Die Partnerschaft zwischen Bauern, Forschern, Beratern und ihren Organisationen:
Reflexionen über das Landwirtschaftliche Wissenssystem im Bundesstaat Pará / Brasilien


zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
doctor rerum agriculturarum
(Dr. rer. agr.)

eingereicht an der
Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerischen Fakultät
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Dipl.-Ing. Heribert Schmitz
Geb. am 13.08.46 in Kottenheim

Präsident der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Mlynek

Dekan der Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerischen Fakultät
Prof. Dr. Uwe Jens Nagel

1. Prof. Dr. Uwe Jens Nagel
2. Prof. Dr. Friedhelm Streiffeler

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 19.11.2002

[Seite 272↓]


The cooperation among farmers, extensionists, researchers and their organisations to develop the rural areas in Brazil is in a crisis. Decisions as well as convincing proposals from the government about the future of the rural extension are lacking. The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of research and rural extension services in Brazil and also to the cooperation among the actors in the rural areas. Partnership is introduced as a specific form of participation, in which organisations are the actors. Its impacts go beyond the micro social level to include the meso and the macro levels. Current approaches in Brazilian research and rural extension are analysed first. Based on an understanding of their limits and possibilities, the opportunities for the introduction of new approaches are evaluated. Case studies of two participatory experiences in the Brazilian state of Pará are presented: a research project with farmer groups in a partnership between a research organisation (LAET) and a farmers` organisation (MPST), and the creation of a rural extension service (Lumiar). The fact that these studies are situated within the same context in the Transamazonian region facilitated the assessment of the various dimensions of participation and partnership, allowing analysis of both the research and the extension aspects. The case studies are discussed according to key elements: attitude, motivation, ability, demand, power, organisations, conflicts, trust and negotiations. The results show that one of the most important problems was the uncertainty about the type of partnership, which may take different forms ranging from distant to close. The results of the dialogue between theory and practice, which were structured by the key elements, confirm the possibility of participatory work among different social worlds (farmers, researchers and extensionsts), in which the main problem is the mediation between different interests. Only through the consideration of the organisational level can the actions of the actors be understood, which are characterised at this level by the growing need to protect uncertainty zones. The search for hegemony becomes relevant and the danger of disagreement grows. Power relations and conflicts are natural phenomena which require the attention of the researcher and the extensionist. The actors´ freedom of action provides opportunities for the introduction of new approaches. However, it also limits its regulated implementation. Organisations, initially considered homogeneous, turn into many actors with diverse interests. In negotiations, arguments are less important than interests and power. Because of the power relations and the uncertainty zones, trust is possible only in a limited way. That is why it is more limited to the micro social level, in which the strategies and the power games play a minor role. Many phenomena become apparent only through action, such as the relationship between the stakeholders, their social needs and reasons for cooperation. The integration of research and extension, as well as an increase in interdisciplinarity, can be achieved only through common action at the local level. Subjective factors, especially empathy, play a decisive role in advising, negotiation and conflict management. Based on the case studies, a proposal is presented for an integrated research and extension service. It can be part of the current efforts aimed at redefining services for smallholder agriculture, in which the Brazilian government and farmers` organisations are employing confrontation and dialogue to achieve changes in the agrarian politics.


Tabellen und Kästen


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am: