[Seite 24↓]

References

Adams HP, Love BB. Medical management of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Barnett HJM, Mohr JP, Stein BM, Yatsu FM (eds). Stroke. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1992, pp 1029-1054.

Allen GS, Bahr AL. Cerebral arterial spasm: Part 10. Reversal of acute and chronic spasm in dogs with orally administered nifedipine. Neurosurgery 1979 4: 43-47.

Andersson KE, Edvinsson L, MacKenzie ET, Skarby T, Young AR. Influence of extracellular calcium and calcium antagonists on contractions induced by potassium and prostaglandin F2 alpha in isolated cerebral and mesenteric arteries of the cat. Br J Pharmacol 1983 79: 135-140.

Asplund K, Israelsson K, Schampi I. Haemodilution for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Review, Issue 4. 2001.

Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Burn J, Warlow C. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990 53: 16-22.

Birse SH, Tom MI: Incidence of cerebral infarction associated with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. A study of 8 unoperated cases of anterior cerebral aneurysm. Neurology 1960 10: 101-106.

Brandt L, Andersson KE, Ljunggren B, Saveland H, Ryman T. Cerebrovascular and cerebral effects of nimodipine--an update. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1988 45: 11-20.

Brandt L, Saveland H, Romner B, Ryman T. Does nimodipine eliminate arterial hypertension as a prognostic risk factor in subarachnoid haemorrhage? Br J Neurosurg. 1991 5: 485-489.

Broderick JP, Brott T, Tomsick T, Miller R, Huster G. Intracerebral hemorrhage more than twice as common as subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1993 78: 188-191.

Brouwers PJ, Dippel DW, Vermeulen M, Lindsay KW, Hasan D, van Gijn J. Amount of blood on computed tomography as an independent predictor after aneurysm rupture. Stroke. 1993 24: 809-814.

Busch E, Beaulieu C, de Crespigny A, Moseley ME. Diffusion MR imaging during acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Stroke. 1998 29: 2155-2161.

Conway JE, Tamargo RJ. Cocaine use is an independent risk factor for cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2001 32: 2338-2343.

Creissard P, Rabehenoina Ch, Sevrain L, Freger P, Hattab N, Tadié M, Clavier E, Thiebot J, Laissy JP. Intérêt du scanner et de l’artériographie de contrôle dans l’étude des resultants de la Chrirugie Anévrismale: une série de 100 cas consécutifs. Neurochirurgie 1990 36: 209-217.


[Seite 25↓]

Crompton MR. Cerebral infarction following the rupture of cerebral berry aneurysms. Brain. 1964 87: 263-280.

Dreier JP, Ebert N, Reuter U, Wolf T, Leistner S, Villringer A, Dirnagl U. Pharmacological transformation of spreading depression (SD) related hyperperfusion to an acute and longlasting hypoperfusion by NOS-inhibiton and ouabain. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 1997 23: 1309.

Dreier JP, Körner K, Ebert N, Görner A, Rubin I, Back T, Lindauer U, Wolf T, Villringer A, Einhäupl KM, Lauritzen M, Dirnagl U. Nitric oxide scavenging by hemoglobin or nitric oxide synthase inhibition by N-nitro-L-arginine induces cortical spreading ischemia when K+ is increased in the subarachnoid space. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1998 18: 978-990.

Dreier JP, Ebert N, Priller J, Megow D, Lindauer U, Klee R, Reuter U, Imai Y, Einhaupl KM, Victorov I, Dirnagl U. Products of hemolysis in the subarachnoid space inducing spreading ischemia in the cortex and focal necrosis in rats: a model for delayed ischemic neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage? J Neurosurg. 2000 93: 658-666.

Dreier JP, Windmüller O, Petzold G, Lindauer U, Einhäupl KM, Dirnagl U. Ischemia triggered by red blood cell products in the subarachnoid space is inhibited by nimodipine administration or moderate volume expansion/hemodilution in rats. Neurosurgery. 2002a 51: 1457-1467.

Dreier JP, Sakowitz OW, Harder A, Zimmer C, Dirnagl U, Valdueza JM, Unterberg AW. Focal laminar cortical MR-signal abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ann Neurol. 2002b 52: 825-829.

Ecker A, Riemenschneider PA. Arteriographic demonstration of spasm of the intracranial arteries. With special reference to saccular arterial aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 1951 8: 660-667.

Edlow JA, Caplan LR. Avoiding pitfalls in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2000 342: 29-36.

Egge A, Waterloo K, Sjoholm H, Solberg T, Ingebrigtsen T, Romner B. Prophylactic hyperdynamic postoperative fluid therapy after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled study. Neurosurgery 2001 49: 593-605.

Espinosa F, Weir B, Overton T, Castor W, Grace M, Boisvert D. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial of nimodipine after SAH in monkeys. Part 1: Clinical and radiological findings. J Neurosurg 1984 60: 1167-1175.

Falconer MA. Surgical pathology of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage due to aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Proc R Soc Med 1954 47: 693-700.

Feigin VL, Rinkel GJ, Algra A, Vermeulen M, van Gijn J: Calcium antagonists in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review. Neurology 1998 50: 876-883.

Fisher CM, Kistler JP, Davis JM. Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized by computerized tomographic scanning. Neurosurgery. 1980 6: 1-9.


[Seite 26↓]

Fortuny LA, Adams CB, Briggs M. Surgical mortality in an aneurysm population: effects of age, blood pressure and preoperative neurological state. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1980 43: 879-882.

George B, Zerah M, Mourier KL, Gelbert F, Reizine D. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The influence of sex and fibromuscular dysplasia upon prognosis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1989 97: 26-30.

Gilsbach JM, Harders AG, Eggert HR, Hornyak ME. Early aneurysm surgery: a 7 year clinical practice report. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1988 90: 91-102.

Graff-Radford NR, Torner J, Adams HP Jr, Kassell NF. Factors associated with hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage. A report of the Cooperative Aneurysm Study. Arch Neurol. 1989 46: 744-752.

Haley EC Jr, Kassell NF, Apperson-Hansen C, Maile MH, Alves WM. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of tirilazad mesylate in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cooperative study in North America. J Neurosurg. 1997 86: 467-474.

Harrigan MR. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: a review. Neurosurgery. 1996 38: 152-160.

Harrison MJ, Pollock S, Kendall BE, Marshall J. Effect of haematocrit on carotid stenosis and cerebral infarction. Lancet 1981 18: 114-115.

Hasan D, Vermeulen M, Wijdicks EF, Hijdra A, van Gijn J. Effect of fluid intake and antihypertensive treatment on cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 1989 20: 1511-1515.

Haws CW, Gourley JK, Heistad DD. Effects of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983 225: 24-28.

Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Wapenski J, Halbach VV, Cahan L, Bentson JR. Balloon embolization of a large distal basilar artery aneurysm. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1986 65: 413-416.

Hohlrieder M, Spiegel M, Hinterhoelzl J, Engelhardt K, Pfausler B, Kampfl A, Ulmer H, Waldenberger P, Mohsenipour I, Schmutzhard E. Cerebral vasospasm and ischaemic infarction in clipped and coiled intracranial aneurysm patients. Eur J Neurol. 2002 9: 389-399.

Horn J, Limburg M. Calcium antagonists for acute ischemic stroke. Cochrane Review, Issue 4. 2001.

Hubschmann OR, Kornhauser D. Cortical cellular response in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1980 52: 456-462.

Inagawa T, Kamiya K, Ogasawara H, Yano T. Rebleeding of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the acute stage. Surg Neurol. 1987 28: 93-99.


[Seite 27↓]

Inagawa T, Yamamoto M, Kamiya K, Ogasawara H. Management of elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1988 69: 332-339.

Jamme I, Petit E, Gerbi A, Maixent JM, MacKenzie ET, Nouvelot A. Changes in ouabain affinity of Na+, K+-ATPase during focal cerebral ischaemia in the mouse. Brain Res. 1997 774: 123-130.

Karhunen PJ. Neurosurgical vascular complications associated with aneurysm clips evaluated by postmortem angiography. Forensic Sci Int. 1991 51: 13-22.

Kassell NF, Torner JC, Haley EC Jr, Jane JA, Adams HP, Kongable GL. The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 1: Overall management results. J Neurosurg. 1990a 73: 18-36.

Kassell NF, Torner JC, Jane JA, Haley EC Jr, Adams HP. The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 2: Surgical results. J Neurosurg. 1990b 73: 37-47.

Kazda S, Towart R. Nimodipine: a new calcium antagonistic drug with a preferential cerebrovascular action. Acta Neurochir 1982 63: 259-263.

Kongable GL, Lanzino G, Germanson TP, Truskowski LL, Alves WM, Torner JC, Kassell NF. Gender-related differences in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1996 84: 43-48.

Kistler JP, Crowell RM, Davis KR, Heros R, Ojemann RG, Zervas T, Fisher CM. The relation of cerebral vasospasm to the extent and location of subarachnoid blood visualized by CT scan: a prospective study. Neurology. 1983 33: 424-436.

Kröll M, Juhler M, Lindholm J. Hyponatraemia in acute brain disease. J Intern Med. 1992 232: 291-297.

Langley MS, Sorkin EM. Nimodipine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in cerebrovascular disease. Drugs 1989 37: 669-699.

Lanzino G, Kassell NF, Germanson T, Truskowski L, Alves W. Plasma glucose levels and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1993 79: 885-891.

Lanzino G, Kassell NF, Germanson TP, Kongable GL, Truskowski LL, Torner JC, Jane JA. Age and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: why do older patients fare worse? J Neurosurg. 1996 85: 410-418.

Lanzino G, Kassell NF. Double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study of high-dose tirilazad mesylate in women with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Part II. A cooperative study in North America. J Neurosurg. 1999 90: 1018-1024.


[Seite 28↓]

Lanzino G, Kassell NF, Dorsch NW, Pasqualin A, Brandt L, Schmiedek P, Truskowski LL, Alves WM. Double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study of high-dose tirilazad mesylate in women with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Part I. A cooperative study in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. J Neurosurg. 1999 90: 1011-1017.

Lauritzen M. Pathophysiology of the migraine aura The spreading depression theory. Brain. 1994 117: 199-210.

Leão AAP. Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex. J Neurophysiol 1944 7: 359-390.

Leão AAP, Morison RS. Propagation of spreading cortical depression. J Neurophysiol. 1945 8: 33-45.

Lennihan L, Mayer SA, Fink ME, Beckford A, Paik MC, Zhang H, Wu YC, Klebanoff LM, Raps EC, Solomon RA. Effect of hypervolemic therapy on cerebral blood flow after subarachnoid hemorrhage : a randomized controlled trial. Stroke 2000 31: 383-391.

Lewis PJ, Weir BK, Nosko MG, Tanabe T, Grace MG. Intrathecal nimodipine therapy in a primate model of chronic cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery 1988 22: 492-500.

Lusic I, Ljutic D, Maskovic J, Jankovic S. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1999 141: 691-697.

MacDonald RL, Weir BKA. A review of hemoglobin and the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Stroke. 1991 22: 971-982.

Macdonald RL, Wallace MC, Kestle JR. Role of angiography following aneurysm surgery. J Neurosurg. 1993 79: 826-832.

Megyesi JF, Vollrath B, Cook DA, Findlay JM. In vivo animal models of cerebral vasospasm: a review. Neurosurgery. 2000 46: 448-460; discussion 460-1.

Millikan CH. Cerebral vasospasm and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Arch Neurol. 1975 32: 433-449.

Moniz E. L’Encéphalographie artérielle, son importance dans la localisation des tumeurs cérébrales. Rev Neurol. 1927 2: 72.

Müller M, Somjen GG. Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, extra- and intracellular voltages, and the effect of TTX in hypoxic rat hippocampal slices. J Neurophysiol. 2000 83: 735-745.

Nedergaard M, Hansen AJ. Characterization of cortical depolarizations evoked in focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 13: 568-574.

Neil-Dwyer G, Lang DA, Doshi B, Gerber CJ, Smith PW. Delayed cerebral ischaemia: the pathological substrate. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1994 131: 137-145.


[Seite 29↓]

Nilsson OG, Lindgren A, Stahl N, Brandt L, Saveland H. Incidence of intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage in southern Sweden. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 69: 601-607.

Nosko M, Weir B, Krueger C, Cook D, Norris S, Overton T, Boisvert D. Nimodipine and chronic vasospasm in monkeys: Part 1. Clinical and radiological findings. Neurosurgery 1985 16: 129-136.

Nosko M, Krueger CA, Weir BK, Cook DA. Effects of nimodipine on in vitro contractility of cerebral arteries of dog, monkey, and man. J Neurosurg 1986 65: 376-381.

Öhman J, Servo A, Heiskanen O. Risks factors for cerebral infarction in good-grade patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgery: a prospective study. J Neurosurg. 1991 74: 14-20.

Ohta T, Kajikawa H, Yoshikawa Y, Shimizu K, Funatsu N, Yamamoto M, Toda N. Cerebral vasospasm and hemoglobin: clinical and experimental studies. In: Wilkins RH (ed). Cerebral arterial spasm. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1980, pp 166-172.

Ohta O, Osaka K, Siguma M, Yamamoto M, Shimizu K, Toda N. Cerebral vasospasm following ruptured intracranial aneurysms, especially some contributions of potassium ion released from subarachnoid hematoma to delayed cerebral vasospasm. In: Bevan JA (ed). Vascular Neuroeffector Mechanisms. New York, Raven Press, 1983, pp 353-358.

Pisani A, Calabresi P, Tozzi A, D'Angelo V, Bernardi G. L-type Ca 2+ channel blockers attenuate electrical changes and Ca2+ rise induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation in cortical neurons. Stroke 1998 29: 196-202.

Pluta RM, Thompson BG, Dawson TM, Snyder SH, Boock RJ, Oldfield EH: Loss of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg. 1996 84: 648-654.

Pluta RM, Afshar JK, Boock RJ, Oldfield EH. Temporal changes in perivascular concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1998 88: 557-561.

Pobereskin LH. Influence of premorbid factors on survival following subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2001 95: 555-559.

Polin RS, Coenen VA, Hansen CA, Shin P, Baskaya MK, Nanda A, Kassell NF. Efficacy of transluminal angioplasty for the management of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2000 92: 284-290.

Proust F, Hannequin D, Langlois O, Freger P, Creissard P. Causes of morbidity and mortality after ruptured aneurysm surgery in a series of 230 patients. The importance of control angiography. Stroke. 1995 26: 1553-1557.

Qureshi AI, Suri MF, Sung GY, Straw RN, Yahia AM, Saad M, Guterman LR, Hopkins LN. Prognostic significance of hypernatremia and hyponatremia among patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 2002 50: 749-755; discussion 755-6.


[Seite 30↓]

Robertson EG. Cerebral lesions due to intracranial aneurysms. Brain 1949 72: 150-185.

Rosenorn J, Eskesen V, Schmidt K. Clinical features and outcome in females and males with ruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms. Br J Neurosurg. 1993 7: 287-90.

Rosenwasser RH, Delgado TE, Buchheit WA, Freed MH. Control of hypertension and prophylaxis against vasospasm in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary report. Neurosurgery 1983 12: 658-661.

Sakaki S, Ohta S, Ohue S, Kohno K, Matsuoka K. Outcome in elderly patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1989 91: 21-27.

Sakr YL, Ghosn I, Vincent JL. Cardiac manifestations after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review of the literature. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2002 45: 67-80.

Scriabine A, Schuurman T, Traber J. Pharmacological basis for the use of nimodipine in central nervous system disorders. FASEB J 1989 3: 1799-1806.

Shimoda M, Takeuchi M, Tominaga J, Oda S, Kumasaka A, Tsugane R. Asymptomatic versus symptomatic infarcts from vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: serial magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery. 2001 49: 1341-1348; discussion 1348-1350.

Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Schwarz K. Brain lesions secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured aneurysms. In: Cervós-Navarro J, Ferszt R (eds). Stroke and microcirculation. New York, Raven Press, 1987, pp 471-480.

Toghi H, Yamanouchi H, Murakami M, Kameyama M. Importance of the hematocrit as a risk factor in cerebral infarction. Stroke 1978 9: 369-374.

Tzourio C, Kittner SJ, Bousser MG, Alperovitch A. Migraine and stroke in young women. Cephalalgia. 2000 20: 190-199.

Unterberg AW, Sakowitz OW, Sarrafzadeh AS, Benndorf G, Lanksch WR. Role of bedside microdialysis in the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2001 94: 740-749.

Van Gijn J, Rinkel GJE. Subarachnoid haemorrhage: diagnosis, causes and management. Brain 2001 124: 249-278.

Vermeij FH, Hasan D, Bijvoet HW, Avezaat CJ. Impact of medical treatment on the outcome of patients after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 1998 29: 924-930.

Vora YY, Suarez-Almazor M, Steinke DE, Martin ML, Findlay JM. Role of transcranial Doppler monitoring in the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 1999 44: 1237-1247.

Weir BK, Kongable GL, Kassell NF, Schultz JR, Truskowski LL, Sigrest A. Cigarette smoking as a cause of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and risk for vasospasm: a report of the Cooperative Aneurysm Study. J Neurosurg. 1998 89: 405-411.


[Seite 31↓]

Wijdicks EF, Ropper AH, Hunnicutt EJ, Richardson GS, Nathanson JA. Atrial natriuretic factor and salt wasting after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 1991 22: 1519-1524.

Winn HR, Richardson AE, Jane JA. The long-term prognosis in untreated cerebral aneurysms: I. The incidence of late hemorrhage in cerebral aneurysm: a 10-year evaluation of 364 patients. Ann Neurol. 1977 1: 358-370.

Wong GY, Warner DO, Schroeder DR, Offord KP, Warner MA, Maxson PM, Whisnant JP. Risk of surgery and anesthesia for ischemic stroke. Anesthesiology. 2000 92: 425-432.

Zimmermann M, Seifert V. Endothelin and subarachnoid hemorrhage: an overview. Neurosurgery. 1998 43: 863-875; discussion 875-6.

Zubkov YN, Nikiforov BM, Shustin VA. Balloon catheter technique for dilatation of constricted cerebral arteries after aneurysmal SAH. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1984 70: 65-79.


[Seite 32↓]


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am:
08.02.2004