Puginier, Oliver: Hill tribes struggling for a land deal: Participatory land use planning in northern Thailand amid controversial policies

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Anhang A. Annexes

Annex I: Important events

Date

Where

Activities

14-18.10.96

18-22.11.96

DSE, Bad Honnef

DITSL, Witzenhausen

Seminar on Participatory Development Work in Rural Areas, and GIS-Workshop

11-16.3.97

MHS and Nam Lang (NL)

TG-HDP meeting to review CLM

20.3.97

ICRAF Office (CMU)

Meeting with David Thomas on cooperation and integration of village maps into a GIS

3-4.4.97

Chiang Mai University (CMU)

Workshop with Hohenheim and Kasetsart University on Special Research Project (SRP)

28.4-2.5.97

Bangkok

Trip to DLD, RFD, IBSRAM, RECOFTC

25-28.5.97

MHS

Phasing out workshop with RIAs and RFD training on participatory working approaches (PWA), visit to RFD office data application

4-5.7.97

Chiang Mai University and Nam Lang

Meeting with Hohenheim and Kasetsart University on the new Special Research Project

2.9.97

CMU

ICRAF follow-up workshop on "Indigenous Strategies for Intensification of Shifting Cultivation in Southeast Asia" at CMU

18.9.97

Nam Lang and Huai Poo Ling

ONCB helicopter flight, aerial photographs of villages

11-13.9.97

NL, Luk Khao Lam, Huai Hea

NRM network meeting in Huai Hea on land conflict with Pa Puak, collection of village maps for digitisation

6-10.10.97

Chiang Mai University (CMU)

Hohenheim, Kasetsart and CMU seminar on joint MSc projects

17.10.97

TG-HDP

Seminar on integration of village maps into GIS with 15 people and Dr. Saengsawan from Chulalongkorn University, ArcView3 given

28-30.11.97

MHS, Huai Hee

Ecotourism trip and hiking with Tawatchai Ratanasorn and GO/NGO group

11-12.12.97

Hohenheim University

Tropentag, Poster Presentation

6.2.98

Chiang Mai University

Seminar on the new Special Research Project

2-6.3.98

Huai Thong, HPL, Huai Hee, MHS, NL, Huai Hea, Luk Khao Lam, Bor Khrai

Trip with Prof. Dr. Uwe Nagel to villages to study CLM situation, discussion of future research and structure

11-12.3.98

MHS

Provincial centre for DOLA village boundaries

28.4.-4.5.98

Bangkok

Meetings at DLD, RFD and Royal Survey Department (RSD) for aerial photographs

25-29.5.98

Doi Inthanon, Mae Chaem, Yang San, NL, Bor Khrai, Tung Jaw

Community Leaders Cross-Visit Programme of TG-HDP prior to final NRM international workshop, discussions of problem situation


144

1-5.6.98

Empress Hotel Chiang Mai

TG-HDP workshop on NRM experiences in highlands, presentation of own first results

8-11.6.98

Bangkok

Collection of aerial photographs at RSD

26.11.98

ICRAF office Chiang Mai

Handing over of ArcView 3 software and digitised maps

1-3.7.98

Rincome Hotel Chiang Mai

GTZ Regional Working Group meeting

25-26.8.98

Mae Hong Son

TG-HDP farewell ceremony with the Governor

4.9.98

Empress Hotel Chiang Mai

TG-HDP closing ceremony

29.10.98

Chiang Mai University

Introductory seminar for Hohenheim students

26.11.98

ICRAF office Chiang Mai

Handing over of ArcView 3 software and digitised maps

18.12.98

Mae Lanna

ONCB helicopter flight, opium survey

26.1.99

CMU

MSc thesis defence of Tawatchai Ratanasorn on hill tribes and ecotourism

27-29.1.99

Rincome Hotel Chiang Mai

CARE workshop on "Sustainable agriculture and survival of watershed forests"

18-22.2.99

CMU, all 6 target villages

Final workshop for presentation of results, with 2 MSc students, and village field trip to discuss results with village leaders in project areas

9.3.99

Alliance Française, Informal Northern Thai Group

Presentation on: "Does participatory Land Use Planning have a chance with hill tribes?"

23-28.5.99

Purdue University (USA)

Paper presentation at 10th ISCO Conference

14-15.10.99

Humboldt University Berlin

Tropentag, paper presentation

11-12.10.00

University of Hohenheim

Tropentag, paper presentation


145

Annex II: Questionnaire for village surveys


146


147


148

Annex III: Questionnaire for TAO members


149

Annex IV: Research Plan

Part 1: The change process from shifting cultivation to permanent agriculture

Section (topic)

Research Questions

Hypotheses

Means of Survey

Data Sources

Background of Highlands

How did highland development start?

Highland development was a means of pacification and centralised control

texts of development projects, interviews

Books on highlands

Development and forest resources

How were priorities for highland development set?

Massive exploitation from 1880; development came only in 1970s

literature, RFD history papers

RFD office, university

From opium to perm. agriculture

What were the motivations behind changing highland agriculture?

Thailand used aid to develop its frontiers; erosion issues came later

literature, interviews with old people

Books by projects, NESDB and plans

MSc thesis topics:

1. Eco-tourism

2. GIS use for LUP

3. Fruit trees

Effects of eco-tourism on land use?

How can TG-HDP information be integrated into GIS?

Impact of fruit trees?

Eco-tourism is an increasing source of income

GIS will be used more in future

Limited potential of fruit trees in hills

separate proposals and planning steps

HU, MCC, Non-Formal Education, Geography Dept. at CMU

Part 2: Definition and process of participatory land use planning

Section (topic)

Research Questions

Hypotheses

Means of survey

Data sources

Definition of LUP and purpose

Who and what are we planning for?

LUP as technology extension was not sufficient, work more with people

literature, aims of development projects

GTZ, FAO guidelines, articles

LUP in Thailand, overview

Is planning done in political or watershed units, role of villagers?

Western influence brought PLP to Thailand, villagers have to comply

literature survey, study of various plans

NESDB Plan, RFD and DLD plans

Methods and tools used in TG-HDP

Emphasis on individual or communal land tenure, effect of decentralisation?

Planning is at a stage where it goes further than mere illustration

literature and project documents

CMU and project reviews


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Part 3: Traditional land use planning practices

Section (topic)

Research Questions

Hypotheses

Means of survey

Data sources

State of swiddening in transition

What future do these systems have, can they adapt to govt. priorities?

Shifting cultivation is history, future is permanent farming

literature, interviews, PRA, mapping

documents, field staff, village leaders

Traditional planning

How can traditional knowledge be used in the transformation process?

Planning has to conform to government priorities for acceptance

interviews, models and mapping, PRA

target villages for surveys

Importance of rice

Rice and other food sources?

Where irrigation, paddy rice grown

PRA, interviews

target villages

Role of opium

Did most cash come from opium or was it only a safety crop to rely on?

opium became an issue as govt. and foreign projects made it a problem

literature and interviews

Social Research Centre of CMU

Part 4: Impact of Development Programmes on land use planning

Section (topic)

Research Questions

Hypotheses

Means of Survey

Data sources

Government Agencies

What are the highland plans and how are they co-ordinated?

Largely sectoral planning, little joint efforts, RFD dominates highlands

literature, interviews in target villages

Govt. documents and target villages

Bilateral Projects

Introduced planning and purpose?

Participatory planning was new way

literature, interviews

project documents

NGO Projects

How can they approach LUP?

NGOs are now more recognised by Thai Government, not as a threat

literature and interviews

NGOs and villagers

Part 5: Political and Institutional Framework for land use planning

Section (topic)

Research Questions

Hypotheses

Means of survey

Data sources

Village structures

Village structure enough for planning?

Villages need coherent social structure

interviews village visits

TG-HDP, villages

Higher levels of planning: Tambon

Can GIS be integrated in process?

Policy still in process of formulation, little to no effect yet

village meetings, GPS use for mapping

target villages and TAO councils

Process of decentralisation

Which new mandates will TAOs have for NRM?

TAOs need technical support to make NRM plans

literature and TAO meetings

DOLA, RFD, DLD


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Part 6: Planning Natural Resource Management in future

Section (topic)

Research Questions

Hypotheses

Means of Survey

Data sources

Continuation of decentralisation

Should NRM be linked to land rights, and in what form, watershed level?

No immediate chance for land titles, only communal user rights

interviews, aerial photographs

target villages, administrations

Projection of Karen system

Future of NRM with local regulations, diversified incomes?

Govt. recognition of fallow areas crucial for viability of the system

PRA, interviews, mapping

target villages, local administrations

Future of Pioneer system

Can complete adaptation to permanent agriculture be achieved?

Abandonment of traditional practices necessary for permanent agriculture

PRA, interviews, scenarios for future village situation

target villages, local administrations

Planning Platform

Mandates and operational structure?

RFD, DLD, DOLA membership must

Proposed structure

Highland Plans


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