Ngalinda, Innocent: Age at First Birth, Fertility, and Contraception in Tanzania

References

Abou-Gamrah, H. (1976): Methods of Adjusting the Stable Estimates of Fertility for Effects of Mortality Declines. Population Studies 30(1):165-170.

Abou-Gamrah, H. (1982): Fertility levels and Differentials by Mother’s Education in Some Countries of the ECWA Region. In: Duration of Fertility in Some African and Asian Countries, CDC, Cairo.

Acsadi, G.T.F., G. Johnson-Acsadi and R.A. Bulatao (eds.) (1990): Population Growth and Reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa. A World Bank Symposium. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Adeokun, L.A. (1990): Research on Human Sexuality in Pattern II Countries. In Ammy Chouinard and Jacques Albert (eds.), Human Sexuality: Research Perspectives in a World Facing AIDS. Background papers and reports of a workshop held at International Development research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, June 1989.

Adewole, I.F. (1992): Trends in Postabortal Mortality and Morbidity in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 38(2):115-118.

Aggarwal, V.P. (1984): Septic abortion: Management and prevention. In: Mati, J.K.G., O.A.Ladipo, R.T. Burkman, R.H. Magarick, and D. Huber, eds (1984): Reproductive health in Africa.

Aggarwal, V.P. and J.K.G.Mati (1982): Epidemiology of induced abortion in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa 1:54-57.

Ahmed, J. (1986): Polygyny and Fertility Differentials among the Yoruba of Western Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, 18(1):63-73.

Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) (1994): Clandestine abortion: A Latin American reality. New York, AGI.

Anarfi, J.K. (1990): Sexual Networking in Some Selected Societies in Ghana and the Sexual Behaviour of Ghanian Female Migrants in Abidjan, Côte d’voire. Paper presented at the IUSSP Seminar on Anthropological Studies Relevant to the Sexual Transmission of HIV, Sonderborg, Denmark; November 19-22.

Archibong, E.I. (1991): Illegal induced abortion, a continuing problem in Nigeria. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 34(3):261-265.

Arnold, F. (1991): An Assessment of Data Quality in the Demographic and Health Surveys. Demographic and Health Survey World Conference, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. Proceedings, volume II:785-806.

Arnold, F. and A.K. Blanc (1990): Fertility Levels and Trends. Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies no. 2. Columbia, Maryland, USA: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems.

Arriaga, E.E. (1983): Estimating Fertility from Data on Children Ever Born by Age of Mothers. ISP-RD-II

Bauni, E.K. (1990): The Changing Sexual Patterns of the Meru People of the Chogoria Region, Kenya. Paper presented at the IUSSP Seminar on Anthropological Studies Relevant to the Sexual Transmission of HIV, Sonderborg, Denmark, November 19-22.

Begg, C.B. and R. Gray (1984): Calculation of Polychotomous Logistic Regression Parameters Using Individualized Regressions. Biometrica, 71(1):11-18.

Bertrand, J.T., E.K. Bauni, R.J. Lesthaeghe, M.R. Montgomery, O. Tambashe, and M.J. Wawer (1993): Factors Affecting Contraceptive Use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

Bicego, G. and J.T. Boerma (1993): Maternal and Child Survival: A Comperative Study Data from 17 Countries. Social Science and Medicine 36(9):1207-1227.

Blanc, A.K. and N. Rutenberg (1990): Assessment of the Quality of Data on Age at First sexual Intercourse, Age at First Marriage, and Age at first Birth in the Demographic and Health Surveys. An Assessment of DHS-I Data Quality, 41-79. DHS Methodological Reports, No.1. Columbia, Maryland: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Inc.

Bloom, D and P.H. Reddy (1986): Age Patterns of Women at Marriage Cohabitation and First Birth in India. Demogroaphy 23(4):509-521.

Blum, R.W. (1991): Global trends in adolescent health. Journal of the American Medical Association 265(20):17-27.

Bongaarts, J. (1978): A Framework for Analysing the Proximate Determinants of Fertility. Population and Development Review, 4(1):105-132.

Bongaarts, J. (1981): The Impact on Fertility of Traditional and Changing Child Spacing Practices. Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change. H.J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe (eds.):111-129. London: Academic Press.

Bongaarts, J. (1982). The Fertility-Inhibiting Effect of the Intermediate Fertility Variables. Studies in Family Planning, 13(6/7):179-188.

Bongaarts, J. (1987): Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality Rates? Population and Development Review, 13(2):323-334.

Bongaarts, J. (1988): Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Population and Development Review, 14(1):188-190.

Bongaarts, J. (1991): The KAP-Gap and the Unmet Need for Contraception. Population and Development Review, 17(2):293-313.

Bongaarts, J. and O. Frank (1988): Biological and Behavioural Determinants of Exceptional Fertility Levels in Africa and West Asia. African Population Conference, volume 1: 2.1.1-2.1.13. Dakar, Senegal: IUSSP.

Bongaarts, J. and R.G. Potter (1983): Fertility, Biology and Behaviour: An Analysis of the Proximate Determinants. New York: Academic Press.

Bongaarts, J., O. Frank and R. Lesthaeghe (1984): The Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review, 10(3):511-537.

Booth, H. (1979): The Estimation of Fertility from Incomplete Cohort Data by Means of the Transformed Gomperts Model. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, London.

Boserup, E. (1985): Economic and Demographic Interrelationships in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review, 11(3):383-397.

Boulier, B.L. (1984): Evaluating Unmet Need for Contraception: Estimates for Thirty-Six Developing Countries. World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 678. Washington, D.C: World Bank.

Bradley, J., K. Rogo, R. Johnson, L. Okoko, J. Healy, and J. Benson (1993): A comparison of the costs of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and evacuation and curettage (E&C) in the treatment of early incomplete abortions in Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa 11:12-19.

Bradley, J., N. Sikazwe, and J. Healy (1991): Improving abortion cares in Zambia. Studies in Family Planning 22(6):391-394.

Brass, W. (1964): Uses of Census or Survey Data on the Estimation of Vital Rates. Paper prepared for the African seminar on vital statistics, Addis Ababa: UN Economic Commission of Africa.

Brass, W. (1967): The Demography of Tropical Africa. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.

Brass, W. (1980): Screening Procedures for Detecting Errors in Maternity History Data. Occasional papers in Regional Workshop on Techniques of Analysing WFS data. International Statistical Institute, Voolburg, Neltherlands.

Brass, W. (1981): The Use of Relational Gompertz Model to Estimate Fertility. Proceedings of the IUSSP Conference. Manila.

Brass, W. (1983): The use of the Gompertz Relational Model to Estimate Fertility. International Population Conference, IUSSP, Manila.

Brass, W. and C.L. Jolly (1993): Population Dynamics of Kenya. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

Briggs, J. (1993): Population Change in Tanzania: A Cautionary Note for the City of Dar es Salaam. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 109(2):117-118.

Brunborg, Helge (1983): An Economic Model of Fertility, Sex and Contraception. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation in Economics. University of Michigan.

Buck, C., and K. Stavraky (1967): The Relationship Between Age at Menarche and Age at Marriage among Child bearing Women. Human Biology 39:93.

Bulatao, R.A. (1984): Reducing Fertility in Developing Countries: A Review of Determinants and Policy Levers. World Bank Staff Working Papers, number 680. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Bulatao, R.A. (1989): Toward a Framework for Understanding Contraceptive Method Choice. Choosing a Contraceptive: Method Choice in Asia and the United States, R.A. Bulatao, J.A. Palmore and S.E. Ward (eds.):277-304. London: Westview Press.

Bulatao, R.A. and R.D. Lee (1983a): An Overview of Fertility Determinants in Developing Countries. Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries: Fertility Regulation and Institutional Influences, R.A. Bulatao and R.D. Lee (eds.):2:757-787. New York: Academic Press.

Bulatao, R.A. and R.D. Lee (1983b): A Framework for the Study of Fertility Determinants. Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries: Supply and Demand for Children, R.A. Bulatao and R.D. Lee (eds.)1:1-26. New York: Academic Press.

Bumpass, L., R. Rifuss and R. Jonosik (1978): Age and Marital Status at First Birth and Pace of Subsequent Fertility. Demography 15(1):75-80.

Bumpass, L.L. and E.K. Mburugu (1977): Age at First Marriage and Completed Family Size. Social Biology 24(1):31-36.

Bureau of Statistics (1973): 1967 Population Census, Population of Tanzania. United Republic of Tanzania, Tanzania.

Bureau of Statistics (1983): 1978 Population Census, The analytical volume. United Republic of Tanzania, Tanzania.

Bureau of Statistics (1994): 1988 Population Census, National Profile. United Republic of Tanzania, Tanzania.

Bureau of Statistics (Tanzania) (1989): 1988 Population Census: Preliminary Report. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Finance, Economic Affairs and Planning, United Republic of Tanzania.

Bureau of Statistics and Macro International Inc. (1993): 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Bureau of Statistics and Macro International Inc. (1997): 1996 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Caldwell, J. (1976): Toward a Restatement of Demographic Transition Theory. Population and Development Review, 2(3/4):321-366.

Caldwell, J. (1977): The Economic Rationality of High Fertility: An Investigation Illustrated with Nigerian Survey Data. Population Studies, 31(1):5-27.

Caldwell, J. (1979): Education as Factor in Mortality Decline: An Examination of Nigerian Data. Population Studies, 33:395-413.

Caldwell, J. and P. Caldwell (1977): The Role of Marital Sexual Abstinence in Determining Fertility: A Study of the Yoruba of Nigeria. Population Studies, 31(5):201-211.

Caldwell, J. and P. Caldwell (1981): Cause and Consequence in the Reduction of Postnatal Abstinence in Ibadan City, Nigeria. Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, H.J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe (eds.):181-199. London: Academic Press.

Caldwell, J. and P. Caldwell (1987): The Cultural Context of High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review, 13(3):409-437.

Caldwell, J., I.O. Orubuloye and P. Caldwell (1992a): Fertility Decline in Africa: A New Type of Transition? Population and Development Review, 18(2):211-242.

Caldwell, J., P. Caldwell and I.O. Orubuloye (1992b): The Family and Sexual Networking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Historical Regional Differences and Present-Day Implications. Population Studies, 46(3):385-410.

Caldwell, P. and J. Caldwell (1981): The Function of Child-Spacing in Traditional Societies and the Direction of Change. Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, Hilary J. Page and Ron Lesthaeghe (eds.):73-92. London: Academic Press.

Casterline, J.B. and J. Trussell (1980): Age at First Birth. WFS Comparative Studies, No. 15. Voorburg, Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.

Castle, M.A., R. Likwa, and M. Whittaker (1990): Observations on abortion in Zambia. Studies in Family planning 21(4):231-235.

Cates, W., T.M.M. Farley, and P.J. Rowe (1985): Worldwide Patterns of Infertility: Is Africa Different? Lancet 2(8455):596-598.

Chandrasekhar, S. (1994): India's abortion experience. Denton Texas, University of North Texas Press.

Chaudhuri, S.K. (1992): Pregnancy termination. In: Practice of fertility control: A comprehensive text book. (3rd ed.) New Delhi, B.T. Churchill Livingston.

Cherlin, A. and N. Riley (1986): Adolescent Fertility: An Emerging Issue in Sub-Saharan Africa. PHN Technical Note 86-23. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Chuwa, A. and A. Komba (1994): Fertility Levels, Patterns, Trends and Differentials. 1988 Population Census of Tanzania: The Analytical Report, pp. 115-151. Dar es Salaam: Bureau of Statistics, The United Republic of Tanzania.

Chuwa, A.A., I.D. Diamond, A.J. Mturi, and A. Omari (1991): Fertility. The 1988 Census of Tanzania: An Initial Analysis. Proceedings of a Workshop in Census Analysis and Population Projections, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania: Population Planning Unit.

Cleland, J., N. Onuoha, and I. Timaeus (1994): Fertility Change in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Review of the Evidence. The Onset of fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, T. Locoh and V. Hertrich (eds.):1-20. Liège, Belgium: Ordina Editions.

Coale, A.J. (1981): Robust Estimation of Fertility by the Use of Model Stable Populations. Asian and Pacific Census Forum 8(2): 5-7.

Cochrane, S.H. (1979): Fertility and Education: What Do We Really Know? World Bank Staff Occasional Papers, number 26.

Cochrane, S.H. and S.M. Farid (1989): Fertility in sub-Saharan Africa: analysis and explanation. World Bank Discussion Papers (43). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Coeytaux, F.M. (1988): Induced Abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa: What We Do and Do Not Know. Studies in Family Planning, 19(3):186-190.

Cohen, B. (1993): Fertility Levels, Differentials, and Trends. Demographic Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, K.A. Foote, K.H. Hill and L.G. Martin (eds.):8-67. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Cox, D.R. (1972): Regression Models and Life Tables. Journal of Royal Statistical Society, Series B 34:187-220.

Cox, D.R. and D. Oakes (1984): Analysis of Survival Data. London: Chapman and Hall.

Croft, T. (1991): DHS Data Editing and Imputation. In Proceedings of the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., 1991. Vol.II, 1337-1356. Columbia, Maryland: Institute for resource Development/Macro International, inc.

Cross, A.R., W. Obungu, and P. Kizito (1991): Evidence of a Transition to Lower Fertility in Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives, 17(1):4-7.

Curtis, S.L. and K. Neitzel (1996): Comparative Knowledge, Use, and Sources. DHS Comparative Studies No. 19. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc.

Davis, K. and J. Blake (1956): Social Structure and Fertility: An Analytical Framework. Economic Development and Cultural Change 4(2):211-235.

DeLancey, V. (1990): Socioeconomic Consequences of High Fertility for the Family. Population Growth and Reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa, George G.T. Acsadi, Gwendolyn Johnson-Acsadi and Rodolfo A. Bulatao (eds.):115-130. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Demographic and Health Surveys (1995): DHS Newsletter. Calverton, U.S.A.: Macro International Inc.

Demographic and Health Surveys (1997): DHS Newsletter. Calverton, U.S.A.: Macro International Inc.

Dennehy, E.B., C.A. Edward, and R.L. Keller (1995): AIDS education intervention utilizing a person with AIDS: Examination and clarification. AIDS Education and Prevention 7(2):124-133.

Desantis, L. and J.T. Thomas (1987): Parental attitudes toward adolescent sexuality: Transcultural perspectives. Nurse Practitioner 12(8):43-48.

Dixon-Mueller, R. and A. Germain (1992): Stalking the Elusive 'Unmet Need' for Family Planning. Studies in Family Planning, 23(5):330-335.

Dow JR., E. Thomas, L. Archer, S. Khasiani and J. Kekovole (1994): Wealth Flow and Fertility Decline in Rural Kenya, 1981-92. Population and Development Review, 20(2):343-364.

Durch, J.S. (1980): Nuptiality Patterns in Developing Countries: Implications for Fertility. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, Inc.

Dynowski-Smith, M. (1989): Profile of Youth in Botswana. Intersectoral Committee on Family Life Education. Gaborone, Botswana: Government Printer.

Egero, B. and R.A. Henin (1973): Fertility. The Population of Tanzania: An Analysis of the 1967 Population Census, Volume 6, B. Egero and R.A. Henin (eds.):186-201. Dar es Salaam: BRALUP and Central Statistical Bureau. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Ethiopia Country Paper (1994): Paper presented at the conference on Unsafe Abortion and Post-abortion Family Planning in Africa, Maritus, 24-28 March.

Farley, T.M.M., and E.M. Besley (1988): The Prevalence and Aetiology of Infertility. In African Population Conference, Dakar 1988. Vol.1, 2.1.15-30. Liege, Belgium: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population

Finnas, F. and J.M. Hoem (1980): Starting Age and Subsequent Birth Intervals in Cohabitational Unions in Current Danish Cohorts, 1975. Demography 17(3):275-295.

Ford, K. (1984): Timing and Spacing of Births. WFS Comparative Studies, No. 38. Voorburg, Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.

Frank, O. and G. McNicoll (1987): An Interpretation of Fertility and Population Policy in Kenya. Population and Development Review, 13(2):209-243.

Freedman, R. (1986): Fertility Determinants. In Cleland and Scott (eds.):25-74, World Fertility Survey: An Assessment of its Contribution. London: Oxford University Press.

Freedman, R. and A.K. Blanc (1991): Fertility Transition: An Update. Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7. Washington, D.C. Proceedings, volume I:5-24.

Freedman, R. and D. Freedman (1989): The role of Family Planning Programs as a Fertility Determinant. Seminar on the role of Family Planning Programs as a Fertility Determinant, IUSSP, Tunis.

Gage, A.J. (1986): Child Spacing and Fertility in Greater Freetown, Sierra Leone. Unpublished M. Phil Thesis, RIPS University of Ghana.

Gage, A.J. (1995): An assessment of the quality of data on age at first union, first birth, and first sexual intercourse for phase II of the Demographic and Health Surveys Program. Occasional Papers. Calverton, Maryland, Macro International Inc.

Gage-Brandon, A. and D. Meekers (1992): Sexual Activity among the Unmarried in Sub Saharan Africa. Paper prepared for the annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Denver.

Gage-Brandon, A. and D. Meekers (1993): Sex, Contraception, and Child bearing Before Marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives, 19(1):14-18,33.

Gaisie, S.K. (1984): The Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Ghana. WFS Scientific Reports (53).

Garenne, M. and E. van de Walle (1989): Polygyny and Fertility among the Sereer of Senegal. Population Studies, 43(2):267-283.

Ghuhiya, A.I. (1993): Some Demographic and Socio-economic factors that affect Contraceptive Prevalence in Zanzibar. M.A dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

Goldman, N., L. Moreno, and C.F. Westoff (1989): Peru Experimental Study: An Evaluation of Fertility and Child Health Information. Princeton: Office of Population Research, Princeton University; and Colombia, MD: Institute for Resource Development/ Macro International Inc

Guz, D. and J. Hobcraft (1991): Breastfeeding and Fertility: A Comparative Analysis. Population Studies, 45(1)91-108.

Gyepi-Garbrah, B. (1985a): Adolescent Fertility in Nigeria. Boston: The Pathfinder Fund.

Gyepi-Garbrah, B. (1985b): Adolescent Fertility in Liberia-Health and Social Implications. Boston: The Pathfinder Fund.

Gyepi-Garbrah, B. (1985c): Adolescent Fertility in sub-Sahara Africa. Chestnut Hill, MA: The Pathfinder Fund.

Gyepi-Garbrah, B., D.J. Nichols, and G.M.K. Kpedekpo (1985): Adolescent fertility in sub-Sahara Africa: An overview. Boston, Pathfinder Fund.

Henin, R. A., D. Ewbank, and H. Hogan (1973): The Demography of Tanzania: An Analysis of the 1973 National Demographic Survey of Tanzania. Volume VI. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Bureau of Statistics (United Republic of Tanzania) and Bureau of Resource Assessment and Land Use Planning (University of Dar es Salaam).

Henin, R.A. (1979): Effects of Development on Fertility and Mortality in East Africa: Evidence from Kenya and Tanzania. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Henshaw, S.K. (1990): Induced abortion: A world review, 1990. Family Planning Perspectives 22(2):76-89.

Henshaw, S.K. and E. Morrow (1990): Induced abortion: A world review. 1990 supplement. New York, Alan Guttmacher Institute.

Herz, B. and A.R. Measham (1987): The safe motherhood initiative: Proposals for action. Washington, D.C., World Bank.

Hinde, P.R.A. (1993): The Cox Regression Model in Surgical Research. Tunisie Chirurgie, II(2).

Hobcraft, J. and J.B. Casterline, (1983): Speed of Reproduction. WFS Comperative Studies, No. 25. Voorburg, Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.

Hobcraft, J. and J.W. McDonald (1984): Birth Intervals. WFS Comparative Studies (28).

I nternational Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) (1988): African Population Conference, volume 1. Dakar, Senegal: IUSSP.

Jacobson, J.L. (1990): The Global Politics of Abortion. Worldwatch Paper No. 97. Washington, DC: Worldwatch.

Jacobson, J.L. (1994): Abortion and the global crisis in women's health. In: Mazur, L.A., ed. Beyond the numbers: A reader on population, consumption, and the environment. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1994.

Jesani, A. and A. Iyer (1993): Women and abortion. Economic and Political Weekly 28(48):2591-2594.

Jolly, C.L. and J.N. Gribble (1993): The Proximate Determinants of Fertility. Demographic Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, Karen A. Foote, Kenneth H. Hill and Linda G. Martin (eds.):68-116. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Justesen, A., S.H. Kapiga, and A.G.A.H. van Asten (1992): Abortions in a Hospital Setting: Hidden Realities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Studies in Family Planning, 23(5):325-329.

Kamau, R.K. (1990): Management of incomplete abortion: The role of manual vacuum aspiration. Presented at the Maternal and Perinatal Mortality Seminar, Mombasa, Kenya, Apr. 23-27.

Kamuzora, C.L. (1992): Towards Understanding Low Contraceptive Prevalence in African Countries. Paper presented at the third Demographic Unit annual seminar, July 9-11, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Kapinga, D and I. Ruyobya (1994): Literacy and Education. 1988 Population Census, National Profile. Population of Tanzania: 1988. Dar es Salaam: Bureau of Statistics, United Republic of Tanzania.

Kapinga, S.H., D.J. Hunter, and G. Natchtigal (1992): Reproductive Knowledge and Contraceptive Awareness and Practice Among Secondary School Pupils in Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam ,Tanzania. Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(9):375-380.

Karanja, Wambui. 1987. Outside Wives and Inside Wives in Nigeria: A Study of Changing Perceptions in Marriage. Nairobi, Kenya.

Kiernan, K.E. (1977): Age at Puberty in Relation to Age at Marriage and Parenthood: A National Longitudinal Study. Annals of Human Biology 4:301-320.

Knodel, J. (1977): Age Patterns of Fertility and the Fertility Transition: Evidence from Europe and Asia. Population Studies, 31(2):219-249.

Komba, A. and C.L. Kamuzora (1988): Fertility Reduction due to Non-Marriage and Lactation: A Case Study of Kibaha District, Tanzania. African Population Conference. Dakar, Senegal: IUSSP.

Konje, J.C., K.A. Obisesan, and O.A. Ladipo (1992): Health and economic consequences of septic induced abortion. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 37(3):193-197.

Konogolo, L. (1985): Variation in Entry into Motherhood and Length of Effective Reproductive Life among Women in Kenya. Studies in African and Asian Demography. CDC Annual Seminar.

Kpedekpo, G.M.K. (1982): Essentials of Demographic Analysis for Africa,Heinemann, USA.

Kulin, H.E. (1988): Adolescent Pregnancy in Africa: A Programmatic Focus. Social Science and Medicine, 26 (7):727-735.

Ladipo, O.A. (1990): Unsafe abortion in the Third World. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Suppl. 3): 21-28.

Larsen, U. and J. Menken (1991): Individual-level Sterility: A New Method of Estimation with Application to Sub-Saharan Africa. Demography, 28(2):229-247.

Laurie, S. (1986): Age of Physical Maturation and First Intercourse in Black Teenage Males and Females. Demography 23(4):595-598.

Leke, R.J. (1989): Commentary on unwanted pregnancy and abortion complications in Cameroon. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Supplement 3:33-35.

Leshabari, M.T., S.F. Kaaya and F. Kawau (1997): Reproductive Health Knowledge, Premarital Sex and Other Problem Behaviour Among School Youth in Rombo District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. A research report submitted to the Ford Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya.

Lesthaeghe, R., H.J. Page and O. Adegbola (1981a): Child-Spacing and Fertility in Lagos. Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, Hilary Page and Ron Lesthaeghe (eds.):147-180. London: Academic Press.

Lesthaeghe, R., I.H. Shah, and H.J. Page (1981b): Compensating Changes in Intermediate Fertility Variables and the Onset of Marital Fertility Transition. IUSSP General Conference, Manila vol.1: 413-432, Ordina, Liege.

Lesthaeghe, Ron, P.O. Ohadike, J. Kocher and H.J. Page (1981c): Child-Spacing and Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of Issues. Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, Hilary Page and Ron Lesthaeghe (eds.):3-23. London: Academic Press.

Likwa, R.N. and M. Whittaker (1995): The Characteristics of Women Presenting for Abortion and Complication of Illegal Abortions at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: An explorative study. (Unpublished).

Liskin, L.S. (1992): Maternal morbidity in developing countries: A review and comments. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 37(2):77-87.

Lowe, C.V. (1977): Health Implications of Adolescent Pregnancy. In Adolescent Fertility: The Procceedings of an International Conference, Donald J. Bogue, (eds.):55-59. Chicago: Community and Family Study Center, University of Chicago.

Lucas, D. (1980): Fertility. Beginning Population Studies, D. Lucas, P. McDonald, E. Young and C. Young (eds.):45-59. Canberra: Australian National University.

Lwihula G., K. Nyamuryekunge, and C. Hamelmann (1996): Baseline Survey of Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge, Perceptions and Behaviour Among School Youths in Kinondoni District. Research report submitted to African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) Dar es Salaam.

Macro International Website (1998): www.macroint.com/dhs/indicator/datasearch.asp www.macroint.com/dhs/indicator/datasearch.asp (03.10.98).

Madihi, M.C.D. (1988): The Influence of Female Labour Force Participation on Contraceptive Practices: The case of Married Women in Dar es Salaam. M.A dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

Marini, M.M. and P.J. Hodson (1981): Effect of the Timing of Marriage and First Birth on the Spacing of Subsequent Births. Demography 18 (4):517-530.

Maro, P.S. (1974): Population and Land Resources in Northern Tanzania: The Dynamics of Change, 1920-1970. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Minneapolis, U.S.A.: University of Minnesota.

Mashalaba, N.N. (1989): Commentary on the Causes and Consequences of Unwanted Pregnancy from an Afican Perspective. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Suppl.3:15-19.

Mauldin, W.P. and S.J. Segal (1988): Prevalence of Contraceptive Use: Trends and Issues. Studies in Family Planning, 19(6)335-353.

Maxwell, N.L. (1987): Influence on the Timing of First Child bearing. Contemporary Policy Issues 4:113-120.

Mbago, M.C.Y. (1996): Some Factors Associated with the Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Tanzania: A case Study of Eight Regions. Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development 3(1&2):53-64.

McCauley, A.P. and C. Salter (1995): Meeting the needs of young adults. Population Reports, Series J, (41). Baltimore, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program.

McDevitt, T. (1996): Trends in Adolescent Fertility and Contraceptive Use in the Developing World. US Bureau of the Census Report IPC/95_1. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

McLaurin, K.E., C.E. Hord, and C.E. Wolf (1991): Health Systems' Role in Abortion Care: The need for a pro-active approach. IPAS International Projects Assistance Services, Carrboro, North Carolina.

McNeilley, A.S. (1993): Breastfeeding and Fertility. Biomedical and Demographic Determinants of Reproduction, R. Gray, H. Leridon and A. Spira (eds.):391-412. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Meekers, D. (1990): Consequences of Premarital Child bearing in Ivory Coast. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Toronto, Canada, May 2-5.

Meekers, D. (1991): The Effect of Imputation Procedures on First Birth Intervals: Evidence from Five African Fertility Surveys. Demography, 28(2):249-260.

Meekers, D. (1992): The Process of Marriage in African Societies: A Multiple Indicator Approach. Population and Development Review 18(1):61-78.

Meekers, D. (1993): Sexual Initiation and Premarital Childbearing in Sub-Saharan Africa. DHS Working Papers (5). Macro International Inc. Columbia, Maryland, USA.

Meekers, D. (1994): Sexual Initiation and Premarital child bearing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Studies, 48(1):47-64.

Ministry of Health (Tanzania) (1989): The National Family Planning Programme: Plans of Operations 1989-1993. Dar es Salaam: United Republic of Tanzania.

Ministry of Health (Tanzania) (1993): Tanzania Family Planning Situation Analysis Study. Nairobi: Population Council.

Mirembe, F.M. (1994): A Situational Analysis of Induced Abortion in Uganda. Paper presented at the conference on Unsafe Abortion and Post-abortion Family Planning in Africa, Mauritius, 24-28 March.

Mpangile, G.S., M.T. Leshabari, and D.J. Kihwele (1993): Factors associated with induced abortion in public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Reproductive Health Matters, 2:21-31.

Mpiti A. and I. Kalule-Sabiti (1985a): The proximate Determinants of Fertility in North Sudan. WFS Scientific Reports (73).

Mpiti, A.M. and I. Kalule-Sabiti (1985b): The Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Lesotho. WFS Sientific Reports (78).

Mturi A.J. and P.R.A. Hinde (1994): Fertility Decline in Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science 26(1):529-538.

Mturi A.J. and P.R.A. Hinde (1995): "Recent Demographic Change in Tanzania: Causes, Consequences and Future Prospects." Journal of International Development, 7(1):117-134.

Mturi, A..J. (1996): Patterns of Fertility and Contraceptive use in Tanzania. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. University of Southampton, United Kingdom.

Mulder, M.B. (1989): Marital Status and Reproductive Performance in Kipsigis Women: Re-evaluating the Polygyny-Fertility Hypothesis. Population Studies, 43(2):285-304.

Muna, D.S.R.M. (1987): Factors Affecting Contraceptive Level in Morogoro Urban District. M.A dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

Muroki, F. (1988): Age at Menarche, Prevalence of Menstrual Pain and Attitude to Menerche in Luhya Schoolgirls in Kakamega District, Kenya. Unpublished Masters of Medicine thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Mutambirwa, J. (1990): Aspect of Sexual Behavior in Local Cultures and the Transmission of Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Including HIV. Paper presented at the IUSSP Seminar on Anthropological Studies Relevant to the Sexual Transmission of HIV, Sonderborg, Denmark, November 19-22.

Muze, M.S. (1980): Basic Facts about Education in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Ministry of Education.

Mwateba, R., J.M. Paxman and D.C. Weil (1988): Confronting and the Consequences of Schoolgirl Pregnancy in Tanzania: Lessons from the Multidisciplinary Approach of Dar es Salaam Youth Centre. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, November 13-17.

Nanyaro, P. (1992): The effect of Socio-economic Factors on Contraception and Unmet need for Family Planning Methods. A case study of Dodoma Region. M.A dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

National Research Council (1989): Contraception and Reproduction: Health Consequences for Women and Children in the Developing World. Washington D.C.: Academy Press.

National Research Council (1993): Demographic Effects of Economic Reversals in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

Ngalinda, I.F.N. (1991): Levels, Patterns and Differentials of Fertility in Tanzania. published M.A Thesis, RIPS University of Ghana.

Ngallaba, S., S.H. Kapiga, I. Ruyobya and J.T. Boerma (1993): Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 1991/1992. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Bureau of Statistics and Maryland, USA: Macro International Inc.

Nichols, D., O.A. Ladipo, J.M. Paxman, and E.O. Otolorin (1986): Sexual Behavior, Contraceptive Practice, and Reproductive Health among Nigeriaan Adolescents. Studies in Family planning 17(2):100-106.

Njau, P.W. and V.M. Lema (1988): A Review of Research in Adolescent Fertility in Kenya. Centre for the Study of Adolescence, Nairobi, Kenya.

Njogu, W. (1991): Trends and Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Kenya. Demography, 28(1):83-99.

Njogu, W. and T.C. Martin (1991): Fertility Decline in Kenya: The Role of Timing and Spacing Births. Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August, 5-7, Washington D.C.. Proceedings, Volume III:1883-1901.

Nortman, D. (1982): Measuring the Unmet Need for Contraception to Space and to Limit Births. International Family Planning Perspectives, 8(4):125-134.

Ntozi, J.P.M. and M. Lubega (1990): Patterns of Sexual Behaviour and the Spread of AIDS in Uganda. Paper presented at the IUSSP Seminar on Anthropological Studies Relevant to the Sexual Transmission of HIV, Sonderborg, Denmark, November 19-22.

Nyerere, J.K. (1967): The Arusha Declaration. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.

Obbo, C. (1987): The Old and the New in East Africa Elite Marriages. David Parkin and David Nyamwaya, (eds.):263-280. Nairobi, Kenya.

Ocholla-Ayayo, A.B.C., V. Lema, R.O. Obudho, Z. Muganzi, Dr. Suda, Mrs. Njau, A.A. Khasakhala, and Mr. Pitchar (1990): Sexual Practice and the Risk of the Spread of STDs and AIDS in Kenya. Task force on sex practices and the risks of STDs and AIDS in Kenya, World Health Organization, and Population Studies and Research Instititute, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Ohadike, P.O. (1979): Socio-economic, Cultural, and Behavioural Factors in Natural Fertility. Natural Fertility. Leridon, H . and J. Menken (eds.):287-310. IUSSP.

Okonofua, F.E., U. Onwudiegwu, and O.A. Odunsi (1992): Illegal Induced Abortion: A study of 74 cases in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Tropical Doctor 22(2):75-78.

Omari, C.K. (1989): Socio-cultural Factors in Modern Family Planning Methods in Tanzania. Lewinston, NY, U.S.A.: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Oppong, C. (1987): Responsible Fatherhood and Birth Planning. Sex Roles, Population and Development in West Africa, Christine Oppong (eds.):165-178. Portsmouth (N.H.): Heinemann and London: James Currey.

Page, H.J. (1988): Fertility and Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. The State of African Demography, E. van de Walle, P.O. Ohadike and M.D. Sala-Diakanda (eds.):29-45. Liège, Belgium: IUSSP.

Paxman, J.M., A. Rizo, L. Brown, and J. Benson (1993): The Clandestine Epidemic: The Practice of Unsafe Abortion in Latin America. Studies in Family Planning 24(4):205-226.

Pebley, A.R. (1981): Changing Attitudes Toward the Timing of First Births. Family Planning Perspectives 13(4):171-175.

Pillai, G. (1993): Reducing Deaths from Pregnancy and Childbirth. Health and Development Report 9(5):11-13.

Planning Commission (1992): National Population Policy. President's Office, United Republic of Tanzania.

Population Reference Bureau (1998): World Population Data Sheet 1998. PRB Inc., Washington DC.

Presser, H.B. (1978): Age at Mernache, Socio-Sexual Behaviour, and Fertility. Social Biology 25:94.

Rao, K.V. and T.R. Balakrishnan (1988): Age at First Birth in Canada: A Hazards Model Analysis. GENUS 44(1-2):53-72.

Reining, P. (1972): The Haya of north-western Tanzania. East African Publishing House, Nairobi, Kenya.

Reinis, K.I. (1992): The Impact of the Proximate Determinants of Fertility: Evaluating Bongaarts' and Hobcraft and Little's Methods of Estimation. Population Studies, 46:309-326.

Retherford, R.D. and M.K. Choe (1993): Statistical Models for Causal Analysis. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Robey, B., S.O. Rutstein, and L. Morris (1992): The Reproductive Revolution: New Survey Findings. Population Reports, Series M, Number 11.

Robinson, W. and J. Cleland (1992): The influence of contraceptive costs on the Demand for children. In Family Planning Programs and Fertility, (eds.): 115-124. Phillips and Ross. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Robinson, W.C. (1992): Kenya Enters the Fertility Transition. Population Studies, 46:445-457.

Rodriguez, G. and J.N. Hobcraft (1980): Illustrate Analysis: Life Table Analysis of Birth Intervals in Columbia. WFS Scientific Reports (16).

Rogo, K.O. (eds.) (1986): Adolescent Fertility: Proceedings of a workshop held at Kwale, Coastal Province, Kenya. August. Unpublished.

Rogo, K.O. and J.M. Nyamu (1989): Legal Termination of Pregnancy at the Kenyatta National Hospital Using Postaglandin F2a in Midtrimester. East African Medical Journal 66 (5):333-339.

Ross, J.A. and E. Frankenberg (1993): Findings from Two Decades of Family Planning Research. Population Council, New York.

Rutenberg, N. and I. Diamond (1993): Fertility in Botswana: the recent decline and future prospects, Demography, 3(2):143-157.

Rutenberg, N., M. Ayad, L.H. Ochoa, and M. Wilkinson (1991): Knowledge and Use of Contraception. Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies No. 6, Columbia, Maryland, USA: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International Inc.

Rutstein, S.O. and G.T. Bicego (1990): Assessment of the Quality of Data Used to Ascertain Eligibility and Age in the Demographic and Health Surveys. An Assessment of DHS-I Data Quality, 5-37. DHS Methodological Reports, No.1. Columbia, Maryland: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Inc.

Ryder, N.B., and C.F. Westoff (1971): Reproduction in the United States, 1965. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Saha, T. and G. Mboup (1992): Data Evaluation: Age at First Union. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc.

Salter, C., H.B. Johnston, and N. Hengen (1997): Care for Post-Abortion Complications: Saving Women’s Lives. Population Reports Series L, No. 10. Baltmore: Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program.

Sawaya, M. (1995): School Dropouts and Related Problems in Tanzania. Paper presented at a workshop on the Youth and Related Problems in Tanzania. Kilimanjaro Hotel, October 1995.

Schoenmaeckers, R., I.H. Shah, R. Lesthaeghe, and O. Tambashe (1981): The Child-Spacing Tradition and the Postpartum Taboo in Tropical Africa: Anthropological Evidence. Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change. Hilary J. Page and Ron Lesthaeghe (eds.):25-71. London: Academic Press.

Shah, N.M. and T. Ahmed (1982): The Unmet Need for Contraception in Pakistan: A Review of Program Targets. International Family Planning Perspectives, 8(1):33-39.

Sherris, J.D., K.A. London, S.H. Moore, J.M. Pile, and W.B. Watson (1985): The Impact of Family Planning Programs on Fertility. Population Reports, Series J, Number 29.

Singh, S. and D. Wulf (1991): Today’s Adolescents, Tomorrow’s Parents: A Portrait of the Americas. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.

Singh, S. and D. Wulf (1994): Estimated Levels of Induced Abortion in Six Latin American Countries. International Family Planning Perspectives 20(1)4-13.

Somoza, J.L. (1981): An Evaluation of Analysis of Detecting Data, Proceedings of the IUSSP Conference, Manila.

Stolnitz, G.J. (1983): Urbanization and Rural-to-Urban Migration in Relation to LDC Fertility. Project Paper no. 10. Bloomington, U.S.A.: Indiana University.

Stubblefield, P.G. and D.A. Grimes (1994): Septic abortion. New England Journal of Medicine 331(5):310-314.

Sweet, R.L. and R.S. Gibbs (1990): Post-abortion Infection and Septic Shock. In: Infectious Diseases of the Female Genital Tract. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins.

Thomas, D. and I. Muvandi (1994): The Demographic Transition in Southern Africa: Another Look at the Evidence from Botswana and Zimbabwe. Demography 31(2):185-207.

Trussell, J and K.I. Reinis (1989): Age at First Marriage and Age at First Birth. Population Reports 4(1):126-193.

Turner R. (1992): Russian fertility is low, despite early age at first birth and lack of effective contraceptive methods. Family Planning Perspectives 24(5):236-7.

Udry, R.J. (1979): Age at Menarche, at First Intercourse and at First Pregnancy. Journal of Biosocial Science 11:433-441.

UMATI (1992): Revised Work Programme Budget 1993. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Chama cha Uzazi na Malezi Bora Tanzania.

United Nations (1963): Population Bulletin. Department of Social and Economic Affairs No. 7, New York.

United Nations (1967): Methods of Estimating Basic Demographic Measures for Incomplete Data. Population Studies 42. (Manual IV), New York.

United Nations (1983): Indirect Techniques for Demographic Estimation, (Manual X), Sales No.E.83, 13.2, New York.

United Nations (1985): Women's Employment and Fertility: A Comparative Analysis of World Fertility Survey Results for 38 Developing Countries. New York: Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population studies no. 96.

United Nations (1987): Fertility Behaviour in the Context of Development: Evidence from the World Fertility Survey, (ST/ESA/SER:A/86). New York.

United Nations (1988): First marriage: Patterns and Determinants. New York.

United Nations (1989): Case Studies in population Policy: United Republic of Tanzania. Department of International Economic and Social affairs, Population policy Paper No. 22. ST/ESA/SER.R/91. New York: United Nations.

United Nations (1995): Population and Development. Programme of Action Adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994. New York: United Nations.

United Nations (ECA) (1983): Nuptiality and Fertility. African Population Studies Series No. 5. Addis Ababa.

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (1993): Fertility Research. Readings in Population Research Methodology, Vol. 5. Social Development Center, Chicago, Illinois.

United Republic of Tanzania (1969): Second five-year Plan for Economic and Social Development. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.

United Republic of Tanzania (undated): Population and Development in Tanzania: Presentation and Report. Dar es Salaam: Population Planning Unit & Bureau of Statistics, Planning Commission and National Family Planning Programme, Ministry of Health.

United Republic of Tanzania/UNICEF (1990): Women and Children in Tanzania, A Situation Analysis. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Vaessen, M. (1984): Childness and infecundity. WFS Comperative Studies (31). Voorburg, Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.

van de Walle, E. (1993): Recent Trends in Marriage Ages. Demographic Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, K.A. Foote, K.H. Hill and L.G. Martin (eds.):117-152. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

van de Walle, E. and A. Ebigbola (1987): The Cultural Roots of African Fertility Regimes. Proceedings of the Ife Conference, February 25-March 1, Obafemi Awolowo University and University of Pennsylvania.

van de Walle, E. and A.D. Foster (1990): Fertility Decline in Africa: Assessment and Prospects. World Bank Technical Paper (125). Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

van de Walle, E. and F. van de Walle (1993): Post-Partum Sexual Abstinence in Tropical Africa. Biomedical and Demographic Determinants of Reproduction. R. Gray, H. Leridon and A. Spira (eds.):446-460. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

van de Walle, E. (1968): Marriage in African censuses and inquiries. In William Brass et al., The Demography of Tropical Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press:183-238.

van de Walle, F. and K. Omideyi (1988): The Cultural Roots of African Fertility Regimes. African Population Conference. Dakar, Senegal: IUSSP.

van Ginneken, J.K. (1978): The Impact of Prolonged Breast-feeding on Birth Intervals and Postpartum Amenorrhea. Nutrition and Human Reproduction. W.H. Mosley (eds.):179-195. New York: Plenum Press.

Veevers, J.E. (1972): Declining Childlessness and Age at Marriage: A Test of a Hypothesis. Social Biology 19:285-288.

Venkatacharya, K. and T. Teklu (1987): A simplified Robust Estimate of the Birth Rates. Asian and Pacific Population Forum 4:9-24.

Venkatacharya, K. and T. Teklu (1991): Estimation of Birth Rate and Related Measures in Sub-Saharan Africa. RIPS Monograph Series (4).

Waite, L. and K. Moore (1978): The Impact of an Early First Birth on Young Women's Educational Attainment. Social Forces 56:845-865.

Weinberger, M., C. Llody, and A.K. Blanc (1989): Women’s Education and Fertility: A decade of Change in Four Latin America Countries. International Family Planning Perspectives 15(1):1-20.

Weinstein, K.I., S. Ngallaba, A.R. Cross and F.M. Mburu (1995): Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey 1994. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Bureau of Statistics, Planning Commission and Calverton, U.S.A.: Demographic and Health Surveys, Macro International Inc.

Weisberg, S. (1985): Applied Linear Regression. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Westoff, C.F. (1988): The Potential Demand for Family Planning: A New Measure of Unmet Need and Estimates for Five Latin American Countries." International Family Planning Perspectives, 14(2):45-53.

Westoff, C.F. (1992): Measuring the Unmet Need for Contraception: Comment on Bongaarts. Population and Development Review, 18(1):123-125.

Westoff, C.F. and A.R. Pebley (1981): Alternative Measures of Unmet Need for Family Planning in Developing Countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, 7(4):126-136.

Westoff, C.F. and L. Moreno (1992): The Demand for Family Planning: Estimates for Developing Countries. Family Planning Programmes and Fertility, Phillips, J.F. and J.A. Ross. (eds.):141-158. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Westoff, C.F. and L.H Ochoa (1993): Unmet Need and the Demand for Family Planning in Kenya. DHS Working Papers (4). Columbia, Maryland, Macro International, Inc.

Westoff, C.F. and L.H. Ochoa (1991): Unmet Need and the Demand for Family Planning. DHS Comparative Studies (5). Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc.

Westoff, C.F., A.K. Blanc, and L. Nyblade (1994): Marriage and Entry into Parenthood. DHS Comparative Studies (10). Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc.

World Bank (WB) (1996): Improving women's health in India. Washington, D.C., WB.

World Fertility Survey (1977): Strategies for Analysis of WFS Data. Basic Documentation, (9).

World Health Organization (WHO) (1994): Care of mother and baby at the health centre: A practical guide. Geneva.

World Health Organization (WHO) (1994): Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme. Abortion: A tabulation of available data on the frequency and mortality of unsafe abortion. 2nd ed. Geneva, WHO.

World Health Organization (WHO) (1995): Complications of abortion: Technical and managerial guidelines for prevention and treatment. Geneva.

Yoseph, S. and G. Kifle (1988): A six-year review of maternal mortality in a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa. Ethiopian Medical Journal 26(3):115-120.

Zaba, B. (1981): Use of the Relational Gompertz Model in Analysing Fertility Data Collected in Retrospective Surveys. Centre for Population Studies, Working Papers 81-82, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Zachariah, K.C. (1970): An Alternative Approach to the Problem of Adjusting Birth Rates Estimated by the Stable Population Method for the Effect of Declining in Mortality. Demographic Measures and Population Growth in Arab Countries. Cairo Demographic Centre Research Monograph, Series (1).

Zelnik, M. (1981): Determinants of Fertility Behaviour Among U.S. Female Aged 15-19, 1971 and 1976. Final Report, Contract NO1-HD-82848. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.


[Titelseite] [Abkürzungsverzeichnis] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [Bibliographie] [Anhang] [Selbständigkeitserklärung]

© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.

DiDi DTD Version 1.1
a subset from ETD-ML Version 1.1
Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML - Version erstellt am:
Mon Jan 17 19:31:05 2000