8 Literaturverzeichnis

[1] American Diabetes Association (2002): Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Care, (vol. 25), No. Suppl. 1, pp.S94-96.

[2] Deutsche Diabetes Gesellschaft 2001 Diagnostik und Therapie des Gestationsdiabetes http://www.deutsche-diabetes-gesellschaft.de Juni 2001

[3] O´Sullivan JB, Mahan CM (1964): Criteria for the oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy, Diabetes, (vol. 13), pp.278-285.

[4] Carpenter MW, Coustan DR (1982): Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 144), pp.768-773.

[5] Sacks DA, Abu-Fadil S, Karten GJ, Forsythe AB, Hackett JR (1987): Screening for gestational diabetes with the one-hour 50-g glucose test, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 70), pp.89-93.

[6] Bundesausschuss der Ärzte und Krankenkassen (1999): Richtlinien des Bundesausschusses der Ärzte und Krankenkassen.

[7] Berkus MD, Langer O (1993): Glucose tolerance test: degree of glucose abnormality correlates with neonatal outcome, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 81), pp.344-348.

[8] Langer O, Conway DL, Berkus MD, Xenakis EM, Gonzales O (2000): A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, N Engl J Med, (vol. 343), pp.1134-1138.

[9] Langer O, Brustman L, Anyaegbunam A et al (1989): Glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus - how tight is tight enough: small for gestational age versus large for gestational age?, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 161), pp.646-653.

[10] Hod M, Rabinerson D, Kaplan B, Peled Y, Bar J, Shindel B, Merlob P, Ovadia J, Neri A. . 1996;75:809-15. (1996): Perinatal complications following gestational diabetes mellitus how 'sweet' is ill?, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, (vol. 75), pp.809-815.

[11] Weiss PA, Walcher W, Scholz HS (1999): Der vernachlässigte Gestationsdiabetes: Risiken und Folgen, Gebh Frauenheilk, (vol. 59), pp.535-544.

[12] Kjos SL (2000): Postpartum care of the woman with diabetes, Clin Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 43), pp.75-86.

[13] Glueck CJ, Wang P, Goldenberg N, Sieve-Smith L (2002): Pregnancy outcomes among women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with metformin, Hum Reprod, (vol. 17), pp.2858-2864.

[14] Suhonen L, Teramo K (1993): Hypertension and pre-eclampsia in women with gestational glucose intolerance, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, (vol. 72), pp.269-272.

[15] Cousins L (1987): Pregnancy complications among diabetic women: review 1965-1985, Obstet Gynecol Surv, (vol. 42), pp.140-149.

[16] Goldman M, Kitzmiller JL, Abrams B, Cowan RM, Laros RK Jr. (1991): Obstetric complications with GDM. Effects of maternal weight, Diabetes, (vol. 40), No. Suppl. 2, pp.79-82.

[17] Sermer M, Naylor CD, Gare DJ, Kenshole AB, Ritchie JWK, Farine D, Cohen HR et al (1995): Impact of increasing carbohydrate intolerance on maternal-fetal outcomes in 3637 women without gestational diabetes. The Toronto Tri-Hospital Gestational Diabetes Project, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 173), pp.14-56.

[18] Efendic S, Hanson U, Persson B, Wajngot A, Luft R (1987): Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin sensitivity in normal-weight women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, (vol. 36), pp.413-419.

[19] O´Sullivan JB (1991): Diabetes mellitus after GDM, Diabetes, (vol. 29), No. Suppl. 2, pp.131-135.

[20] Coustan DR (1993): Gestational diabetes, Diabetes Care, (vol. 16), No. Suppl. 3, pp.8-15.

[21] Metzger BE, Cho NH, Roston SM, Radvany R (1993): Prepregnancy weight and antepartum insulin secretion predict glucose tolerance five years after gestational diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Care, (vol. 16), pp.1598-1605.

[22] Greenberg LR, Moore TR, Murphy H (1995): Gestational diabetes mellitus: antenatal variables as predictors of postpartum glucose intolerance, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 86), pp.97-101.

[23] Kaufmann RC, Schleyhahn FT, Huffman DG, Amankwah KS (1995): Gestational diabetes diagnostic criteria: long-term maternal follow-up, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 172), pp.621-625.

[24] Henry OA, Beischer NA (1991): Long-term implications of gestational diabetes for the mother, Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol, (vol. 5), pp.461-483.

[25] Dornhorst A, Rossi M (1998): Risk and Prevention of type 2 diabetes in women with gestational diabetes, Diabetes Care, (vol. 21), No. Suppl. 2, pp.B43-49.

[26] Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Kjos SL, Trigo E, Lee WP, Peters RK (1999): Antepartum predictors of the development of type 2 diabetes in Latino women 11-26 months after pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, Diabetes, (vol. 48), pp.2430-2436.

[27] Hopp H, Vollert W, Ragosch V et al. (1996): Indications and results of insulin therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus, J Perinat Med, (vol. 24), pp.521-530.

[28] Naylor CD, Sermer M, Chen E, Sykora K (1996): Cesarean delivery in relation to birth weight and gestational glucose tolerance: pathophysiology or practice style? Toronto Trihospital Gestational Diabetes Investigators, JAMA, (vol. 275), pp.1165-1170.

[29] O´Sullivan JB, David C, Mahan CM, Dandrow RV (1973): Gestational diabetes and perinatal mortality rate, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 116), pp.901-904.

[30] Van Assche FA, Holemans K, Aerts L (2001): Long-term consequences for offspring of diabetes during pregnancy, Br Med Bull, (vol. 60), pp.173-182.

[31] Leikin EL, Jenkins JH, Pomerantz GA, Klein L (1987): Abnormal glucose screening tests in pregnancy: a risk factor for fetal macrosomia, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 69), pp.570-573.

[32] Hod M, Merlob P, Friedman S, Schoenfeld A, Ovadia J (1991): Gestational diabetes mellitus. A survey of perinatal complications in the 1980s, Diabetes, (vol. 40), No. Suppl.2, pp.74-78.

[33] Carlson KS, Smith BT, Post M, et al (1984): Insulin acts on the fibroblast to inhibit glucocorticoid stimulation of lung maturation, J Appl Physiol, (vol. 57), pp.1577-1579.

[34] Vogel M (1973): Proceedings: Morphological equivalents of respiratory and nutritive placenta Insufficience, Arch Gynakol, (vol. 214), pp.224-226.

[35] Wigglesworth S, Singer D (1998): Textbook of fetal and perinatal pathology, 2. ed., Science, Blackwell, Ed.

[36] Hultquist GT, Olding LB (1975): Pancreatic-islet fibrosis in young infants of diabetic mothers, Lancet, (vol. 2), pp.1015-1016.

[37] Silverman BL, Metzger BE, Cho NH, Loeb CA (1995): Impaired glucose tolerance in adolescent offspring of diabetic mothers. Relationship to fetal hyperinsulinism, Diabetes Care, (vol. 18), pp.611-617.

[38] Silverman BL, Rizzo T, Green OC, Cho NH, Winter RJ, Ogata ES, Richards GE, Metzger BE (1991): Long-term prospective evaluation of offspring of diabetic mothers. Diabetes. 1991 Dec;40 Suppl 2:121-5., Diabetes, (vol. 40), No. Suppl. 2, pp.121-125.

[39] Dabelea D, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ (2000): Effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring: follow-up research in the Pima Indians, J Matern Fetal Med, (vol. 9), pp.83-88.

[40] Coustan DR, Imrah J (1984): Prophylactic insulin treatment of gestational diabetes reduces the incidence of macrosomia, operative delivery and birth trauma, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 150), pp.836-842.

[41] Reece EA, Homko CJ (2000): Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants?, Clin Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 43), pp.32-45.

[42] Cordero L, Landon MB (1993): Infant of the diabetic mother, Clin Perinat, (vol. 20), pp.635-648.

[43] Weiss PA, Walcher W, Scholz HS (1998): Klinische Bedeutung des Geburtsgewichts bei Diabetes mellitus, Gynäkologe, (vol. 31), pp.58-67.

[44] Buchanan TA, Kjos SL, Montoro MN et al (1994): Use of ultrasound to select metabolic therapy for pregnacies complicated by mild gestational diabetes, Diab Care, (vol. 17), pp.275-283.

[45] Green OC, Winter RJ, Depp R et al (1987): Fuel-mediated teratogenesis: prospective correlations between anthroprometric development in childhood and antepartum maternal metabolism (Abstract), Clin Res, (vol. 35), p.657a.

[46] Pettitt DJ, Knowler WC, Bennett PH, Aleck KA, Baird HR (1987): Obesity in offspring of Pima indian women despite normal birth weight, Diab Care, (vol. 10), pp.76-80.

[47] Metzger BE, Silverman BL, Freinkel N, Dooley SL, Ogata ES, Green OC (1990): Amniotic fluid insulin as a predictor of obesity, Arch Dis Child Suppl, (vol. 10), pp.1050-1052.

[48] Vohr BR, McGarvey ST, Coll CG (1995): Effects of maternal gestational diabetes and adiposity on neonatal adiposity and blood pressure, Diabetes Care, (vol. 17), pp.467-475.

[49] Kuhl C, Hornnes PJ, Andersen O (1985): Etiology and pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, (vol. 34), No. Suppl. 2, pp.66-70.

[50] Freinkel N, Metzger BE, Phelps RL, Dooley SL, Ogata ES, Radvany RM, Belton A (1985): Gestational diabetes mellitus. Heterogeneity of maternal age, weight, insulin secretion, HLA antigens, and islet cell antibodies and the impact of maternal metabolism on pancreatic B-cell and somatic development in the offspring, Diabetes, (vol. 34), pp.1-7.

[51] Weiss PA, Walcher W, Scholz HS (1988): Gestational diabetes: A survey and the Graz approach to diagnosis and therapy, Weiss PAM, Coustan DR, Ed, Gestational diabetes, pp. 1-55, Springer-Verlag, Wien.

[52] Berkus MD, Stern MP, Braxton DM, Mitchell BD, Abashawl A, Langer O (1990): Relationsship between glucose levels and insulin secretion during glucose challenge test, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 163), pp.1818-1822.

[53] Catalano PM, Tyzbir ED, Wolfe RR, Calles J, Roman NM, Amini SB, Sims EAH (1993): Carbohydrate metabolism during pregancy in control subjects and women with gestational diabetes., Am Physiol Soc, pp.E60-E67.

[54] Baldwin S, Chung T, Rogers M, Chard T, Wang HS (1992): Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1, glucose tolerance and fetal growth in human pregnancy, J Endocrinol, (vol. 136), pp.319-325.

[55] Coustan DR, Nelson C, Carpenter MW, Carr SR, Rotondo L, Widness JA (1989): Maternal age and screening for gestational diabetes: a population based study, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 73), pp.557-561.

[56] Langer O (1993): Management of gestational diabetes, Clin Perinat, (vol. 20), pp.603-607.

[57] Engelau MM, Herman WH, Smith PJ, German RR, Aubert RE (1995): The epidemiology of diabetes and pregnancy in the U.S., 1988, Diab Care, (vol. 18), pp.1029-1033.

[58] Höß C, Kolben M, Kohl A, Thurmayr GR, Schneider KTM (1997): Adipositas in der Schwangerschaft:ein Risiko für Mutter und Kind, Gebh Frauenheilk, (vol. 57), pp.277-281.

[59] Moses RG, Shand JL, Tapsell LC (1997): The recurrence of gestational diabetes: Could dietary differences in fat intake be an explanation?, Diab Care, (vol. 11), pp.1647-1650.

[60] Green JR, Pawson IG, Schumacher LB, Perry J, Kretschmer N (1990): Glucose intolerance in pregnancy:Ethic variation and influence of body habitus, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 163), pp.86-92.

[61] Dooley SL, Metzger BE, Cho NH (1991): Gestational diabetes mellitus. Influence of race on disease prevalence and periantal outcome in a U.S. population, Diabetes, (vol. 40), pp.25-29.

[62] Bühling KJ, Stein U, Dudenhausen J (1998): Evaluation des 50g-Glukose-Screeningtests an 1416 Schwangeren, Gebh Frauenheilk, (vol. 58), pp.100-109.

[63] Deutsche Diabetes Gesellschaft 1992 Richtlinien der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Diabetes und Schwangerschaft- Diagnostik und Therapie des Gestationsdiabetes

[64] Weiss PA, Haeusler M, Kainer F, Purstner P, Haas J (1998): Toward universal criteria for gestational diabetes: relationships between seventy-five and one hundred gram glucose loads and between capillary and venous glucose concentrations, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 178), pp.830-835.

[65] Bühling KJ, Dudenhausen JW (2000): Ein Risiko für Mutter und Kind, Berliner Ärzte, (vol. 2), pp.15-17.

[66] Tallarigo L, Giampietro O, Penno G et al (1986): Relation of Glucose Tolerance to Complications of Pregnancy in Nondiabetic Women, N Engl J Med, (vol. 315), pp.989-992.

[67] Hadden DR, et al (2002): The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study: a work in progress. Diabetologia 2002;45, Suppl. 2: A 294, Diabetologia, (vol. 45), No. Suppl. 2,p.A 294.

[68] Metzger BE, Coustan DR (1998): Summary and recommendations of the fourth international workshop-conference on gestational diabetes mellitus, Diab Care, (vol. 21), No. Suppl. 2, pp.B161-167.

[69] Conn JW (1940): Interpretation of the glucose tolerance test: necessity of standard preparatory diet, Am J Med Sci, (vol. 199), pp.555-564.

[70] Wilkerson HL, Harris H, Kaufman M, McCuistion AC, Francis JO (1960): Diagnostic evaluation of the oral glucose tolerance test in nondiabetic subjects after various levels of carbohydrate intake, N Engl J Med, (vol. 262), pp.1047-1053.

[71] Committee on Statistics of the American Diabetes Association (1969): Standardization of the oral glucose tolerance test, Report of the committee on statistics of the American Diabetes Association, Diabetes, (vol. 18), pp.299-307.

[72] National Diabetes Data Group (1979): Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance, Diabetes, (vol. 28), pp.1039-1057.

[73] WHO-study-group 1985 Diabetes mellitus, report of WHO-study-group. No 727 Genf WHO

[74] Workshop Conference (1985): Summary and Recommendations of the Second International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes, (vol. 34), pp.123-126.

[75] Kaneko T, Wang PY, Tawata M, Sato A (1998): Low carbohydrate intake before oral glucose-tolerance tests, Lancet, (vol. 352), p.289.

[76] Wang PY, Kaneko T, Wang Y, Tawata M, Sato A (1999): Impairment of glucose tolerance in normal adults following a lowered carbohydrate intake, Tohoku J Exp Med, (vol. 189), pp.59-70.

[77] Straznicky NE, O'Callaghan CJ, Barrington VE, Louis WJ (1999): Hypotensive effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can be independent of changes in plasma insulin concentrations, Hypertension, (vol. 34), pp.580-585.

[78] Buchanan TA, Metzger BE, Freinkel N (1990): Accelerated starvation in late pregnancy: a comparison between obese women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 162), pp.1015-1020.

[79] Boden G (1996): Fuel metabolism in pregnancy and in gestational diabetes mellitus, Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am, (vol. 23), pp.1-10.

[80] Harlass FE, McClure GB, Read JA, Brady K (1991): Use of a standard preparatory diet for the oral glucose tolerance test. Is it necessary?, J Reprod Med, (vol. 36), pp.147-150.

[81] Crowe SM, Mastrobattista JM, Monga M (2000): Oral glucose tolerance test and the preparatory diet, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 182), pp.1052-1054.

[82] Entrekin K, Work B, Owen J (1998): Does a high carbohydrate preparatory diet affect the 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy?, J Matern Fetal Med, (vol. 7), pp.68-71.

[83] Burkhart W, Holzgreve W, Dame WR, Schneider HPG (1986): Antenatal assessment of fetal outcome in pregnant diabetics, J Perinat Med, (vol. 14), pp.293-297.

[84] Crombach G, Hammerschmidt C, Schmitz-Röckerath B (1996): Relationship between amnotic fluid insulin and materanl blood glucose concenmtration in patients with carbohydrate intolerance during pregnancy, J Perinat Med, (vol. 24), pp.77-84.

[85] Woltmann W (1998): Insulin, C - Peptide und IGF 1 im Fruchtwasser stoffwechselgesunder Schwangeren, Dissertation der Medizinischen Fakultät der Freien Universität zu Berlin: akademos Wissenschaftsverlag.

[86] Susa JB, Schwartz R (1985): Effects of hyperinsulinemia in the primate fetus, Diabetes, (vol. 34), No. Suppl. 2.

[87] Miodovnik M, Skillman C, Holroyde JC, Butler JB, Wendel JS, Siddiqi TA (1985): Elevated maternal glycohemoglobin in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortion among insulin-dependent diabetic women, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 153), pp.439-442.

[88] Key TC, Giuffrida R, Moore TR (1987): Predictive value of early pregnancy glycohemoglobin in the insulin-treated diabetic patient, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 156), pp.1096-1100.

[89] Bochner CJ, Medearis AL, Williams J 3rd, Castro L, Hobel CJ, Wade ME (1987): Early third-trimester ultrasound screening in gestational diabetes to determine the risk of macrosomia and labor dystocia at term, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 157), pp.703-708.

[90] Weeks JW, Major CA, de Veciana M, Morgan MA (1994): Gestational diabetes: does the presence of risk factors influence perinatal outcome?, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 171), pp.1003-1007.

[91] McLaren RA, Puckett JL, Chauhan SP (1995): Estimators of birth weight in pregnant women requiring insulin: a comparison of seven sonographic models, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 85), pp.565-569.

[92] Persson B, Hanson U (1998): Neonatal morbidities in gestational diabetes mellitus, Diab Care, (vol. 21), No. Suppl 2, pp.B79-84.

[93] Ogata ES, Sabbagha R, Metzger BE, Phelps RL, Depp R, Freinkel N (1980): Serial ultrasonography to assess evolving fetal macrosomia. Studies in 23 pregnant diabetic women, JAMA, (vol. 243), pp.2405-2408.

[94] Kainer F, Weiss PAM, Huttner U, Haas J (1997): Ultrasound growth parameters in relation to levels of amniotic fluid insulin in women with diabetes type I, Early Hum Dev, (vol. 49), pp.113-121.

[95] Hüttner U, Kainer F, Weiss PA, Haas J (1997): Fetal ultrasound biometry and amniotic fluid insulin concentration in pregnant diabetic patients, Gynakol-Geburtshilfliche-Rundsch, (vol. 37), pp.21-24.

[96] Weiss PA (2002): Diabetes und Schwangerschaft, Springer, Heidelberg.

[97] Kleinwechter H (2000): The government sponsored model project Gestational diabetes (GDM) Schleswig-Holstein: Prevalence and foetal outcome in unselected pregnant women following the successful implementation of screening for GDM, Diabetologia, (vol. 43), No. Suppl. 1, p.A 56.

[98] Weiss PA (2002): Diabetes und Schwangerschaft, Springer, Heidelberg.

[99] Parretti E, Mecacci F, Papini M, Cioni R, Carignani L, Mignosa M, La Torre P, Mello G (2001): Third-Trimester Maternal Glucose Levels From Diurnal Profiles in Nondiabetic Pregnancies, Diabetes Care, (vol. 24), pp.1319-1323.

[100] Brehm R, Janisch H (1968): Latent diabetes, pregnancy and high brith weight, Wien Klin Wochenschr, (vol. 80), pp.113-116.

[101] Heisig N (1975): Pregnancy glycosuria, Dtsch Med Wochenschr, (vol. 100), pp.1298-1303.

[102] Drexel H, Sailer S (1980): Kinetics of glucose handling in renal glucosuria during pregnancy, Klin Wochenchr, (vol. 58), pp.1299-1306.

[103] Kurtzman NA, Pillay VK (1973): Renal reabsorption of glucose in health and disease, Arch Intern Med, (vol. 131), pp.901-904.

[104] Godel E (1973): Prediabetic state and pregnancy, Zentralbl Gynakol, (vol. 95), pp.1793-1805.

[105] Schröder W, Glycosuria in pregnancy. Gynakologe. 1991 Aug; 24(4): 228-9. (1991): Glycosuria in pregnancy, Gynäkologe, (vol. 24), pp.228-229.

[106] Allen E (1939), Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 83), p.982.

[107] Gilbert JAL, Dunlop DM (1949), Br Med J, (vol. 1), p.48.

[108] Sims EA (1968): Renal function in normal pregnancy, Clin Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 11), pp.461-472.

[109] Lind T, Hytten FE (1972): The excretion of glucose during normal pregnancy, J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw, (vol. 79), pp.961-965.

[110] Mather HM, Oakley NW (1982): Symptomless abnormalities: Asymptomatic glycosuria, Br J Hosp Med, (vol. April), pp.354-357.

[111] Cunningham FG, MacDonald PC, Grant NF (1989): Williams Obstetrics (vol. 149), 18. ed., Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Connecticut.

[112] Davison JM, Sprott MS, Selkon JB (1984): The effect of covert bacteriuria in schoolgirls on renal function at 18 years and during pregnancy, Lancet, (vol. 2), pp.651-655.

[113] Davison JM, Hytten FE (1975): The effect of pregnancy on the renal handling of glucose, Br J Obstet Gynaecol, (vol. 82), pp.374-381.

[114] Fine J (1967): Glycosuria of pregnancy, Br Med J, (vol. 1), pp.205-210.

[115] Feige A, Mitzkat HJ (1977): Glycosuria in pregnancy, Med Klin, (vol. 72), pp.240-246.

[116] Mortensen H, Molsted-Pedersen L, Schmolker L, Olesen H (1985): Reference intervals for urinary glucose in pregnancy, Scand J Clin Lab Invest, (vol. 44), pp.409-412.

[117] Olesen H, Mortensen H, Molsted-Pedersen L (1983): More on reliability of reagent-strip urinalyses for glucose, Clin Chem, (vol. 29), p.212.

[118] Penning W, Dittmar F (1965): Diabetes mellitus und Schwangerschaft. Erfahrungen bei der Betreuung gravider Diabetikerinnen, Med Klin, (vol. 60), p.1929.

[119] Schmidt FH (1973): Fehlerquellen bei der quantitativen und qualitativen Harnzuckerbestimmung, Diagnostik, (vol. 6), p.250.

[120] Acland JD, Clayton H, Mitchell B (1960): Reproducibility of a glucose tolerance tes, J Appl Physiol, (vol. 17), pp.119-122.

[121] McDonald GW, Fisher GF, Burnham C (1965): Reproducibility of the oral glucose tolerance test, Diabetes, (vol. 14), pp.473-480.

[122] Sacks DA, Abu-Fadil S, Greenspoon JS, Fotheringham N (1989): How reliable is the fifty-gram, one-hour glucose screening test?, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 161), pp.642-645.

[123] Jovanovic L, Peterson CM (1985): Screening for gestational diabetes. Optimum timing and criteria for retesting, Diabetes, (vol. 34), No. Suppl. 2, pp.21-23.

[124] Benjamin F, Wilson SJ, Deutsch S, Seltzer VL, Droesch K, Droesch J (1986): Effect of advancing pregnancy on the glucose tolerance test and on the 50-g oral glucose load screening test for gestational diabetes, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 68), pp.362-365.

[125] Watson WJ (1989): Serial changes in the 50-g oral glucose test in pregnancy: implications for screening, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 74), pp.40-43.

[126] Espinosa de los Monteros A, Parra A, Carino N, Ramirez A (1993): The reproducibility of the 50-g, 1-hour glucose screen for diabetes in pregnancy, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 82), pp.515-518.

[127] Van Turnhout EW, Lotgering FK, Wallenburg HCS (1994): Poor sensitivity of the fifty-gram one-hour glucose screening test for hyperglycemia, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, (vol. 53), pp.7-10.

[128] Backx CJM, Lotgering FK, Cornelis H, Wallenburg S (1989): Oral glucose tolerance test is a poor predictor of hyperglycemia during pregnancy, J Perinat Med, (vol. 17), pp.253-257.

[129] Hooper DW (1996): Detecting GD and Preeclampsia. Effectiveness of Routine Urine Screening for Glucose and Protein, J Reprod Med, (vol. 41), pp.885-888.

[130] Bühling KJ, Dudenhausen JW (2002): Teststreifenanalyse und Harnsediment, Dtsch Med Wochenschr, (vol. 161), p.1718.

[131] Graves WK, Neff R, Mark P (1967): Altered glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Its determination and fetal outcome, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 98), pp.602-608.

[132] Hadden DR, Harley JM, Kajtar TJ, Montgomery DA (1971): A prospective study of three tests of glucose tolerance in pregnant women selected for potential diabetes with reference to the foetal outcome, Diabetologia, (vol. 7), pp.87-93.

[133] Engelhardt W (1974): Hydramnios and glucose tolerance: the incidence of hydramnios in 461 pregnant patients suspected of diabetes correlated to glucose tolerance, Gebh Frauenheilk, (vol. 34), pp.851-856.

[134] Pehrson SL (1974): A study of the relationship between some prediabetic stigmas, glucose tolerance in late pregnancy and the birthweight of the children, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl, (vol. 33), pp.1-152.

[135] Semmler K, Semmler S, Steindel E, Lambeck M, Minkwitz HG (1990): Early detection of diabetes in pregnancy--a factor for reducing perinatal mortality and morbidity, Zentralbl Gynakol, (vol. 112), pp.697-705.

[136] Ratzmann KP (1994): Screening studies in diagnosis of diabetes. Do they still have practical value? . 1994 Apr 20; 112(11): 150-3, Fortschr Med, (vol. 112), pp.150-153.

[137] Mamsen A, Ljungstrom B, Klebe JG (1990): Screening of potential diabetic patients with fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance test, Zentralbl Gynakol, (vol. 112), pp.1469-1475.

[138] Kristiansen JL, Kierkegaard O (1992): Screening for gestational diabetes in Denmark, Ugeskr Laeger, (vol. 154), pp.2831-2832.

[139] Agardh CD, Aberg A, Norden NE (1996): Glucose levels and insulin secretion during a 75 g glucose challenge test in normal pregnancy, J Intern Med, (vol. 240), pp.303-309.

[140] Wolff C, Verlohren HJ, Arlt P, Mechmedowa F, Kripylo C, Wetzler C (1987): The fate of patients with diabetes in pregnancy--classification of gestational diabetes following the completion of pregnancy, Zentralbl Gynakol, (vol. 109), pp.88-97.

[141] Feige A, Feige-Bruhns R (1977): Diabetes detection diagnosis in pregnancy, Med Monatsschr, (vol. 31), pp.60-65.

[142] Auinger W (1970): Effect of prophylactic measures in pregnant women suspected of prediabetes, Wien Klin Wochenschr, (vol. 82), pp.889-891.

[143] Drury MI, Timoney FJ (1970): Latent diabetes in pregnancy, J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw, (vol. 77), pp.24-28.

[144] Jackson WP, Coetzee EJ (1979): Glycosuria as an indication for glucose tolerance testing during pregnancy, S Afr Med J, (vol. 56), pp.921-923.

[145] O´Sullivan JB, Mahan CM, Charles D, Danchrow RV (1973): Screening criteria for high-risk gestational diabetic patients. Am J Obstet. Gynecol. 1973; 116: 895-900., Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 116), pp.895-900.

[146] Lavin JP Jr. (1985): Screening of high-risk and general populations for gestational diabetes. Clinical application and cost analysis, Diabetes, (vol. 34), No. Suppl 2, pp.24-27.

[147] Marquette GP, Klein VR, Niebyl JR (1985): Efficacy of screening for gestational diabetes, Am J Perinat, (vol. 2), pp.7-9.

[148] Jowett NI, Samanta AK, Burden AC (1987). (1987): Screening for diabetes in pregnancy: is a random blood glucose enough?, Diabet Med, (vol. 4), pp.160-163.

[149] Lang U, Künzel W (1990): Maternale Blutglukose als Screening für Kohlenhydrattoleranzstörungen in der Schwangerschaft, Gynäkologe, (vol. 23), pp.303-306.

[150] Sacks DA, Greenspoon JS, Fotheringham N J (1992): Could the fasting plasma glucose assay be used to screen for gestational diabetes?, Reprod Med, (vol. 37), pp.907-909.

[151] Hopp H, Vollert W, Ragosch V, Pritze W, Ebert A, Entezami M, Weitzel H (1995): Vermeidung kindlicher Risiken durch ein generelles Gestationsdiabetes-Screening, intensivierte Diagnostik und konsequente Therapie, Gebh Frauenheilk, (vol. 55), pp.28-31.

[152] Schrader HM, Jovanovic-Peterson L, Bevier WC, Peterson CM (1995): Fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated plasma protein at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation predict macrosomia in the general obstetric population, Am J Perinat, (vol. 12), pp.247-251.

[153] Nagy G (1993): Postprandial blood-glucose-screening for gestational diabetes, Zentralbl Gynakol, (vol. 115), pp.36-40.

[154] Roberts AB, Baker JR, Metcalf P, Mullard C (1990): Fructosamine copared with a glucose load as a screening test for gestational diabetes, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 76), pp.773-781.

[155] Hughes PF, Agarwal M, Newman P, Morrison J (1995): An evaluation of fructosamine estimation in screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabet.Med. 12, 708-712, Diabet Med, (vol. 12), pp.708-712.

[156] Agarwal MM, Hughes PF, Punnose J, Ezimokhai M, Thomas L (2001): Gestational diabetes screening of a multiethnic, high-risk population using.

[157] Cousins L, Dattel BJ, Hollingsworth DR, Zettner A (1984): Glycosylated hemoglobin as a screening test for carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 150), pp.455-460.

[158] Knopp RH, Magee MS, Walden CE, Bonet B, Benedetti TJ (1992): Prediction of infant birth weight by GDM screening tests. Importance of plasma triglyceride, Diabetes Care, (vol. 15), pp.1605-1613.

[159] Marks V (1996): Blood glucose: ist measurement and clinical importance, Clin Chim Acta, (vol. 251), pp.3-17.

[160] Burrin JM, Alberti KGMM (1990): What is blood glucose: can it be measured?, Diabetic Medicine, (vol. 7), pp.199-206.

[161] Schlebusch H (1996): Dezentrale Blutglucosebestimmungen im Krankenhaus, DG Klinische Chemie Mitteilungen, (vol. 27), pp.91-103.

[162] Hicks JM, Haeckel R, Price CP, Lewandrowski K, Wu AHB (2001): Recommendations and opinions for the use of point-of-care testing for hospitals and primary care: summary of a 1999 symposium, Clinica Chimica Acta, (vol. 303), pp.1-17.

[163] Deutsche Diabetes-Gesellschaft (1993): Diagnostik und Therapie des Gestationsdiabetes. Richtlinien der Deutschen Diabetes-Gesellschaft 1992, Frauenarzt, (vol. 34), pp.13-14.

[164] Institute of Medicine (2003), http://www.iom.edu/includes/DBFile.asp?id=4154.

[165] Kaiser LL, Allen L, (2002): Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome, J Am Diet Assoc, (vol. 102), pp.1479-1490.

[166] Hollingsworth DR, Ney DM (1992): Caloric restriction in pregnant diabetic women: a review of maternal obesity, glucose and insulin relationships as investigated at the University of California, San Diego, J Am Coll Nutr, (vol. 11), pp.251-258.

[167] Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM (1990): Dietary manipulation as a primary treatment strategy for pregnancies complicated by diabetes, J Am Coll Nutr, (vol. 9), pp.320-325.

[168] Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM (1992): Nutritional management of the obese gestational diabetic pregnant woman, J Am Coll Nutr, (vol. 11), pp.246-250.

[169] Hytten FE, Leitch I (1971): The Physiology of Human Pregnancy, Blackwell Science, Oxford.

[170] Durnin JV, McKillop FM, Grant S, Fitzgerald G (1985): Is nutritional status endangered by virtually no extra intake during pregnancy?, Lancet, (vol. 2), pp.823-825.

[171] Mulford MI, Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM (1993): Alternative therapies for the management of gestational diabetes, Clin Perinat, (vol. 20), pp.619-634.

[172] Abrams BF, Laros RK Jr. (1986): Prepregnancy weight, weight gain, and birth weight, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 154), pp.503-509.

[173] Catalano PM, Roman-Drago NM, Amini SB, Sims EA (1998): Longitudinal changes in body composition and energy balance in lean women with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 179), pp.156-165.

[174] National Academy of Sciences 2003 Total Amount and Pattern of Weight Gain: Physiologic and Maternal Determinants The National Academies Press. http://books.nap.edu/books/0309041384/html/96.html

[175] Metzger BE (1991): Summary and recommendations of the Third International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes, (vol. 40), No. Suppl. 2, pp.197-201.

[176] Major CA, Henry MJ, de Veciana M, Morgan MA (1998): The effects of carbohydrate restriction in patients with diet-controlled gestational diabetes, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 91), pp.600-604.

[177] Knopp RH, Magee MS, Raisys V, Benedetti T (1991): Metabolic effects of hypocaloric diets in management of gestational diabetes, Diabetes, (vol. 40), No. Suppl. 2, pp.165-171.

[178] Magee MS, Knopp RH, Benedetti TJ (1990): Metabolic effects of 1200-kcal diet in obese pregnant women with gestational diabetes, Diabetes, (vol. 39), pp.234-240.

[179] Knopp RH, Magee MS, Raisys V, Benedetti T, Bonet B (1991): Hypocaloric diets and ketogenesis in the management of obese gestational diabetic women, J Am Coll Nutr, (vol. 10), pp.649-667.

[180] Churchill JA, Moghissi KS, Evans TN, Frohman (1969): Relationships of maternal amino acid blood levels to fetal development, Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 33), pp.492-495.

[181] Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K (1991): Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and child intelligence, N Engl J Med, (vol. 325), pp.911-916.

[182] Mills JL, Knopp RH, Simpson JL, Jovanovic-Peterson L, Metzger BE, Holmes LB, Aarons JH, Brown Z, Reed GF, Bieber FR (1988): Lack of relation of increased malformation rates in infants of diabetic mothers to glycemic control during organogenesis, N Engl J Med, (vol. 318), pp.671-676.

[183] Jenkins DJ, Ocana A, Jenkins AL, Wolever TM, Vuksan V, Katzman L, Hollands M, and Greenberg G, Corey P, Patten R (1992): Metabolic advantages of spreading the nutrient load: effects of increased meal frequency in non-insulin-dependent diabetes, Am J Clin Nutr, (vol. 55), pp.461-467.

[184] Peterson CM, Jovanovic-Peterson L (1991): Percentage of carbohydrate and glycemic response to breakfast, lunch, and dinner in women with gestational diabetes, Diabetes, (vol. 40), No. Suppl. 2, pp.172-174.

[185] Loma Linda University Medical Center (2003): California Diabetes and Pregnancy Program. Sweet Success Program, http://www.llu.edu/llumc/sweetsuccess/index.html.

[186] Wijendran V, Bendel RB, Couch SC, Philipson EH, Thomsen K, Zhang X, Lammi-Keefe CJ (1999): Maternal plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy with and without gestational diabetes mellitus: relations with maternal factors, Am J Clin Nutr, (vol. 70), pp.53-61.

[187] Jovanovic L (1999): Time to reassess the optimal dietary prescription for women with gestational diabetes, Am J Clin Nutr, (vol. 70), pp.3-4.

[188] Montelongo A, Lasuncion MA, Pallardo LF, Herrera E (1992): Longitudinal study of plasma lipoproteins and hormones during pregnancy in normal and diabetic women, Diabetes, (vol. 41), pp.1651-1659.

[189] Heinemann L, Berger M (2000): Insulintherapie, M, Berger, Ed, Diabetes mellitus, pp. 125-149, Urban&Fischer, München.

[190] Kitzmiller JL, Main E, Ward B, Theiss T, Peterson DL (1999): Insulin lispro and the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy., Diabetes Care, (vol. 22), pp.874-876.

[191] Scherbaum WA, Lankisch MR, Pawlowski B, Somville T (2002): Insulin Lispro in pregnancy--retrospective analysis of 33 cases and matched controls, Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes, (vol. 110), pp.6-9.

[192] Persson B, Swahn ML, Hjertberg R, Hanson U, Nord E, Nordlander E, Hansson LO (2002): Insulin lispro therapy in pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, (vol. 58), pp.115-121.

[193] Masson EA, Patmore JE, Brash PD, Baxter M, Caldwell G, Gallen IW, Price PA, Vice PA, Walker JD, Lindow SW (2003): Pregnancy outcome in Type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin lispro (Humalog), Diabet Med, (vol. 20), pp.46-50.

[194] Elliott BD, Langer O, Schenker S, Johnson RF (1991): Insignificant transfer of glyburide occurs across the human placent, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 165), pp.807-812.

[195] Elliott BD, Schenker S, Langer O, Johnson R, Prihoda T (1994): Comparative placental transport of oral hypoglycemic agents in humans: a model of human placental drug transfer, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 171), pp.653-660.

[196] Hellmuth E, Damm P, Molsted-Pedersen L (2000): Oral hypoglycaemic agents in 118 diabetic pregnancies, Diabet Med, (vol. 17), pp.507-511.

[197] Jensen DM, Sorensen B, Feilberg-Jorgensen N, Westergaard JG, Beck-Nielsen H (2000): Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 143 Danish women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 143 controls with a similar risk profile, Diabet Med, (vol. 17), pp.281-286.

[198] Hall DC, Kaufmann DA (1987): Effects of aerobic and strength conditioning on pregnancy outcomes, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 157), pp.1199-1203.

[199] Clapp JF 3rd (1990): The course of labor after endurance exercise during pregnancy, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 163), pp.1799-1805.

[200] Clapp JF 3rd, Capeless EL (1990): Neonatal morphometrics after endurance exercise during pregnancy, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 163), pp.1805-1811.

[201] Varrassi G, Bazzano C, Edwards WT (1989): Effects of physical activity on maternal plasma beta-endorphin levels and perception of labor pain, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 160), pp.707-712.

[202] Artal R (2003): Exercise: the alternative therapeutic intervention for gestational diabetes, Clin Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 46), pp.479-487.

[203] Jovanovic-Peterson L, Durak EP, Peterson CM (1989): Randomized trial of diet versus diet plus cardiovascular conditioning on glucose levels in gestational diabetes, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 161), pp.415-419.

[204] Bung P, Bung C, Artal R, Khodiguian N, Fallenstein F, Spatling L (1993): Therapeutic exercise for insulin-requiring gestational diabetics: effects on the fetus--results of a randomized prospective longitudinal study, J Perinat Med, (vol. 21), pp.125-137.

[205] Bung P (1997): Schwangerschaft und Sport - physiologische Überlegungen und praktische Beispiele, Z Geburtsh Neonatol, (vol. 201), No. Suppl. 1, pp.13-20.

[206] Jovanovic-Peterson L, Bevier W, Peterson CM (1997): The Santa Barbara County Health Care Services program: birth weight change concomitant with screening for and treatment of glucose-intolerance of pregnancy: a potential cost-effective intervention?, Am J Perinatol, (vol. 14), pp.221-228.

[207] Weiss PA, Hofmann HM, Winter RR et al (1986): Diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes according to amniotic fluid insulin levels, Arch Gynecol, (vol. 239), pp.81-91.

[208] Koschinsky T, Heinemann L (2001): Sensors for glucose monitoring: technical and clinical aspects, Diabetes Metab Res Rev, (vol. 17), pp.113-123.

[209] Gross TM (2002): Area under the curve analysis of CGMS profiles provides greater detail on hypo-and hyperglycemic exposure than Hba1c, Diabetes, (vol. 51), No. Suppl. 2,p.493.

[210] Broz, et al (2001): Continuous glucose monitoring can help to decrease frequency of symptomatic hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, Diabetologia, (vol. 44), No. Suppl. 1,p.837.

[211] Carr, et al (2002): Continuous glucose monitoring in marathon runners with typ 1 diabetes during the 2001 Chicago marathon, Diabetes, (vol. 51), No. Suppl. 2, p.988.

[212] Deiss, et al (2001): Long hypoglycaemic periods detected by subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in toddlers and pre-school children with diabetes mellitus, Diabetic Medicine, (vol. 18), pp.333-338.

[213] Jovanovic L (2000): The role of continuous glucose monitoring in gestational diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Technol Ther, (vol. 2), No. Suppl. 1, pp.S67-S71.

[214] St-Louis P (2000): Status of point-of-care testing: promise, realities, and possibilities, Clin Biochem, (vol. 33), pp.427-440.

[215] Kjos SL, Schaefer-Graf U, Sardesi S, Peters RK, Buley A, Xiang AH, Bryne JD, Sutherland C, Montoro MN, Buchanan TA (2001): A randomized controlled trial using glycemic plus fetal ultrasound parameters versus glycemic parameters to determine insulin therapy in gestational diabetes with fasting hyperglycemia, Diabetes Care, (vol. 24), pp.1904-1910.

[216] Langer O, Anyaegbunam A, Brustman L, Divon M (1989): Management of woment with one abnormal oral glucose tolerance test value reduces adverse outcome in pregnancy, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 161), pp.593-599.

[217] Langer O, Berkus M, Brustman L, Anyaegbunam A, Mazze R (1991): Rationale for insulin management in gestational diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, (vol. 40), No. Suppl. 2, pp.186-190.

[218] Langer O, Mazze R (1988): The relationship between large-for-gestational-age infants and glycemic control in women with gestational diabetes, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 159), pp.1478-1483.

[219] Hughes OR (1975): Reduced carbohydrate intake in the preparatory diet and the reliability of the oral glucose tolerance test, Aviat Space Environ Med, (vol. 46), pp.725-728.

[220] Harlass FE, Brady K, Read JA (1991): Reproducibility of the oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy, Am J Obstet Gynecol, (vol. 164), pp.564-568.

[221] Vambergue A, Nuttens MC, Goeusse P, Biausque S, Lepeut M, Fontaine P (2002): Pregnancy induced hypertension in women with gestational carbohydrate intolerance: the diagest study, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, (vol. 102), pp.31-35.

[222] Corcoy R, Gascon N, de Leiva A, Ordonez-Llanos J (2000): Usual delay in sample processing can modify gestational diabetes screening, Diabetes Care, (vol. 23), p.429.

[223] Bergenstal R, Pearson J, Cembrowski GS, Bina D, Davidson J, List S (2000): Identifying variables associated with inaccurate self-monitoring of blood glucose: proposed guidelines to improve accuracy, Diabetes Educ, (vol. 26), pp.981-989.

[224] Alto WA, Meyer D, Schneid J, Bryson P, Kindig J (2002): Assuring the accuracy of home glucose monitoring, J Am Board Fam Pract, (vol. 15), pp.1-6.

[225] Brinkmeier T (1994): Einfluss des Blutzuckertagesprofils auf das fetale und maternale Outcome" Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2003, Turnhout HEW van, Lotgering FK, Wallenburg HCS. Poor sensitivity of the fifty-gram one-hour glucose screening test for hyperglycemia, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, (vol. 53), pp.7-10.

© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am: