[page 91↓]

7.  Implementation

The silkworm project is centred in Kaliori village, sub-district of Kalibagor in the district of Banyumas, Central Java province. The project is implemented by Banyumas Sutera Alam (BSA)/Yayasan Sosial Bina Sejahtera (YSBS) in collaboration with target group of 500 farming families in the target area (district of Banyumas), consisting of an estimate 500 men (husbands), 500 women (wives) and their children of productive age.

7.1. The target group – fiction or reality – stability and sustainability

The target farmers had originally been on subsistent farming, planting common crops such as corn, peanut and cassava. They sold the small surplus of their yields, but such crops did not give them enough income, particularly in time of hardship such as the economic crisis, as the market price of such crops were low and there were too many competitors. In 1997, they approached BSA/YSBS for advice on alternative crops that could provide them with more income. As Banyumas has a history for silk worm farming and the region is climatically suitable, the farmers were attracted to cultivating silk worms.
The project partner (BSA) and the local farmers started the experimental stage of silk worm farming in 1998. This experimental period lasted for 18 months, during which period the project has grown about 40,000 mulberry plants on two hectares of land, and the construction of silk worm shed to breed silk worm eggs. The cocoons harvests during this stage were approximately 30 kg of fresh cocoons per box.
Simultaneously, the project partner has also established market and technical assistance network with Indo Jado Sutera Pratama, Ltd. Co., a local silk thread factory. Indo Jado buys the silkworm cocoons produced by the farmers and provides technical assistance to the farmers to improve their skill in silkworm farming to enable them to produce better cocoons. Indo Jado has in fact sent some of its staff to the project site to train the farmers during this experimental period.

The next stage of the project was a Pilot Project. The overall goal of this three-year project was to improve the living standard of the target farmer families by enabling them to increase their income through silkworm farming. During this Pilot stage, the project was continuing in planting mulberry to another 10 hectares of land. More than 30 farmers have joined and
reared silkworms in their sheds. The cocoons harvests during this stage were approximately between 25 to 30 kg fresh cocoons per box.


[page 92↓]

The Pilot Projects were conducted in 5 different districts. The project area is about 80 km2 from the central project area. The distance of districts to the central project are for Banyumas 2 km, Purbalingga 20 km, Banjarnegara 30 km, Tegal 80 km and Pekalongan 80 km. The blue arrows show location of districts.

Figure 10: Locations of project

Source : Central Java Map

Since the Nucleus Project started in 2001, more than 200 farmers joined.

7.2. The managerial challenge versus the intellectual challenge

To manage the production the farmers in each district should have a group. The group itself, or BSA, chooses one of the farmers as a leader in the group. The function of a leader is to coordinate the activities and communications between BSA and the group. Groups also have meetings periodically to discuss the problems that they have in silkworm farming and find solutions. In this meetings BSA supervisors join and give information how to maintain the mulberry plants, handle upcoming diseases, maintain hygiene in a shed of worms etc.

BSA helps the farmers to schedule cultivation silkworm. This schedule should be the same for all farmers in one district. This is to make it easier to arrange the transportation early
silkworms from BSA to the farmers and also the processing of cocoons by the firm (Banyumas Sutera Alam).
[page 93↓]To order of young silkworms the leader collected from his group, how many boxes young silkworm are required. One box is approximately 20,000 worms and they are packed in 8 pieces of wooden boxes. In the first year, 1 ha can rear about 1 box. Middle size of farm (0.50-0.75 hectare) can rear 0.50 box worm and small size of farm (0.30 hectare) can only rear 0.25 box of silkworm.
The time schedule to order newly hatched is limited to the last 2 weeks before of date hatching, because Banyumas Sutera Alam has to order eggs from the government breeding station at least one week before date of hatching of eggs.
The early instars are transported to farmers in the morning or evening time. This is to reduce damage to silkworm quality through high temperature and sunlight. Banyumas Sutera Alam delivers the early instar silkworms to the leader of the group or one person in the group. Then they are delivered to the farmers who they have ordered them. The farmers rear the early instar silkworms by feeding them three times a day with fresh mulberry leaves.
The cocoons can be harvested in the next three weeks. Rearing the silkworms is done every month; with a target from one box of silkworms of around 25-30 kg of fresh cocoons.

Banyumas Sutera Alam buys fresh cocoons from farmers. The cocoon price is related to the basis on the classification of cocoon quality.
The price is dependent on quality of samples. This sampling method was decided between Banyumas Sutera Alam and the leaders of farmers. From all cocoons, farmer and Banyumas Sutera Alam officer selected the bad cocoons from the good ones. Bad cocoons are bought for Rp. 1500/kg (USD 0.18/kg). From all good cocoons will be taken 5 kg of cocoons randomly. Then from this, it will be taken 1 kg sample of best cocoons, then counted how many cocoons there are in that one kg. For example: 1 kg has 500 pieces of cocoons; then from these cocoons there are still 50 bad cocoons. So the ratio of broken cocoons is: 50/500 x 100% = 10 percent. To calculate silk content (skin of cocoon), another 50 cocoons are taken, their weight is then, e.g. 100 grams. The pupa are extracted and skin is weighted, e.g. of 20 (twenty) grams, so the skin of cocoons: 20/100 x 100% = 20 percent skin. The final price is 10 percent broken cocoons with 20 percent skin, which is Rp. 16,812 (USD 2) per kg.

Cocoons price is shown in Appendix 1. The value in the middle of table marked are the most common prices that farmer get for their cocoons.
The aim of price table for Banyumas Sutera Alam is to buy the fresh cocoons with good quantity and quality of silk content.
In the years 1999 to 2002 BSA has cultivated 40 silkworm periods. Period means a cycle of [page 94↓]silkworms from eggs to fresh cocoon harvest.
Some examples of cocoon production are shown in Table 22. Complete data of production from 1999 to 2002, can be seen in Annex 9 to 48.

Table 22: Data of cocoon production BSA’s farmers in 7th period

Month

Nov-99

 

Sales

ID

Land

 

fresh cocoons (good quality)

poor quality

Total

NHS

Co

Price/kg

Total I

Co

Price/kg

Total II

Sales (I+II)

 

(Ha)

(Box)

(Kg)

(USD)

(Rp)

(Kg)

(USD)

(USD)

(USD)

4011

0.50

0.25

5.50

2.08

11.46

2.00

0.12

0.24

11.70

4012

0.50

0.25

6.00

1.79

10.71

2.50

0.12

0.30

11.01

4015

0.50

0.50

14.70

2.26

33.25

2.50

0.12

0.30

33.55

4017

0.50

0.50

15.50

1.79

27.68

1.50

0.12

0.18

27.86

4007

0.75

0.50

12.50

2.08

26.04

3.00

0.12

0.36

26.40

4001

1.00

0.75

17.50

2.26

39.58

2.00

0.12

0.24

39.82

4002

1.00

0.75

18.00

2.08

37.50

1.00

0.12

0.12

37.62

1026

3.00

2.00

48.00

2.26

108.57

3.00

0.12

0.36

108.93

Total

7.75

5.50

137.70

 

294.80

17.50

 

2.08

296.88

Source : Banyumas Sutera Alam (2000)
ID: Identity of Farmer
NHS: Newly Hatched Silkworm
Co: Cocoons

In comparison with the project plan the project had a different result Table 22 shows average production results from three farm sizes in years 1999 to 2002. The total times period for medium land is 2 (two), because the farmers in this group started silkworm rearing towards
the end of 1999. Small land started silkworm rearing in 2000, so that the time period is 0 (zero) in 1999.
It is important to make that the production of cocoons was lower than planned.
The average harvest production per box in 1999 was 28 kg; in 2000 20 kg; in 2001 15 kg and in 2002 11 kg. Some reasons why the production sizes low are:

Table 23: Data of average production of sericulture from three farm sizes from 1999 to 2002

No

Items

1999

2000

2001

2002

Average

       

A.

Larger size farm

     

1

Periods per year

8

13

10

9

10

2

Box of silkworms/period (box)

1.27

0.90

0.65

0.82

0.91

3

Cocoons production/box

28.03

16.41

12.38

10.61

16.86

4

Price of fresh cocoon /kg (USD)

2.11

2.12

2.26

2.16

2.16

 

      

B.

Middle size farm

     

1

Periods per year

2

13

10

9

8.5

2

Box of silkworms/period (box)

0.44

0.43

0.45

0.52

0.46

3

Cocoons production/box

27.15

19.97

13.60

9.38

17.52

4

Price of fresh cocoon /kg (USD)

2.06

2.10

2.30

2.20

2.17

 

 

     

C.

Small size farm

     

1

Periods per year

0

7

10

7

8

2

Box of silkworms/period (box)

0.00

0.31

0.39

0.47

0.39

3

Cocoons production/box

0.00

21.13

14.29

13.57

16.30

4

Price of fresh cocoon /kg (USD))

0.00

2.19

2.33

2.16

2.20

Source: Banyumas Sutera Alam (2003), modified.


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