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Introduction

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32. Cofield RH. Subscapular muscle transposition for repair of chronic rotator cuff tears. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 1982; 154: 667-72.

33. Karas SE, Giachello TL, Springfield PT. Subscapularis Transfer for Reconstruction of Massive Tears of the Rotator Cuff. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996; 78: 239-45.

34. Cofield RH. Shoulder arthrodesis and resection arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect 1985; 34: 268-77.

35. Post M, Jablon M. Constrained total shoulder arthroplasty. Long-term follow-up observations. Clin Orthop 1983; 173: 109-16.

36. Franklin JL, Barrett WP, Jackins SE, Matsen FA, 3rd. Glenoid loosening in total shoulder arthroplasty. Association with rotator cuff deficiency. J Arthroplasty 1988; 3-1: 39-46.

37. Pollock RG, Deliz ED, Mcilveen SJ, E. F, L. B. Prosthetic replacement in rotator cuff-deficient shoulders. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1992; 1: 173-86.

38. Arntz CT, Jackins S, Matsen FA, 3rd. Prosthetic replacement of the shoulder for the treatment of defects in the rotator cuff and the surface of the glenohumeral joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993; 75: 485-91.

39. Arntz CT, Matsen FA, 3rd, Jackins S. Surgical management of complex irreparable rotator cuff deficiency. J Arthroplasty 1991; 6: 363-70.

40. Williams GR, Jr., Rockwood CA, Jr. Hemiarthroplasty in rotator cuff-deficient shoulders. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1996; 5: 362-7.

41. Watson M. Bipolar salvage shoulder arthroplasty. Follow-up in 14 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1996; 78: 124-7.

42. Worland RL, Jessup DE, Arredondo J, Warburton KJ. Bipolar shoulder arthroplasty for rotator cuff arthropathy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1997; 6: 512-5.

43. Worland RL, Arredondo J. Bipolar shoulder arthroplasty for painful conditions of the shoulder. J Arthroplasty 1998; 13-6: 631-7.

44. Zuckerman JD, Scott AJ, Gallagher MA. Hemiarthroplasty for cuff tear arthropathy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2000; 9: 169-72.

45. Grammont PM, Trouilloud P, Laffay JP, Deries X. Etude et réalisation d'une nouvelle prothèse d'épaule. Rhumatologie 1987; 39: 407-18.

46. Grammont PM, Baulot E. Delta shoulder prosthesis for rotator cuff rupture. Orthopedics 1993; 16: 65-8.

47. Baulot E, Garron E, Grammont PM. Grammont prosthesis in humeral head osteonecrosis. Indications-- results. Acta Orthop Belg 1999; 65-Suppl 1: 109-15.

48. Renaud P, Wahab H, Bontoux L, Dauty M, Richard I, Bregeon C. Inverted shoulder prosthesis and rotator cuff tears: evaluation and determination of anatomical parameters predictive of best functional outcome of 21 shoulders. Ann Readapt Med Phys 2001; 44: 273-80.

49. Rittmeister M, Kerschbaumer F. Grammont reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and nonreconstructible rotator cuff lesions. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2001; 10: 17-22.

50. Gerber C. Latissimus dorsi transfer for the treatment of irreparable tears of the rotator cuff. Clin Orthop 1992- 275: 152-60.

51. Aoki M, Okamura K, Fukushima S, Takahashi T, Ogino T. Transfer of latissimus dorsi for irreparable rotator-cuff tears. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1996; 78: 761-6.

52. Miniaci A, MacLeod M. Transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle after failed repair of a massive tear of the rotator cuff. A two to five-year review. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999; 81: 1120-7.

53. Wirth MA, Rockwood CA, Jr. Operative treatment of irreparable rupture of the subscapularis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997; 79: 722-31.

54. Resch H, Povacz P, Ritter E, Matschi W. Transfer of the pectoralis major muscle for the treatment of irreparable rupture of the subscapularis tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000; 82: 372-82.

55. Warner J. Managment of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: the role of tendon transfers. Instructional course lectures. J of Bone and Joint Surg Am 2000; 82: 878-87.

56. Galatz LM, Connor PM, Calfee RP, Hsu JC, Yamaguchi K. Pectoralis major transfer for anterior-superior subluxation in massive rotator cuff insufficiency. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2003; 12: 1-5.

57. Jost B, Puskas GJ, Lustenberger A, Gerber C. Outcome of Pectoralis Major Transfer for the Treatment of Irreparable Subscapularis Tears. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003; 85: 1944-51.

58. Hill AV. The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1938; 126B: 399-420.

59. Hill AV. The series elastic component of muscle. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1950; 137B: 399-420.

60. Winters JM, Stark L. Muscle models: what is gained and what is lost by varying model complexity. Biol Cybern 1987; 55: 403-20.

61. Huxley AF. Muscle structure and theories of contraction. Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 1957; 7: 255-318.

62. Brand PW, Beach RB, Thompson DE. Relative tension and potential excursion of muscles in the forearm and hand. J Hand Surg Am 1981; 6: 209-19.

63. Huxley AF, Gordon AM. Striation patterns in active and passive shortening of muscle. Nature 1962; 193: 280-1.

64. Gordon AM , Huxley AF, Julian FJ. The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. J Physiol 1966; 184: 170-92.

65. Gordon AM , Huxley AF, Julian FJ. Tension development in highly stretched vertebrate muscle fibres. J Physiol 1966; 184: 143-69.

66. Elftman H. Biomechanics of muscle with particular application to studies of gait. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1966; 48: 363-77.

67. Joyce GC, Rack PM. Isotonic lengthening and shortening movements of cat soleus muscle. J Physiol 1969; 204: 475-91.

68. Joyce GC, Rack PM, Westbury DR. The mechanical properties of cat soleus muscle during controlled lengthening and shortening movements. J Physiol 1969; 204: 461-74.

69. Brand P, Hollister A. Clinical mechanics of the hand. 2nd ed. St Louis, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, London, Philadelphia, Sydney, Toronto: Mosby Year Book, 1992: 386.

70. Freehafer AA, Peckham PH, Keith MW. Determination of muscle-tendon unit properties during tendon transfer. J Hand Surg Am 1979; 4: 331-9.

71. Mendez J, Keys A. Density and composition of mammalian muscle. Metabolism 1960; 9: 184-9.

72. L'Episcopo J. Tendon transplantation in obstetrical paralysis. Am J Surg 1934; 25: 122- 5.

73. Mikasa M. Trapezius transfer for global tear of the rotator cuff. In: Bateman J, Welsh RP, eds. Surgery of the Shoulder. Philadelphia: Decker, 1984: 104-12.

74. Apoil A, Augereau B. Réparation par lambeau de déltoïde des grandes pertes de substances de la coiffe des rotateurs de l'épaule. Chirurgie 1985: 287-90.

75. Gerber C, Vinh T, Hertel R, Hess C. Latissimus dorsi transfer for the treatment of massive tears of the rotator cuff. A preliminary report. Clinl Orthop 1988; 232: 51-61.

76. Warner JJ, Parsons IMt. Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer: a comparative analysis of primary and salvage reconstruction of massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2001; 10: 514-21.

77. Gerber C, Hersche O. Tendon transfers for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff defects. Orthop Clin North Am 1997; 28: 195-203.

78. Vidil A, Augereau B. Transfer of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major muscle in the treatment of irreparable tears of the subscapularis muscle. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 2000; 86: 835-43.

79. Warner JJ. Management of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: Instr Course Lect 2001; 50: 63-71.

80. Kato K. Innervation of the scapular muscles and its morphological significance in man. the role of tendon transfer. Anat Anz 1989; 168-2: 155-68.

Chapter 2.1

1. Gerber C, Hersche O, Farron A. Isolated rupture of the subscapularis tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996; 78: 1015-23.

2. Cleeman E, Brunelli M, Gothelf T, Hayes P, Flatow EL. Releases of subscapularis contracture: an anatomic and clinical study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2003; 12: 231-6.

3. Kerr A. The brachial plexus of the nerves in man. Am J Anat 1918; 1: 285- 395.

4. Kato K. Innervation of the scapular muscles and its morphological significance in man. Anat Anz 1989; 168: 155-68.

5. McCann P, Cordasco FA, Ticker JB, Kadaba MP, Wootten ME, April EW, Bigliani L. An anatomic study of the subscapular nerves: A guide for electromyographic analysis of the subscapularis muscle. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1994; 3: 94-9.

6. Checchia SL, Doneaux P, Martins MG, Meireles FS. Subscapularis muscle enervation: the effect of arm position. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1996; 5: 214-8.

7. Yung SW, Lazarus MD, Harryman DT, 2nd. Practical guidelines to safe surgery about the subscapularis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1996; 5: 467-70.

Chapter 2.2

1. Kato K. Innervation of the scapular muscles and its morphological significance in man. Anat Anz 1989; 168: 155-68.

2. Kadaba MP, Cole A, Wootten ME, McCann P, Reid M, Mulford G, April E, Bigliani L. Intramuscular wire electromyography of the subscapularis. J Orthop Res 1992; 10: 394-7.

3. Gerber C, Schneeberger AG, Perren SM, Nyffeler RW. Experimental rotator cuff repair. A preliminary study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999; 81: 1281-90.

4. Mathes SJ, Nahai F. Classification of the vascular anatomy of muscles: experimental and clinical correlation. Plast Reconstr Surg 1981; 67: 177-87.

5. Wang AA, Strauch RJ, Flatow EL, Bigliani LU, Rosenwasser MP. The teres major muscle: an anatomic study of its use as a tendon transfer. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1999; 8: 334-8.

6. Schoierer O, Herzberg G, Berthonnaud E, Dimnet J, Aswad R, Morin A. Anatomical basis of latissimus dorsi and teres major transfers in rotator cuff tear surgery with particular reference to the neurovascular pedicles. Surg Radiol Anat 2001; 23: 75-80.

7. Celli L, Rovesta C, Marongiu MC, Manzieri S. Transplantation of teres major muscle for infraspinatus muscle in irreparable rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1998; 7: 485-90.

8. Rowsell AR, Davies DM, Eisenberg N, Taylor GI. The anatomy of the subscapular-thoracodorsal arterial system: study of 100 cadaver dissections. Br J Plast Surg 1984; 37: 574-6.

Chapter 3.1

1. Gerber C, Vinh T, Hertel R, Hess C. Latissimus dorsi transfer for the treatment of massive tears of the rotator cuff. A preliminary report. Clin Orthop 1988; 232: 51-61.

2. Comtet JJ, Herzberg G, Naasan IA. Biomechanical basis of transfers for shoulder paralysis. Hand Clin 1989; 5: 1-14.

3. Paletta GA, Jr., Warner JJ, Warren RF, Deutsch A, Altchek DW. Shoulder kinematics with two-plane x-ray evaluation in patients with anterior instability or rotator cuff tearing. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1997; 6: 516-27.

4. Mollier S. Über die Statik und Mechanik des menschlichen Schultergürtelsunter normalenund pathologischen Verhältnisse. Festschrift für C.v.Kupfer, Jena, 1899.

5. Thompson WO, Debski RE, Boardman ND, 3rd, Taskiran E, Warner JJ, Fu FH, Woo SL. A biomechanical analysis of rotator cuff deficiency in a cadaveric model. Am J Sports Med 1996; 24: 286-92.

6. van der Helm FC. Analysis of the kinematic and dynamic behavior of the shoulder mechanism. J Biomech 1994; 27: 527-50.

7. McMahon PJ, Debski RE, Thompson WO, Warner JJ, Fu FH, Woo SL. Shoulder muscle forces and tendon excursions during glenohumeral abduction in the scapular plane. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1995; 4: 199-208.

8. An KN. Muscle force and its role in joint dynamic stability. Clin Orthop 2002; 403 Suppl: S37-42.

9. Mura N, O'Driscoll SW, Zobitz ME, Heers G, Jenkyn TR, Chou SM, Halder AM, An KN. The effect of infraspinatus disruption on glenohumeral torque and superior migration of the humeral head: a biomechanical study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2003; 12: 179-84.

10. Halder AM, O'Driscoll SW, Heers G, Mura N, Zobitz ME, An KN, Kreusch-Brinker R. Biomechanical comparison of effects of supraspinatus tendon detachments, tendon defects, and muscle retractions. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002; 84: 780-5.

11. van der Helm FC. A finite element musculoskeletal model of the shoulder mechanism. J Biomech 1994; 27: 551-69.

12. An KN, Browne AO, Korinek S, Tanaka S, Morrey BF. Three-dimensional kinematics of glenohumeral elevation. J Orthop Res 1991; 9: 143-9.

13. Magermans DJ, Chadwick EKJ, Veeger HEJ, Rozing PM, van der Helm FCT. Effectiveness of tendon transfers for massive rotator cuff tears: a simulation study. Clinical Biomechanics 2004; 19: 116-22.

Chapter 3.2

1. Magermans DJ, Chadwick EKJ, Veeger HEJ, Rozing PM, van der Helm FCT. Effectiveness of tendon transfers for massive rotator cuff tears: a simulation study. Clinical Biomechanics 2004; 19: 116-22.

2. Wirth MA, Rockwood CA, Jr. Operative treatment of irreparable rupture of the subscapularis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997; 79: 722-31.

3. Resch H, Povacz P, Ritter E, Matschi W. Transfer of the pectoralis major muscle for the treatment of irreparable rupture of the subscapularis tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000; 82: 372-82.

4. Warner JJ. Management of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: the role of tendon transfer. Instr Course Lect 2001; 50: 63-71.

5. Gerber A, Clavert P, Millett P, Holovacs T, Warner J. Split Pectoralis Major and Teres Major Tendon Transfers for Reconstruction of Irreparable Tears of the Subscapularis. Techniques in Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2004; 5: 5-12.

6. van der Helm FC. A finite element musculoskeletal model of the shoulder mechanism. J Biomech 1994; 27: 551-69.

Chapter 4.1

1. Gerber C, Hersche O, Farron A. Isolated rupture of the subscapularis tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996; 78: 1015-23.

2. Mikasa M. Trapezius transfer for global tear of the rotator cuff. In: J B, RP W, eds. Surgery of the Shoulder. Philadelphia: Decker, 1984: 104-12.

3. Galatz LM, Connor PM, Calfee RP, Hsu JC, Yamaguchi K. Pectoralis major transfer for anterior-superior subluxation in massive rotator cuff insufficiency. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2003; 12: 1-5.

4. Vidil A, Augereau B. Transfer of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major muscle in the treatment of irreparable tears of the subscapularis muscle. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 2000; 86: 835-43.

5. Wirth MA, Rockwood CA, Jr. Operative treatment of irreparable rupture of the subscapularis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997; 79: 722-31.

6. Jost B, Puskas GJ, Lustenberger A, Gerber C. Outcome of Pectoralis Major Transfer for the Treatment of Irreparable Subscapularis Tears. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003; 85: 1944-51.

7. Warner JJ. Management of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: the role of tendon transfer. Instr Course Lect 2001; 50: 63-71.

8. Resch H, Povacz P, Ritter E, Matschi W. Transfer of the pectoralis major muscle for the treatment of irreparable rupture of the subscapularis tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000; 82: 372-82.

9. Fuchs B, Weishaupt D, Zanetti M, Hodler J, Gerber C. Fatty degeneration of the muscles of the rotator cuff: assesment by computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1999; 8: 599-605.

10. Gerber A, Clavert P, Millett P, Holovacs T, Warner J. Split Pectoralis Major and Teres Major Tendon Transfers for Reconstruction of Irreparable Tears of the Subscapularis. Techniques in Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2004; 5: 5-12.

11. Connor P, Yamaguchi K, Manifold S, Pollock R, Flatow E, Bigliani L. Split pectoralis major transfer for serratus anterior palsy. Clin Orthop 1997; 341: 134-42.

12. Constant CR, Murley AH. A clinical method of functional assessment of the shoulder. Clin Orthop 1987; 214: 160-4.

Conclusions

1. Wirth MA, Rockwood CA, Jr. Complications of total shoulder-replacement arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996; 78: 603-16.

2. Greis PE, Dean M, Hawkins RJ. Subscapularis tendon disruption after Bankart reconstruction for anterior instability. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1996; 5: 219-22.

3. Miller SL, Hazrati Y, Klepps S, Chiang A, Flatow EL. Loss of subscapularis function after total shoulder replacement: A seldom recognized problem. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2003; 12: 29-34.

4. Klepps SJ, Goldfarb C, Flatow E, Galatz LM, Yamaguchi K. Anatomic evaluation of the subcoracoid pectoralis major transfer in human cadavers. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2001; 10: 453-9.


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