p. 106
31 Library Education and Personnel Utilisation / American Library Association. - Chicago: ALA, 1976. - p.3
32 Morgan, Steve: Future Academic Library Skills. What Will they Be? – In: Layzell. Patricia and Darlene, Wiegand (eds.): Human Development: Competences for the 21st Century: Papers from the IFLA CPERT Third International Conference on Continuing Education for Library and Information Professions. – München: KG Saur, 1997, p. 27-28
33 Ibid., p. 6
34 Wiemer, Eugene: Budgeting Methods for Collection Management. – In: Branin Joseph J (ed.).: Collection Development in the 1990s: Proceedings of Midwest Collection Development Institute, University of Illinois at Michigan, August 17-20, 1989. - Chicago: American Library association, 1993, p. 20
35 Higher Education Library and Information Services for Development, p. 209
36 Bibliotheken’ 93 / Bundesvereinigung Deutscher Bibliotheksverbande. – Berlin: DBI, 1993. - p. 39-42
37 Plassmann, Engelbert et al. : Das Bibliothekswesen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Ein Handbuch. - Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 1998. - p. 263
38 Guidelines for University Undergraduate Libraries / Association of College and Research Libraries. – Available: http://www.ala.org/acrl/guides/uniundlb.html. (02/12/02)
39 An example of such effort is the “Telematics Libraries Project” which is aimed at creating computerised bibliographies to improve efficiency of libraries and resource sharing among them, undertaking library networking and interconnection of systems through new telecommunication technology and creating technology-based library products and tools aimed at providing a stimulus to the European market. See Creating a European Library Space: Telematics for Libraries Progress 1990-1996. – Available: http://www/Cordis.In/libraries/en/projects/publica:html. (02/11/02)
40 Corral S. L, and Brewerton, A.: The New Professionals Handbook : Your Guide to Services Management. – London: Library Association Publishing, 1999. - p.211
41 Cheng, X., Ying, C., and Lin, Z: To Create an Atmosphere of Books for Readers and Readers Among Books on the New Building of Zhegieng Prunkard Library. – In: Bisbrouk, M. : Library Buildings in a Changing Environment: Proceedings of the 11th. Seminar of the IFLA on Library Building and Equipment. – München: K.G Saur, 2001. - p. 177
42 Tomie, S. : The Process of Development and the Transition of Methods for Facility Planning in Japanese Public Libraries. – In: Bisbrouk, M. : Library Buildings in a Changing Environment: Proceedings of the 11th. Seminar of the IFLA on Library Building and Equipment. – München: K.G Saur, 2001. - p. 64
43 Macdonald, A: Closing Remarks. – In: Bisbrouk, M.: Library Buildings in a Changing Environment: Proceedings of the 11th. Seminar of the IFLA on Library Building and Equipment. - München: K.G Saur, 2001. - p. 80
44 Plassmann (see Das Bibliothekswesens in Bundesrepublik Deutschland, p. 313) illustrates the principle of flexibility by the tendency towards ‘subject departmentalisation’ instead of large general reading room, modern reading rooms with less formal arrangement and open access areas with reading tables.
45 Ma, Y. : The Development of Buildings in Shanghai. – In: Bisbrouk, M. (ed.): Library Buildings in a Changing Environment: Proceedings of the 11th. Seminar of the IFLA on Library Building and Equipment. - München: K.G Saur, 2001. - p. 32
46 Macdonald, A. : Space Planning and Management. – In: Baker, O., (ed): Resource Management in Academic Libraries. – London: Library Association Publishing, 1997. - p. 190
47 Higher Education and Information Service Development: Strategies for Investment. - p. 161
48 Stueart, Robert D. and Moran, B. : Library and Information Centre Management. - Englewood, Col. : Libraries Unlimited, 1977. - p. 57
49 Robert W E. : Collection Development Policy Statement: the Documentation Process. – In: Collection Management 7(1985) 1, p. 63-73
50 Ann C K and Elizabeth F.: Collection Development Policies. – In: Collection Building 11(1991) 2, p. 27
51 Hazen D.C. : Collection Development Policies in the Information Age. – In: College &Research Libraries 56(1995) 1, p. 29-31
52 McColvin, Lionel: The Theory of Book Selection for Public Libraries. – Chicago: Wiley, 1925. - p. 9
53 Rosanne, C. : When Less is More: Issues in Collection Development. – In: School Library Journal 37 (1991) p. 130
54 Gorman, G.E.; Howes, B.R. : Collection Development for Libraries: Topics in Library and Information Studies. – London: Bowker-Saur, 1989. - p. 148
55 Ibid., p. 149
56 Stuaert, Robert D. : Weeding of Library Materials: Politics and Policies. – In: Collection Management 7(1985) 2, p. 40-58
57 Godden, Irene P. : Library Technical Services: Operations and Management. - San Diego: Academic Press, 1997. - p. 246
58 Reed-Scott, Jutta: Implementation and Evaluation of a Weeding Program. – In: Collection Management 7(1985) 2, p. 59-67
61 Gorman, p. 330
62 Capital Provisions for University Libraries: Report of a Working Part / University Grants Committee Great Britain. – London: HMSO, 1976. - p. 3
63 Harvey, Ross: Preservation in Libraries: Principles, Strategies and Practices for Librarians. – London: Bowker, 1992. - p. 6
64 Clarkson, Christopher: Conservation Priorities: a Library Conservators View. – In: Petheridge, Gu: Conserving of Library and Archival Materials and the Graphic Arts. – London: Butterworths, 1987. - p. 235-236
65 Banks, Joyce M: Guidelines for Preventive Conservation. – Ottawa: Committee on Conservation and Preservation of Library Materials, 1987. - p. 18
66 Hacker, Rupert: Bibliothekarisches Grundwissen. – München: Saur, 2000. - p. 62-63
67 Ibid., p. 62
68 The Online Resource: The Libraries Mission / Purdue University Libraries. - Available: http://www/Lib.Purdue.edu/plan2004/libraries_mission.html. (02/12/02)
69 Bruce, C. and Candy, P. : Developing Information Literate Graduates: Prompts for Good Practice. – Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. (Unpublished Paper)
70 Kotler Peter: Marketing Management-Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control. - Saddle River, NJ. : Prentice Hall, 1997. - p. 12
72 Kotler, Peter: Marketing for Non-Profit Organizations. - Englewood Cliffs, NJ. : Prentice Hall, 1975. - p.5
73 Borchardt, Peter : Ein Marketing Konzept für Öffentliche Bibliotheken. – Berlin : DBI, 1997. - p. 3
74 Booth, T.: Pre-marketing: Analysis of Information needs. – Available: http://www.libsci.sc.edu/bob/class/clis724/SpecialLibrariesHandbook/booth.htm (02/12/02)
75 Plassmann, et al., p. 303
76 Ibid., p. 304
78 Leisner, T. : Should Libraries Engage in Marketing? 61st IFLA General Conference Proceedings-August 20-25, 1995. - Available: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla61/61-leit.htm (10/10/2002)
80 Wiegand, Darlene: Managing Outside the Box: Marketing and Quality Management as Key to Library Effectiveness. – In: Savard, R. (ed): Education and Research for Marketing and Quality Management in Libraries: Satellite Meeting, Quebec, August 14-16th 2001. – München: K.G Saur, 2001. - p. 10
81 Ashcroft, L. and Hoc, C. : PR, Marketing and the Internet: Implications for Information Professionals. - In: Library Management 22(2001) 1/2, p. 68-75
82 Nicholas, Julie: The Marketing and Promotion of Library Services. – Available. http://www.stsci.edu/stci/meetings/lisa3/nicholas.html (15/07/2003)
83 Cram, L. The Marketing Audit: Baseline for Action. – In: Library Trends, 43(1995) 3, p. 326-383
84 Bryson, p. 359-368
85 Roswitha, Poll, Boekhorst, Peter (ed): Measuring Quality: International Guidelines for Performance Measurement in Academic Libraries. – München: Saur, 1996. - p. 40-41
86 Lee, Deborah: Marketing for Libraries: Theory and Practice. – Available: http:/www.lib.usm.edu/~mla/publications/ml/winter00/marketing.html (15/06/2003)
87 Nicholas, Julie: Marketing and Promotion of Library Services. – In: ASP Conference Series 153, (1998). - Available: www.stci.edu/stci/meetings/lisa3/nicholasj.html (22 /07/2003)
88 Leerburger, Benedict A. : Promoting and Marketing the Library. – Boston: G.K Hall, 1989. – p. 13
89 Band, W.A: Creating Value for Customers: Designing and Implementing a Total Corporate Strategy. - New York: Wiley, 1991. – p. 145-148
90 Brophy, Peter: Quality Management for Library Manager. – In: Roswitha, Poll, Boekhorst, Peter (ed): Measuring Quality: International Guidelines for Performance Measurement in Academic Libraries. – München: Saur, 1996. – p. 40-41
91 Abbott, Christine: Performance Measurement in Library and Information Services. – London: Aslib, 1994. – p. 3-4
92 Abbott, p. 1-2
93 Bryson, p. 405
95 Orr, R H: Measuring Goodness of Library Service: a General Framework for Considering Quantitative Measures. – In: Journal of Documentation 29(1993) Sept. p. 318
96 Burk, F., and Horton, F.W. : Info Maps: a Complete Guide to Discovering Corporate Resources. - Englewood Cliff, NJ. : Prentice Hall, 1988. - p.300
98 Buckland, p. 49
99 Ibid., p.70
100 Rosenblatt, Susan: Information Technology Investments in Research Libraries. – Available: http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/html/erm9947.html. (11/9/01)
102 Audrey, E. : Buying Books:How To-Do-It Yourself Manual for Librarians. – New York: Neal-Schuman, 1989. – p. 120
103 Roes, Hans: Digital Libraries and Education: Trends and Opportunities. In: D-Lib Magazine7(July/ August 2001). – Available: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july01/roes/07roes.html 18/12/01
104 Plassmann, et al. p. 302
105 Endres, A and Fellner, D.W. : Digitale Bibliotheken: Informatik Losungen für Global Wissenmarkte. – Heidelberg: dpunkt, 2000. - p. 4
106 Waters, Donald J. : What are Digital Libraries? – In: CLIR Issues4(July/August 1998) 5. – Available: http://www.clir.org/pubs/issues04.html (25/11/01)
107 Bates, Mary Ellen: Demands for Training and Continued Education from the Point of View of Information Services: What Do Libraries of the 21st Century Need to Know. – In: For the Library of the Future: Improving the Quality of Continuing Education / Deutches Bibliotheksinstitut. – Berlin: DBI, 1998, p. 138-142
108 Sloan, Bernie: Service Perspectives for Digital Library: Remote Reference Services. – Available: Http://www.lis.uiuc.edu/~b-sloan/e-ref.html (12/07/02)
112 Radar, Hannel: Faculty-Librarian Collaboration in Building the Curriculum for the Millennium: the US Experience. – In: IFLA Journal, 25(1994) 4, p. 230
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152 These categories could be in a broad sense be referred to as universities since they all offer degree certificates which however have different implication in as far as further education is concerned. This classification is however unique to Germany and differs from that of U.S.A and Britain. Those who attain degree in institutions other than the Fachhochschulen can proceed for doctorate studies. Since 1998 following change in the federal law many German universities have introduced Bachelor and Masters programmes as in the Anglo-American model
153 Wilhelm von Humboldt was a leading educational reformer in Germany. He came up with the principle that teaching and research should go together. His educational ideals are still felt in Germany today although his basic principles on education have been overtaken by the Anglo-American tradition even in Germany itself. He founded the Berlin University in 1810 which was later named after him by the Russians
154 Competence for education and culture in the Federal Republic of Germany lies with the federal states, which are therefore responsible for the education system, including higher education. If any law is to be passed affecting the entire country different states have to agree through the Council of Ministers of Education and Culture, which brings together relevant ministers from different states.
155 Plassmann et al., p. 103. (The rapid development of universities throughout the then West Germany led to high investment in setting up libraries to support the learning, teaching and research in the new universities.)
156 Bibliotheken `93.
157 Jahrbuch der Deutschen Bibliotheken: Band 59 2001/2002 / Verein Deutscher Bibliothekare. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2001 (This annual publication provides current practical information on German libraries such as addresses, and various types of statistical information.
158 Rechtsvorschriften für die Bibliotheksarbeit / DBI. – Berlin: Rechtskommission des Deutschen Bibliotheksinstituts, 1994. - p.3
159 Plassmann et al., p. 263
160 Rechtsvorschriften für die Bibliotheksarbeit. - p. 48-64
161 Krieg, Werner: Einführung in die Bibliothekskunde. – 2nd ed. – Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft: Darmstadt, 1990. - p. 41
162 Gödan, J.C. : Bibliotheksordnungen Deutscher Hochschulen. – Hamburg: Kommission für Rechtsfragen des Vereins Deutscher Bibliothekare, 1993. - p. 3,
163 Hacker, Rupert: Bibliothekarisches Grundwissen. - 7th. Ed.. – München: Saur, 2000. - p. 36-37
164 Die Bibliotheken der Universität Stuttgart / Universitätsbibliothek Stuttgart. – Stuttgart: Universität Stuttgart, 1991. - p. 150-155
165 Plassmann, et.al. (see Das Bibliothekswesens der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ibid., p. 112 and 313) have argued that subject to reservations the concept of universal library and responsibility for universal coverage can still be used to characterise the acquisition work of a university library. This is because of the interdependence that exists between various subject areas and which of necessity compels collection development to be done not only in the university curriculum areas but also in other subject areas that have a bearing on former.
166 Ibid., p. 80
167 Ibid., p. 345.
168 Ibid., p. 347
169 Lapp, Erdmute: Current Trends in German Library Development. – In: For the Library of the Future: Improving the Quality of Continuing Education. – Berlin: DBI, 1998, p. 14-16
171 Ibid., p. 299
172 Bibliotheken’ 93 / Bundesvereinigung Deutscher Bibliotheksverbande. – Berlin: DBI, 1993. - p. 39-42
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