Puginier, Oliver: Hill tribes struggling for a land deal: Participatory land use planning in northern Thailand amid controversial policies

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerische Fakultät


Dissertation

zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doctor rerum agriculturarum
(Dr. rer. agr.)

Hill tribes struggling for a land deal: Participatory land use planning in northern Thailand amid controversial policies

eingereicht an der Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerischen Fakultät der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

von Dipl. Agr.-Ing. Oliver Puginier ,
(Geboren 28. März 1967 in Berlin)

Präsident der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Prof. Dr. J. Mlynek

Dekan der Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerischen Fakultät

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. E. Lindemann

Gutachter:
1. Prof. Dr. U.-J. Nagel, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
2. Prof. Dr. M. von Oppen, Universität Hohenheim

Eingereicht: 18. Januar 2002

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 16. Mai 2002


3

Abstract (Deutsch)

Das Hochland Nordthailands isi ein Beispiel für eine widersprüchliche Situation die entsteht, wenn ein zentralistisches Regierungssystem seine Kontrolle auf entlegene Gebiete ausdehnt und auf traditionellen Wanderfeldbau auftrifft. Auf Regierungsseite zeichnet sich die Politik durch unterschiedliche Interessen der Walderhaltung einerseits und Integration von ethnischen Minderheiten andererseits aus. Die Bergstämme ihrerseits erstreben Landsicherheit um ihre Subsistenzwirtschaft zu sichern. Somit geht es um Mediation und Konfliktresolution zur Überwindung der Dichotomie zwischen Waldschutz und landwirtschaftlicher Subsistenz.

Trotz des fehlenden politischen Rahmens, hat es eine Verschiebung zu mehr partizipativen Ansätzen bei der Entwicklung des Hochlands gegeben, zum Beispiel Community Based Land Use Planning and Local Watershed Management (CLM) des Thai-German Highland Development Programe (TG-HDP) in der Provinz Mae Hong Son. Dieses Forschungsprojekt hat den CLM-Ansatz mit GIS kombiniert um jenseits der Demarkierung von Landtypen die Dorfebene mit höheren Planungsebenen zu verbinden, wie die sich etablierenden Tambon (Sub-Distrikt) Administrative Organisations. Vor dem Hintergrund der grundsätzlichen oben angeführten Probleme und auf den CLM-Ansatz aufbauend, wurden Landnutzungskarten digitalisiert um die Widersprüche zwischen zentralistischer Landklassifizierung und lokalen Dorfgrenzen zu überwinden. Durch den Vergleich von topographischen Modellen und Karten mit Dorfbewohnern und Regierungsorganisationen, könnte eine Kommunikationsplattform für die Formulierung von Landnutzungsplänen etabliert werden. Stolpersteine zur partizipativen Planung werden dargestellt und Empfehlungen für eine koordinierte Politik der Hochlandentwicklung ausgesprochen.

Bei der laufenden Dezentralisierung werden die neu entstehenden Tambon (Sub-Distrikt) Administrative Organisations (TAO) sich als Schlüsselverbindung zwischen dem Staat und der Gesellschaft entwickeln. Eine Möglichkeit mit den unterschiedlichen Prioritäten der Teilhaber auf Tambonebene umzugehen könnte sich aus der laufenden Umstrukturierung des Landwirtschaftsministeriums (MOAC) ergeben, als Teil der administrativen Reform. Ein Teil dieser Reform auf Grasebene war die Einführung von Technology Transfer Centres (TTC) seit 1998, mit mittlerweile 82 vom Department of Agricultural Extension (DOAE) etablierten Zentren landesweit. In diesem Kontext wird der Tambon ein Test für partizipative Landnutzungsplanung sein, sowohl aus der technischen Perspektive mit neuen Technology Transfer Centres, als auch aus der administrativen mit existierenden Tambon Administrative Organisations. Pläne der Vernetzung von TTCs mit TAOs müssen die Bedeutung der Repräsentanz von Schlüsselinstitutionen der Forstwirtschaft und Landentwicklung für Aspekte der Landnutzung berücksichtigen, sowie lokale Verwaltung und Sozialfürsorge für die Registrierung von Dörfern mit klaren und allseits akzeptierten Grenzen.

Ein Ansatz von unten müßte sich auf die drei während der Forschung genannten Hauptprobleme konzentrieren, nämlich Reisinsuffizienz, Waldbrachemanagement und Dorfgrenzen. So lange der Zustand der Landunsicherheit weiterhin vorherrscht, werden Bergstämme Strategien zur Beibehaltung von ausreichendem Ackerland anwenden, wie die Deklaration von bis zu doppelt so vielen Hochlandfeldern und die Zwischenpflanzung mit Heckenreihen auf Bracheflächen um zu zeigen, daß dieses Land genutzt wird. Zur Zeit gibt es keinen einheitlichen Planungsansatz, jedoch hat die öffentliche Debatte in Nordthailand ein Stadium erreicht, inklusive der Bergstämmenminderheit, daß der Prozeß der Institutionalisierung weitergehen wird während das Land den Pfad der Demokratie beschreitet. Die Lösung von Problemen und nachhaltiger Landnutzungsplanung wird somit zu einem Testfall für die Umsetzung von guter Regierung auf lokaler Ebene.


4

Abstract (Englisch)

The highlands of northern Thailand are an example of a contradictory situation arising when a centralised government system extends its control to remote areas and clashes with traditional shifting cultivation practices. On the government side, policy is characterised by conflicting interests between forest preservation on the one hand, and the integration of ethnic minorities on the other. Hilltribes, on the other hand, are looking for land security to meet their subsistence needs. It is a precondition for them to modify their traditional farming systems or to explore other alternatives to secure a livelihood. The issue has become one of mediation and conflict resolution in order to overcome the dichotomy between forest protection and agricultural subsistence.

In spite of a lack of policy framework, highland development has shifted towards more participatory approaches, for example Community Based Land Use Planning and Local Watershed Management (CLM) of the Thai-German Highland Development Programme (TG-HDP) in Mae Hong Son province. This research project combined the CLM approach with GIS in order to go beyond the demarcation of land types and to connect the village level to higher planning bodies like the emerging Tambon (sub-district) Administration Organisations. In light of the fundamental problem of highland development described above, and building on the CLM approach, land use maps were digitised to help overcome contradictions between central land use classifications and local village boundaries. By crosschecking topographic models and maps with villagers and government agencies, a communication platform could be created for the formulation of land use plans. Stumbling blocks to participatory planning are illustrated and recommendations for a co-ordinated policy for highland development are made.

In the current move towards decentralisation, the newly forming Tambon (or sub-district) Administrative Organisations (TAO) will evolve as the key link between the state and society. One potential to deal with differing stakeholder priorities at Tambon level could evolve from the current restructuring of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MOAC) as part of the administrative reform. A part of this reform at grass-roots level has been the introduction of Technology Transfer Centres (TTC) initiated in 1998, with 82 of them established nationwide by the Department of Agricultural Extension (DOAE). In this context the Tambon will be a test for participatory land use planning, both in terms of a technical perspective with new Technology Transfer Centres, as well as an administrative one with existing Tambon Administrative Organisations. The plans to link TTCs with TAOs need to consider the importance of representation of key agencies like forestry and land development for aspects of land management, as well as local administration and social welfare for the registration of villages with clear and mutually agreed boundaries.

A bottom-up approach would need to focus on the three main problem areas identified during the research, namely rice sufficiency, forest fallow management, and village boundaries. As long as this state of land insecurity persists, hill tribes will resort to strategies to keep enough land for agricultural production, like the declaration of up to twice the number of upland fields under cultivation, and the interplanting of hedgerows in fallow areas to indicate that the land is used. For the time being a unified planning approach does not exist, but a stage of public debate has been reached in northern Thailand, including those of minority hill tribes, that the process of institutionalisation will continue as the country follows a path to democracy. The resolution of problems and sustainable land use planning will turn into a testing ground for the application of good governance at the local level.


5

Keywords:
Natural resource management, Land use planning, Tambon Administrative Organisation, Policy framework

Schlagwörter:
Natürliches Ressourcenmanagement, Landnutzungsplanung, Tambon Administrative Organisation, Politische Rahmenbedingungen


Seiten: [3] [4] [5] [6] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75 ] [76] [77] [78] [79] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [13] [14] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151]

Inhaltsverzeichnis

TitelseiteHill tribes struggling for a land deal: Participatory land use planning in northern Thailand amid controversial policies
Danksagung
1 Introduction
1.1A short glimpse of conflicts over the highlands
1.2The mountainous north and Mae Hong Son province
1.2.1Location and physical environment
1.2.2The hill tribes
1.2.3Vegetation and land use
1.3The controversy over land degradation
1.4The Thai-German Highland Development Programme
1.4.1Crop Replacement (1984-1987)
1.4.2Soil and Water Conservation (1987-1990)
1.4.3SFS and CLM (1990-1998)
1.5Problem situation and thesis structure
1.5.1Stakeholders and development priorities
1.5.2Structure of this thesis
2 Evolution of land use planning theory
2.1The establishment of land use planning as a science
2.1.1Origins of land valuation and spatial aspects
2.1.2The first system: The USDA land capability classification
2.1.3A global system: The FAO framework for land evaluation
2.1.4Planning with people: Participation
2.2The focus of land use planning
2.2.1Land users
2.2.2Definition of land use planning
2.2.3Goals of land use planning
2.2.4Watershed management
2.3Tools for land use planning and means of survey
2.3.1Geo-physical features and remote sensing
2.3.2Participatory assessment tools
2.4Policy framework and institutional set-up
2.4.1Centralised top-down and participatory bottom-up planning
2.4.2Planning systems and administrative levels
2.4.3The planning process
2.4.4Limitations and key controversial issues
3 Research Methodology
3.1Components of the research approach
3.1.1Main objectives and local realities
3.1.2Resulting focus of the research approach
3.1.3Diamond model for planning
3.1.4Challenges for participatory GIS
3.2The field research
3.2.1Introductory phase
3.2.2Selection of target villages
3.2.3Digitisation of land use maps
3.2.4Field surveys
4 History of policies and institutional setting
4.2Policy prior to planning for the highlands
4.2.1Unlimited natural resource exploitation
4.2.2Vanishing forests, national security and resettlement
4.2.3Forest settlement for Thais only, hill tribes should integrate
4.2.4Security and a watershed classification
4.3Planning highland development
4.3.1Logging ban and the First Highland Master Plan
4.3.2Community forestry and decentralisation
4.3.3The Second Highland Master Plan and a new constitution
4.4Resulting key issues for natural resource management
4.4.1Types of land titles
4.4.2Communal forest management
5 Land use planning in both survey areas
5.1Pang Ma Pha district (Nam Lang)
5.1.2Pa Charoen village
5.1.3Huai Hea village
5.1.4Luk Kao Lam village
5.1.5Bor Krai village (old name Cha-Aeu)
5.1.6A Hill Tribe Network faces government decentralisation
5.2Tambon Huai Poo Ling
5.2.1Huai Hee village
5.2.2Huai Tong village
5.2.3Land use map aggregation at Tambon level
6 Evaluation of the planning approach and outlook
6.1Resilient problems and hill tribe strategies
6.2Land classification and forest types
6.2.1Land tenure terminology
6.2.2Forest types
6.3Topographic models and GIS application
6.3.1Village level
6.3.2Tambon level
6.4Government agencies in communal planning
6.5A proposed approach
7 Conclusions
Bibliographie References
Abkürzungsverzeichnis Abbreviations
Anhang A Annexes

Tabellenverzeichnis

Table 1-1: Population growth over 40 years in Thailand and Mae Hong Son
Table 1-2: Evolution of forest cover decrease in northern Thailand
Table 1-3: Traditional pioneer and rotational swiddening (after rerkasem 1998)
Box 1-1: Steps in land use planning (anonymous 1998,vol.1,30)
Box 1-2: Steps in CLM implementation (anonymous 1998,vol.1,31)
Box 1-3: Factors leading to CLM “area approaches“ (anonymous 1998,vol.1,21)
Table 2-1: A typology of participation (after Pretty et al. 1995,61)
Table 2-2: A comparison of RRA and PRA (by CHAMBERS 1994a,958)
Table 2-3: Key concepts shared by RRA and PRA (from Chambers 1994b,1254-1255; Schönhuth and Kievelitz 1994,7-12):
Table 2-4: Advantage and disadvantage of bottom-up planning (after FAO 1993,7)
Table 3-1: Components of the land use planning model
Table 3-2: Characteristics of surveyed villages (source: TAO offices and TG-HDP)
Table 3-3: Conversion of vectors used by DOLA to UTM coordinates (based on village registration documents of 27 April 1995 and 2 May 1996)
Table 4-1: NEB watershed classification of 1983 (after Tangtham 1992,5).
Table 4-2: Village classification of the Second Highland Master Plan (rtg 1997,7)
Table 4-3: Land distribution in Thailand (from Rattanabirabongse et al. (1998,21)
Table 5-1: The hill tribe cultivation cycle (rattanasorn and puginier 1998,359)
Table 5-2: Land capability classification for Nam Lang (Source: dld 1983,24)
Table 5-3: Land use change in Pang Ma Pha district (tansiri et al. 1995,7)
Table 5-4: Bor Krai village land use data from two sources
Box 5-2: Tambon land use rules (from the Pang Ma Pha and Tham Lod TAO office)
Table 5-5: Watershed classification for Huai Poo Ling (anonymous 1991,5-7)
Box 5-3: Natural resource regulations of Huai Hee (From the village committee)
Box 5-4: Natural resource regulations of Huai Tong (from the village committee)
Table 5-6: Comparison of land use demarcations at Tambon level (data from the TAO office and digitised village maps)
Part 1: The change process from shifting cultivation to permanent agriculture
Part 2: Definition and process of participatory land use planning
Part 3: Traditional land use planning practices
Part 4: Impact of Development Programmes on land use planning
Part 5: Political and Institutional Framework for land use planning
Part 6: Planning Natural Resource Management in future

Abbildungsverzeichnis

Photo 1-1: The root of highland development (Papaver somniferum)
Figure 1-1: The mountainous north of Thailand
Photo 1-2: Karen women cooking
Photo 1-3: Hmong flute player
Photo 1-4: Wherever possible, paddy fields are established in Mae Hong Son
Photo 1-5: Burning of swidden fields by Karen in Mae Hong Son
Photo 1-6: Emergence of highland rice on Karen swidden fields
Figure 1-2: Mountain settlement transect (after kunstadter et al. 1978,8)
Photo 1-7: Regenerating forest fallow after 1 year (Karen swidden)
Figure 1-3: TG-HDP project areas in northern Thailand
Photo 1-8: Hillside pond for irrigation built by the interpreter on his field
Photo 1-9: TAO Secretary of Tham Lod shows land use to visiting village leaders
Figure 2-1: Methodology of the AEZ approach (after FAO 1995)
Figure 2-2: Decision support system for land use planning (after FAO, 1995,27)
Figure 2-3: Two-way links between planning levels (after FAO 1993,6)
Figure 2-4: Various actors in the planning process (after FAO 1993,9)
Figure 3-1: Diamond model for land use planning
Figure 3-2: Map of Pang Ma Pha district (Nam Lang)
Figure 3-3: Map of Huai Poo Ling sub-district
Photo 3-1: Manual transfer of Tambon map to the model in Huai Poo Ling
Photo 3-2: Interviewing a village elder with a Karen interpreter
Figure 4-1: Structure of the Tambon Administrative Organisation (adapted from puntasen 1997,75)
Figure 5-1: Land use map of Nam Lang in 1983 (tansiri et al. 1995,8)
Figure 5-2: Land use of Nam Lang in 1994 (tansiri et al. 1995,10)
Photo 5-1: Helicopter view of Pa Charoen village
Photo 5-2: Incomplete land use model built by the TG-HDP in May 1998
Figure 5-3: Land use map of Pa Charoen village (from klimkeit 1999,32)
Photo 5-3: Huai Hea village on the Tambon model (village No. 8)
Figure 5-4: Land use map of Huai Hea village
Figure 5-5: Land use map of Luk Kao Lam village
Photo 5-4: Bor Krai village on the Tambon model (village No. 11)
Figure 5-6: Land use map of Bor Krai village
Photos 5-5 and 5-6: Pang Ma Pha and Tham Lod Tambon land use models
Photo 5-7: Topographic model of Huai Hee village
Figure 5-7: Land use map of Huai Hee village
Photo 5-8: Ecotourism planning meeting in Huai Hee village
Photo 5-9: Traditional weaving
Photo 5-10: Paddy and upland fields in the dry season
Photo 5-11: Incomplete redrawn village demarcations
Figure 5-8: Land use map of Huai Tong village
Photo 5-12: Tambon model of Huai Poo Ling
Figure 5-9: Land use map of Tambon Huai Poo Ling
Photo 6-1: Which future for land use planning in the highlands?

© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.

DiML DTD Version 2.0
Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML - Version erstellt am:
Wed Aug 28 15:14:57 2002