[Seite 63↓]

Literatur

[1] Moore, M. A. S. (1991): The clinical use of colony stimulating factors, Annual Review of Immunology 9, Seite 159-191.

[2] Donta, S. T.; Peduzzi, P.; Cross, A. S.; Sadoff, J.; Haakenson, C.; Cryz, S. J., Jr.; Kauffman, C.; Bradley, S.; Gafford, G.; Elliston, D.; Beam, T. R., Jr.; John, J. F., Jr.; Ribner, B.; Cantey, R.; Welsh, C. H.; Ellison, R. T., III; Young, E. J.; Hamill, R. J.; Leaf, H.; Schein, R. M. H.; Mulligan, M.; Johnson, C.; Abrutyn, E.; Griffiss, J. M.; Hamadeh, R.; Eliasson, A. H.; McClain, J. B.; Melcher, G. P.; Kelly, J. W.; Byrne, W. R.; Wallace, M.; Amundson, D.; Gumpert, B.; Slagle, D. und The Federal Hyperimmune Immunoglobuline Trial Study Group (1996): Immunoprophylaxis against Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, Journal of Infectious Diseases 174, Seite 537-543.

[3] Mandine, E.; Salles, M.-F.; Zalisz, R.; Guenounou, M. und Smets, P. (1990): Murine monoclonal antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae protect against lethal endotoxemia and experimental infection with capsulated K. pneumoniae , Infection and Immunity 58, Seite 2828-2833.

[4] Frasa, H.; Benaissa-Trouw, B.; Tavares, L.; van Kessel, K.; Poppelier, M.; Kraaijeveld, K. und Verhoef, J. (1996): Enhanced protection by use of a combination of anticapsule and antilipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibodies against lethal Escherichia coli O18K5 infection in mice, Infection and Immunity 64, Seite 775-781.

[5] Bartlett, J. G.; O'Keefe, P.; Tally, F. P.; Louie, T. J. und Gorbach, S. L. (1986): Bacteriology of hospital-acquired pneumonia, Archives of Internal Medicine 146, Seite 868-871.

[6] Bryan, C. S.; Reynolds, K. L. und Brenner, E. R. (1983): Analysis of 1,186 episodes of gram-negative bacteremia in non-university hospitals: the effects of antimicrobial therapy, Reviews of Infectious Diseases 5, Seite 629-638.

[7] Cross, A.; Allen, J. R.; Burke, J.; Ducel, G.; Harris, A.; John, J.; Johnson, D.; Lew, M.; MacMillan, B.; Meers, P.; Skalova, R.; Wenzel, R. und Tenney, J. (1983): Nosocomial infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: review of recent trends, Reviews of Infectious Diseases 5 (Suppl. 5), Seite S837-S845.


[Seite 64↓]

[8] de la Torre, M. G.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Martínez-Beltrán, J.; Guerrero, A.; Meseguer, M. und Bouza, E. (1985): Klebsiella bacteremia: An analysis of 100 episodes, Reviews of Infectious Diseases 7, Seite 143-150.

[9] Jarvis, W. R.; Munn, V. P.; Highsmith, A. K.; Culver, D. H. und Hughes, J. M. (1985): The epidemiology of nosocomial infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae , Infection Control 6, Seite 68-74.

[10] McGowan, J. E., Jr. (1985): Changing etiology of nosocomial bacteremia and fungemia and other hospital-acquired infections, Reviews of Infectious Diseases 7 (Suppl. 3), Seite S357-S370.

[11] Montgomerie, J. Z. (1979): Epidemiology of Klebsiella and hospital-acquired infections, Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1, Seite 736-753.

[12] Montgomerie, J. Z. und Ota, J. K. (1980): Klebsiella bacteremia, Archives of Internal Medicine 140, Seite 525-527.

[13] Jay, S. J. (1983): Nosocomial pneumonia, Nosocomial Infections 74, Seite 221-235.

[14] Carpenter, J. L. (1990): Klebsiella pulmonary infections: occurence at one medical center and review, Reviews of Infectious Diseases 12, Seite 672-682.

[15] Jong, G.-M.; Hsiue, T.-R.; Chen, C.-R.; Chang, H.-Y. und Chen, C.-W. (1995): Rapidly fatal outcome of bacteremic Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in alcoholics, Chest 107, Seite 214-217.

[16] Sirot, J.; Chanal, C.; Petit, A.; Sirot, D.; Labia, R. und Gerbaud, G. (1988): Klebsiella pneumoniae and other enterobacteriaceae producing novel plasmid-mediated b-lactamases markedly active against third-generation cephalosporins: epidemiologic studies, Reviews of Infectious Diseases 10, Seite 850-859.

[17] Jacoby, G. A. und Archer, G. L. (1991): New mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents, New England Journal of Medicine 324, Seite 601-612.


[Seite 65↓]

[18] Jacoby, G. A. (1996): Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in the 1990s, Annual Review of Medicine 47, Seite 169-179.

[19] Brun-Buisson, C.; Legrand, P.; Philippon, A.; Montravers, F.; Ansquer, M. und Duval, J. (1987): Transferable enzymatic resistance to third-generation cephalosporins during nosocomial outbreak of multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lancet II, Seite 302-306.

[20] MacKenzie, F. M.; Forbes, K. J.; Dorai-John, T.; Amyes, S. G. B. und Gould, I. M. (1997): Emergence of a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae , Lancet 350, Seite 783-783.

[21] Meyer, K. S.; Urban, C.; Eagan, J. A.; Berger, B. J. und Rahal, J. J. (1993): Nosocomial outbreak of Klebsiella infection resistant to late- generation cephalosporins [see comments], Annals of Internal Medicine 119, Seite 353-358.

[22] Simoons-Smit, A. M.; Verweij-van Vught, A. M. und Maclaren, D. M. (1986): The role of K antigens as virulence factors in Klebsiella, Journal of Medical Microbiology 21, Seite 133-137.

[23] Podschun, R. und Ullmann, U. (1998): Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogens: epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors, Clinical Microbiology Reviews 11, Seite 589-603.

[24] Domenico, P.; Salo, R. J.; Cross, A. S. und Cunha, B. A. (1994): Polysaccharide capsule-mediated resistance to opsonophagocytosis in Klebsiella pneumoniae , Infection and Immunity 62, Seite 4495-4499.

[25] Trautmann, M.; Ghandchi, A.; Held, T.; Cryz, S. J., Jr. und Cross, A. S. (1991): An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of soluble Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide, Journal of Microbiological Methods 13, Seite 305-313.

[26] Held, T. K.; Adamczik, C.; Trautmann, M. und Cross, A. S. (1995): Effects of MICs and sub-MICs of antibiotics on production of capsular polysaccharide of Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 39, Seite 1093-1096.


[Seite 66↓]

[27] Straus, D. C.; Atkisson, D. L. und Garner, C. W. (1985): Importance of a lipopolysaccharide-containing extracellular toxic complex in infections produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae , Infection and Immunity 50, Seite 787-795.

[28] Straus, D. C. (1987): Production of an extracellular toxic complex by various strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae , Infection and Immunity 55, Seite 44-48.

[29] Ørskov, I. und Fife-Asbury, M. A. (1977): New Klebsiella capsular antigen, K82, and the deletion of five of those previously assigned, International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 27 [4], Seite 386-387.

[30] Whitfield, C.; Perry, M. B.; MacLean, L. L. und Yu, S. H. (1992): Structural analysis of the O-antigen side chain polysaccharides in the lipopolysaccharides of Klebsiella serotypes O2(2a), O2(2a,2b), and O2(2a,2c), Journal of Bacteriology 174, Seite 4913-4919.

[31] Cryz, S. J., Jr.; Mortimer, P. M.; Mansfield, V. und Germanier, R. (1986): Seroepidemiology of Klebsiella bacteremic isolates and implications for vaccine development, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 23, Seite 687-690.

[32] Cryz, S. J., Jr. (1987): Progress in immunization against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp., Pathology and Immunopathology Research 6, Seite 147-152.

[33] Podschun, R.; Heineken, P.; Ullmann, U. und Sonntag, H.-G. (1986): Comparative investigations of Klebsiella species of clinical origin: plasmid patterns, biochemical reactions, antibiotic resistances and serotypes, Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie und Hygiene Abteilung A 262, Seite 335-345.

[34] Podschun, R.; Sievers, D.; Fischer, A. und Ullmann, U. (1993): Serotypes, hemagglutinins, siderophore synthesis, and serum resistance of Klebsiella isolates causing human urinary tract infections, Journal of Infectious Diseases 168, Seite 1415-1421.

[35] Tomás, J. M.; Benedí, V. J.; Ciurana, B. und Jofre, J. (1986): Role of capsule and O antigen in resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to serm bactericidal activity, Infection and Immunity 54, Seite 85-89.


[Seite 67↓]

[36] Held, T. K.; Trautmann, M.; and Cross, A. S. (1998):Lipopolysaccharid (LPS) hat keinen Einfluß auf die Letalität bei experimenteller Klebsiella pneumoniae-Infektion. DGHM-Kongress Berlin, 4.-9.10.1998 Abstract Nummer 10.

[37] Broug-Holub, E.; Toews, G. B.; van Iwaarden, J. F.; Strieter, R. M.; Kunkel, S. L.; Paine, R., III und Standiford, T. J. (1997): Alveolar macrophages are required for protective pulmonary defenses in murine Klebsiella pneumonia: elimination of alveolar macrophages increases neutrophil recruitment but decreases bacterial clearance and survival, Infection and Immunity 65 [4], Seite 1139-1146.

[38] Laichalk, L. L.; Kunkel, S. L.; Strieter, R. M.; Danforth, J. M.; Bailie, M. B. und Standiford, T. J. (1996): Tumor necrosis factor mediates lung antibacterial host defense in murine Klebsiella pneumonia, Infection and Immunity 64 [12], Seite 5211-5218.

[39] Laichalk, L. L.; Bucknell, K. A.; Huffnagle, G. B.; Wilkowski, J. M.; Moore, T. A.; Romanelli, R. J. und Standiford, T. J. (1998): Intrapulmonary delivery of tumor necrosis factor agonist peptide augments host defense in murine gram-negative bacterial pneumonia, Infection and Immunity 66 [6], Seite 2822-2826.

[40] Blanchard, D. K.; Djeu, J. Y.; Klein, T. W.; Friedman, H. und Stewart, W. E., II (1988): Protective effects of tumor necrosis factor in experimental Legionella pneumophila infections of mice via activation of PMN function, Journal of Leukocyte Biology 43, Seite 429-435.

[41] Chen, W.; Havell, E. A. und Harmsen, A. G. (1992): Importance of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon in host resistance against Pneumocystis carinii infection, Infection and Immunity 60 [4], Seite 1279-1284.

[42] Nakano, Y.; Onozuka, K.; Terada, Y.; Shinomiya, H. und Nakano, M. (1990): Protective effect of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-a in murine salmonellosis, Journal of Immunology 144 [5], Seite 1935-1941.

[43] Hershman, M. J.; Pietsch, J. D.; Trachtenberg, L.; Mooney, T. H. R.; Shields, R. E. und Sonnenfeld, G. (1989): Protective effects of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor a and interferon g against surgically simulated wound infections in mice, British Journal of Surgery 76, Seite 1282-1286.


[Seite 68↓]

[44] Nelson, S.; Nakamura, C.; Shellito, J.; Bagby, G.; and Summer, W. (1900): Intratracheal gamma-interferon enhances pulmonary host defenses against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Am.Rev.Respir.Dis. 130:A337 (Abstr.).

[45] Greenberger, M. J.; Strieter, R. M.; Kunkel, S. L.; Danforth, J. M.; Laichalk, L. L.; McGillicuddy, D. C. und Standiford, T. J. (1996): Neutralization of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 attenuates neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in murine Klebsiella pneumonia, Journal of Infectious Diseases 173, Seite 159-165.

[46] O'Brien, A. D.; Standiford, T. J.; Bucknell, K. A.; Wilcoxen, S. E. und Paine, R., III (1999): Role of alveolar epithelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae , American Journal of Physiology 276, Seite L961-L970.

[47] Tsai, W. C.; Strieter, R. M.; Zisman, D. A.; Wilkowski, J. M.; Bucknell, K. A.; Chen, G.-H. und Standiford, T. J. (1997): Nitric oxide is required ro effective innate immunity against Klebsiella pneumoniae , Infection and Immunity 65 [5], Seite 1870-1875.

[48] Kim, K. S.; Kang, J. H.; Cross, A. S.; Kaufman, B.; Zollinger, W. und Sadoff, J. (1988): Functional activities of monoclonal antibodies to the O side chain of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides in vitro and in vivo, Journal of Infectious Diseases 157 [1], Seite 47-53.

[49] Schiff, D. E.; Wass, C. A.; Cryz, S. J., Jr.; Cross, A. S. und Kim, K. S. (1993): Estimation of protective levels of anti-O-specific lipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G antibody against experimental Escherichia coli infection, Infection and Immunity 61, Seite 975-980.

[50] Meno, Y. und Amano, K. (1990): Morphological evidence for penetration of anti-O antibody through the capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae , Infection and Immunity 58, Seite 1421-1428.

[51] Held, T. K.; Jendrike, N. R. M.; Rukavina, T.; Podschun, R. und Trautmann, M. (2000): Binding to and opsonophagocytic activity of O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies against encapsulated and nonencapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype O1 strains, Infection and Immunity 68, Seite 2402-2409.


[Seite 69↓]

[52] Rukavina, T.; Ticac, B.; Susa, M.; Jendrike, N.; Jonjic, S.; Lucin, P.; Marre, R.; Doric, M. und Trautmann, M. (1997): Protective effect of antilipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody in experimental Klebsiella infection, Infection and Immunity 65, Seite 1754-1760.

[53] Trautmann, M.; Cryz, S. J., Jr.; Sadoff, J. C. und Cross, A. S. (1988): A murine monoclonal antibody against Klebsiella capsular polysaccharide is opsonic in vitro and protects against experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, Microbial Pathogenesis 5, Seite 177-187.

[54] Held, T. K.; Trautmann, M.; Mielke, M. E. A.; Neudeck, H.; Cryz, S. J., Jr. und Cross, A. S. (1992): Monoclonal antibody against Klebsiella capsular polysaccharide reduces severity and hematogenic spread of experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia, Infection and Immunity 60, Seite 1771-1778.

[55] Niskanen, E. (1991): Hematopoietic growth factors in clinical hematology, Annals of Medicine 23, Seite 615-624.

[56] Khwaja, A. und Linch, D. C. (1992): Clinical applications of haemopoietic growth factors, Leukemia and Lymphoma 7 Suppl, Seite 69-72.

[57] Nemunaitis, J.; Meyers, J. D.; Buckner, C. D.; Shannon-Dorcy, K.; Mori, M.; Shulman, H.; Bianco, J. A.; Higano, C. S.; Groves, E.; Storb, R.; Hansen, J.; Appelbaum, F. R. und Singer, J. W. (1991): Phase I trial of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with invasive fungal infections, Blood 78, Seite 907-913.

[58] Bodey, G. P.; Buckley, M.; Sathe, Y. S. und Freireich, E. J. (1966): Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia, Annals of Internal Medicine 64 [2], Seite 328-340.

[59] Bonilla, M. A.; Gillio, A. P.; Ruggeiro, M.; Kernan, N. A.; Brochstein, J. A.; Abboud, M.; Fumagalli, L.; Vincent, M.; Gabrilove, J. L.; Welte, K.; Souza, L. M. und O'Reilly, R. J. (1989): Effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutropenia in patients with congenital agranulocytosis, New England Journal of Medicine 320, Seite 1574-1580.


[Seite 70↓]

[60] Crawford, J.; Ozer, H.; Stoller, R.; Johnson, D.; Lyman, G.; Tabbara, I.; Kris, M.; Grous, J.; Picozzi, V.; Rausch, G.; Smith, R.; Gradishar, W.; Yahanda, A.; Vincent, M.; Stewart, M. und Glaspy, J. (1991): Reduction by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor of fever and neutropenia induced by chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer, New England Journal of Medicine 325, Seite 164-170.

[61] Gabrilove, J. L.; Jakubowski, A.; Scher, H.; Sternberg, C.; Wong, G.; Grous, J.; Yagoda, A.; Fain, K.; Moore, J. A. S.; Clarkson, B.; Oettgen, H. F.; Alton, K.; Welte, K. und Souza, L. (1988): Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutropenia and associated morbidity due to chemotherapy for transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium, New England Journal of Medicine 318, Seite 1414-1422.

[62] Maher, D. W.; Lieschke, G. J.; Green, M.; Bishop, J.; Stuart-Harris, R.; Wolf, M.; Sheridan, W. P.; Kefford, R. F.; Cebon, J.; Olver, I.; McKendrick, J.; Toner, G.; Bradstock, K.; Lieschke, M.; Cruickshank, S.; Tomita, D. K.; Hoffman, E. W.; Fox, R. M. und Morstyn, G. (1994): Filgrastim in patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Annals of Internal Medicine 121, Seite 492-501.

[63] Hartmann, L. C.; Tschetter, L. K.; Habermann, T. M.; Ebbert, L. P.; Johnson, P. S.; Mailliard, J. A.; Levitt, R.; Suman, V. J.; Witzig, T. E.; Wieand, H. S.; Miller, L. L. und Moertel, C. G. (1997): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in severe chemotherapy-induced afebrile neutropenia, New England Journal of Medicine 336, Seite 1776-1780.

[64] Geller, R. B. (1996): Use of cytokines in the treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia: a critical review, Journal of Clinical Oncology 14 [4], Seite 1371-1382.

[65] Giles, F. J. (1998): Monocyte-macrophages, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and prolonged survival among patients with acute myeloid leukemia and stem cell transplants, Clinical Infectious Diseases 26 [6], Seite 1282-1289.


[Seite 71↓]

[66] Weston, B.; Todd III, R. F.; Axtell, R.; Balazovich, K.; Stewart, J.; Locey, B. J.; Mayo-Bond, L.; Loos, P.; Hutchinson, R. und Boxer, L. A. (1991): Severe congenital neutropenia: Clinical effects and neutrophil function during treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 117, Seite 282-290.

[67] Donadieu, J.; Boutard, P.; Bernatowska, E.; Tchernia, G.; Couillaud, G.; Philippe, N. und Le Gall, E. (1997): A european phase II study of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (lenograstim) in the treatment of severe chronic neutropenia in children, European Journal of Pediatrics 156 [9], Seite 693-700.

[68] Welte, K.; Zeidler, C.; Reiter, A.; Müller, W.; Odenwald, E.; Souza, L. und Riehm, H. (1990): Differential effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in children with severe congenital neutropenia, Blood 75, Seite 1056-1063.

[69] Muroi, K.; Ito, M.; Sasaki, R.; Suda, T.; Sakamoto, S. und Miura, Y. (1989): Treatment of drug-induced agranulocytosis with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, Lancet I, Seite 55-55.

[70] Jakubowski, A. A.; Souza, L.; Kelly, F.; Fain, K.; Budman, D.; Clarkson, B.; Bonilla, M. A.; Moore, M. A. S. und Gabrilove, J. (1989): Effects of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in a patient with idiopathic neutropenia, New England Journal of Medicine 320, Seite 38-42.

[71] Metcalf, D. (1971): Acute antigen-induced elevation of serum colony stimulating factor (CFS) levels, Immunology 21, Seite 427-436.

[72] Vellenga, E.; Rambaldi, A.; Ernst, T. J.; Ostapovicz, D. und Griffin, J. D. (1988): Independent regulation of M-CSF and G-CSF gene expression in human monocytes, Blood 71, Seite 1529-1532.

[73] Lenhoff, S. und Olofsson, T. (1996): Cytokine regulation of GM-CSF and G-CSF secretion by human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), Cytokine 8 [9], Seite 702-709.


[Seite 72↓]

[74] Vellenga, E.; van der Vinne, B.; de Wolf, J. T. M. und Halie, M. R. (1991): Simultaneous expression and regulation of G-CSF and IL-6 mRNA in adherent human monocytes and fibroblasts, British Journal of Haematology 78, Seite 14-18.

[75] Leizer, T.; Cebon, J.; Layton, J. E. und Hamilton, J. A. (1990): Cytokine regulation of colony-stimulating factor production in cultured human synovial fibroblasts: I. Induction of GM-CSF and G-CSF production by interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor, Blood 76, Seite 1989-1996.

[76] Seelentag, W. K.; Mermod, J.-J.; Montesano, R. und Vassalli, P. (1987): Additive effects of interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor-a on the accumulation of the three granulocyte and macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNAs in human endothelial cells, The EMBO Journal 6, Seite 2261-2265.

[77] Tanaka, T.; Akira, S.; Yoshida, K.; Umemoto, M.; Yoneda, Y.; Shirafuji, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Suematsu, S.; Yoshida, N. und Kishimoto, T. (1995): Targeted disruption of the NF-IL6 gene discloses its essential role in bacteria killing and tumor cytotoxicity by macrophages, Cell 80 [2], Seite 353-361.

[78] Aoki, Y.; Hirano, D.; Kodama, H.; Nishi, Y. und Nakamura, M. (1998): Stimulation of G-CSF gene expression in the macrophage cell line by contact with extracellular matrix proteins and a pre-B leukaemia cell line, Cytokine 10 [8], Seite 596-602.

[79] Dransfield, I.; Buckle, A.-M.; Savill, J. S.; Mcdowall, A.; Haslett, C. und Hogg, N. (1994): Neutrophil apoptosis in associated with a reduction in CD16 (Fc-gamma-RIII) expression, Journal of Immunology 153, Seite 1254-1263.

[80] Dancey, J. T.; Deubelbeiss, K. A.; Harker, L. A. und Finch, C. A. (1976): Neutrophil kinetics in man, Journal of Clinical Investigation 58 [3], Seite 705-715.

[81] Savill, J. S.; Wyllie, A. H.; Henson, J. E.; Walport, M. J.; Henson, P. M. und Haslett, C. (1989): Macrophage phagocytosis of aging neutrophils in inflammation. Programmed cell death in the neutrophils leads to its recognition by macrophages, Journal of Clinical Investigation 83 [3], Seite 865-875.


[Seite 73↓]

[82] Colotta, F.; Re, F.; Polentarutti, N.; Sozzani, S. und Mantovani, A. (1992): Modulation of granulocyte survival and programmed cell death by cytokines and bacterial products, Blood 80, Seite 2012-2020.

[83] Keel, M.; Ungethüm, U.; Steckholzer, U.; Niederer, E.; Hartung, T.; Trentz, O. und Ertel, W. (1997): Interleukin-10 counterregulates proinflammatory cytokine-induced inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis during severe sepsis, Blood 90 [9], Seite 3356-3363.

[84] Lieschke, G. J. und Burgess, A. W. (1992): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, New England Journal of Medicine 327, Seite 99-106.

[85] Zhang, P.; Bagby, G. J.; Stoltz, D. A.; Summer, W. R. und Nelson, S. (1998): Enhancement of peritoneal leukocyte function by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in rats with abdominal sepsis, Critical Care Medicine 26 [2], Seite 315-321.

[86] Kapp, A. und Zeck-Kapp, G. (1990): Activation of the oxidative metabolism in human polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes: the role of immuno-modulating cytokines, Journal of Investigative Dermatology 95, Seite 94S-99S.

[87] Zeck-Kapp, G.; Kapp, A. und Riede, U. N. (1989): Activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes by immuno-modulating cytokines: an ultrastructural study, Immunobiology 179, Seite 44-55.

[88] Nathan, C. F. (1989): Respiratory burst in adherent human neutrophils: Triggering by colony-stimulating factors CSF-GM and CSF-G, Blood 73, Seite 301-306.

[89] Khwaja, A.; Carver, J. E. und Linch, D. C. (1992): Interactions of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte CSF, and tumor necrosis factor a in the priming of the neutrophil respiratory burst, Blood 79, Seite 745-753.

[90] Niwa, M.; Yousif, A.-E. L.; Kohno, K.-I.; Kanamori, Y.; Matsuno, M.; Abe, A. und Uematsu, T. (1996): The loss of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and recombinant human TNF-a priming effects on the superoxide-generating response in exudated neutrophils is associated with a decrease in their receptor affinities, Journal of Immunology 157, Seite 4147-4153.


[Seite 74↓]

[91] Balazovich, K. J.; Almeida, H. I. und Boxer, L. A. (1991): Recombinant human G-CSF and GM-CSF prime human neutrophils for superoxide production through different signal transduction mechanisms, Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 118, Seite 576-584.

[92] Yuo, A.; Kitagawa, S.; Ohsaka, A.; Saito, M. und Takaku, F. (1990): Stimulation and priming of human neutrophils by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: Qualitative and quantitative differences, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 171, Seite 491-497.

[93] Larsen, A.; Davis, T.; Curtis, B. M.; Gimpel, S.; Sims, J. E.; Cosman, D.; Park, L.; Sorensen, E.; March, C. J. und Smith, C. A. (1990): Expression cloning of a human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor: A structural mosaic of hematopoietin receptor, immunoglobulin, and fibronectin domains, Journal of Experimental Medicine 172, Seite 1559-1570.

[94] Knight, K. R.; Vairo, G. und Hamilton, J. A. (1992): Regulation of pinocytosis in murine macrophages by colony-stimulating factors and other agents, Journal of Leukocyte Biology 51, Seite 350-359.

[95] Sorokin, S. P.; McNelly, N. A. und Hoyt, R. F., Jr. (1992): Macrophage development: IV. Effects of blood factors on macrophages from prenatal rat lung cultures, Anatomical Record 233, Seite 415-428.

[96] Shirai, R.; Kadota, J.; Tomono, K.; Ogawa, K.; Iida, K.; Kawakami, K. und Kohno, S. (1997): Protective effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a granulocytopenic mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection through enhanced phagocytosis and killing by alveolar macrophages through priming tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) production, Clinical and experimental Immunology 109, Seite 73-79.


[Seite 75↓]

[97] Bussolino, F.; Ziche, M.; Wang, J. M.; Alessi, D.; Morbidelli, L.; Cremona, O.; Bosia, A.; Marchisio, P. C. und Mantovani, A. (1991): In vitro and in vivo activation of endothelial cells by colony-stimulating factors, Journal of Clinical Investigation 87, Seite 986-995.

[98] Geissler, K.; Harrington, M.; Srivastava, C.; Leemhuis, T.; Tricot, G. und Broxmeyer, H. E. (1989): Effects of recombinant human colony-stimulating factors (CSF) (granulocyte-macrophage CSF, granulocyte CSF, and CSF-1) on human monocyte/macrophage differentiation, Journal of Immunology 143, Seite 140-146.

[99] Deetjen, C.; Frede, S.; Smolny, M.; Seibel, M.; Schobersberger, W. und Hoffmann, G. (1999): Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression and nitric oxide synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in vitro, Immunopharmacology 43 [1], Seite 23-30.

[100] Wanner, G. A.; Stockle, V.; Bauer, M.; Menger, M. D. und Vollmar, B. (1999): Differential gene expression of CINC, NOS II, and ICAM-1 in endotoxemic liver cells by rG-CSF, Langenbeck's Archive of Surgery 384 [2], Seite 216-221.

[101] Nelson, S.; Summer, W.; Bagby, G.; Nakamura, C.; Stewart, L.; Lipscomb, G. und Andresen, J. (1991): Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Pulmonary Host Defences in Normal and Ethanol-Treated Rats, Journal of Infectious Diseases 164, Seite 901-906.

[102] Hebert, J. C.; O'Reilly, M. und Gamelli, R. L. (1990): Protective effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony- stimulating factor against pneumococcal infections in splenectomized mice, Archives of Surgery 125, Seite 1075-1078.

[103] Lorenz, W.; Reimund, K.-P.; Weitzel, F.; Celik, I.; Kurnatowski, M.; Schneider, C.; Mannheim, W.; Heiske, A.; Neumann, K.; Sitter, H. und Rothmund, M. (1994): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis before operation protects against lethal consequences of postoperative peritonitis, Surgery 116, Seite 925-934.

[104] Matsumoto, M.; Matsubara, S.; Matsuno, T.; Tamura, M.; Hattori, K.; Nomura, H.; Ono, M. und Yokota, T. (1987): Protective effect of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on microbial infection in neutropenic mice, Infection and Immunity 55, Seite 2715-2720.


[Seite 76↓]

[105] Wakiyama, H.; Tsuru, S.; Hata, N.; Shinomiya, M.; Shinomiya, N.; Noritake, M.; Umezawa, Y. und Rokutanda, M. (1993): Therapeutic effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and cephem antibiotics against experimental infections in neutropenic mice induced by cyclophosphamide, Clinical and experimental Immunology 92, Seite 218-224.

[106] O'Reilly, M.; Silver, G. M.; Greenhalgh, D. G.; Gamelli, R. L.; Davis, J. H. und Hebert, J. C. (1992): Treatment of intra-abdominal infection with granulocyte colony- stimulating factor, Journal of Traume 33, Seite 679-682.

[107] Yasuda, H.; Ajiki, Y.; Shimozato, T.; Kasahara, M.; Kawada, H.; Iwata, M. und Shimizu, K. (1990): Therapeutic Efficacy of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Alone and in Combination with Antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in Mice, Infection and Immunity 58, Seite 2502-2509.

[108] Lieschke, G. J.; Grail, D.; Hodgson, G.; Metcalf, D.; Stanley, E.; Cheers, C.; Fowler, K. J.; Basu, S.; Zhan, Y. F. und Dunn, A. R. (1994): Mice lacking granulocyte colony-stimulating factor have chronic neutropenia, granulocyte and macrophage progenitor cell deficiency, and impaired neutrophil mobilization, Blood 84, Seite 1737-1746.

[109] Roilides, E.; Uhlig, K.; Venzon, D.; Pizzo, P. A. und Walsh, T. J. (1992): Neutrophil oxidative burst in response to Blastoconidia and Pseudohyphae of Candida albicans: Augmentation by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interferon-t, Journal of Infectious Diseases 166, Seite 668-673.

[110] Zhang, P.; Bagby, G. J.; Stoltz, D. A.; Spitzer, J. A.; Summer, W. R. und Nelson, S. (1997): Modulation of the lung host response by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in rats challenged with intrapulmonary endotoxin, Shock 7 [3], Seite 193-199.

[111] Trautmann, M.; Vogt, K.; Hammack, C. und Cross, A. S. (1994): A murine monoclonal antibody defines a unique epitope shared by Klebsiella lipopolysaccharides, Infection and Immunity 62, Seite 1282-1288.


[Seite 77↓]

[112] Held, T. K.; Mielke, M. E. A.; Chedid, M.; Unger, M.; Trautmann, M.; Huhn, D. und Cross, A. S. (1998): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor worsens the outcome of experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia through direct interaction with the bacteria, Blood 91, Seite 2525-2535.

[113] Mielke, M. E. A.; Autenrieth, I. B. und Held, T. K. (1998): The immune response in mice challenged with bacterial infections, Kaufmann, S. H. E. und Kabelitz, D., Immunology of Infection 25, 1. Auflage, Seite 313-364, Academic Press, San Diego, London, Boston, New York, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, 0-12-521528-2.

[114] Sidberry, H.; Kaufman, B.; Wright, D. C. und Sadoff, J. (1985): Immunochemical analysis by monoclonal antibodies of bacterial lipopolysaccharides after transfer to nitrocellulose, Journal of Immunological Methods 76, Seite 299-305.

[115] Tsomides, T. J.; Walker, B. D. und Eisen, H. N. (1991): An optimal viral peptide recognized by CD8+ T cells binds very tightly to the restricting class I major histocompatibility complex protein on intact cells but not to the purified class I protein, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88, Seite 11276-11280.

[116] Markwell, M. A. (1982): A new solid-state reagent to iodinate proteins. I. Conditions for the efficient labeling of antiserum, Analytical Biochemistry 125 [2], Seite 427-432.

[117] Hulme, E. C. (1990): Receptor-binding studies, a brief outline, Hulme, E. C., Receptor Biochemistry, A Practical Approach , 1. Auflage, Seite 303-315, IRL Press at Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Tokyo.

[118] Cross, A. S.; Lowell, G. H.; Palmblad, J.; Sadoff, J. C.; Young, L. und Berger, M. (1985): Mechanism of priming of human neutrophils by a soluble lymphoblastoid cell factor, Journal of Immunology 135, Seite 2074-2083.

[119] Schermer, S. (1958): Blut und blutbildende Organe, Cohrs, P.; Jaffé, R. und Meessen, H., Pathologie der Laboratoriumstiere , 1. Auflage, Seite 199-206, Springer, Berlin.

[120] Hagemann, E. und Schmidt, G. (1960): Ratte und Maus. Versuchstiere in der Forschung, 1. Auflage , Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.


[Seite 78↓]

[121] Suzuki, A.; Takahashi, T.; Okuno, Y.; Seko, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Fukumoto, M.; Konaka, Y. und Imura, H. (1993): Liver damage in patients with colony-stimulating factor-producing tumors, American Journal of Medicine 94, Seite 125-132.

[122] Zhang, F.; zur Hausen, A.; Hoffmann, R.; Grewe, M. und Decker, K. (1994): Rat liver macrophages express the 55 kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor: modulation by interferon-g, lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-a, Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 375, Seite 249-254.

[123] Hoffmann, R.; Grewe, M.; Estler, H.-C.; Schulze-Specking, A. und Decker, K. (1994): Regulation of tumor necrosis factor-a-mRNA synthesis and distribution of tumor necrosis factor-a-mRNA synthesizing cells in rat liver during experimental endotoxemia, Journal of Hepatology 20, Seite 122-128.

[124] Alexander, H. R.; Sheppard, B. C.; Jensen, J. C.; Langstein, H. N.; Buresh, C. M.; Venzon, D.; Walker, E. C.; Fraker, D. L.; Stovroff, M. C. und Norton, J. A. (1991): Treatment with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha protects rats against the lethality, hypotension, and hypothermia of gram-negative sepsis, Journal of Clinical Investigation 88, Seite 34-39.

[125] Echtenacher, B.; Falk, W.; Männel, D. N. und Krammer, P. H. (1990): Requirement of endogenous tumor necrosis factor/cachectin for recovery from experimental peritonitis, Journal of Immunology 145, Seite 3762-3766.

[126] Doherty, G. M.; Jensen, J. C.; Alexander, R.; Buresh, C. M. und Norton, J. A. (1991): Pentoxifylline suppression of tumor necrosis factor gene transcription, Surgery 110, Seite 192-198.

[127] Han, J.; Thompson, P. und Beutler, B. (1990): Dexamethasone and pentoxifylline inhibit endotoxin-induced cachectin/tumor necrosis factor synthesis at separate points in the signalling pathway, Journal of Experimental Medicine 172, Seite 391-394.

[128] Roberts, P. J.; Yong, K. L.; Khwaja, A.; Johnson, B. V.; Pizzey, A. R.; Carver, J. E.; Addison, I. E. und Linch, D. C. (1993): Pentoxifylline at clinically achievable levels inhibits FMLP-induced neutrophil responses, but not priming, upregulation of cell-adhesion molecules, or migration induced by GM-CSF, European Journal of Haematology 50, Seite 1-10.


[Seite 79↓]

[129] Zabel, P. und Schade, F. U. (1993): Therapiestrategien gegen Mediatoren beim septischen Schock, Immunität und Infektion 21, Seite 45-50.

[130] Porat, R.; Clark, B. D.; Wolff, S. M. und Dinarello, C. A. (1991): Enhancement of growth of virulent strains of Escherichia coli by interleukin-1, Science 254, Seite 430-432.

[131] Petros, W. P. (1992): Pharmacokinetics and administration of colony-stimulating factors, Pharmacotherapy 12(2 Pt 2), Seite 32S-38S.

[132] Hollingshead, L. M. und Goa, K. L. (1991): Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rG-CSF). A review of its pharmacological properties and prospective role in neutropenic conditions, Drugs 42, Seite 300-330.

[133] Cebon, J.; Layton, J. E.; Maher, D. und Morstyn, G. (1994): Endogenous haemopoietic growth factors in neutropenia and infection, British Journal of Haematology 86, Seite 265-274.

[134] Cross, A.; Asher, L.; Seguin, M.; Yuan, L.; Kelly, N.; Hammack, C.; Sadoff, J. und Gemski, P., Jr. (1995): The importance of a lipopolysaccharide-initiated, cytokine-mediated host defense mechanism in mice against extraintestinally invasive Escherichia coli , Journal of Clinical Investigation 96, Seite 676-686.

[135] Rapoport, A. P.; Abboud, C. N. und DiPersio, J. F. (1992): Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF): receptor biology, signal transduction, and neutrophil activation, Blood Reviews 6, Seite 43-57.

[136] Fukunaga, R.; Seto, Y.; Mizushima, S. und Nagata, S. (1990): Three different mRNAs encoding human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87, Seite 8702-8706.


[Seite 80↓]

[137] Zsebo, K. M.; Cohen, A. M.; Murdock, D. C.; Boone, T. C.; Inoue, H.; Chazin, V. R.; Hines, D. und Souza, L. M. (1986): Recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor: molecular and biological characterization, Immunobiology 172, Seite 175-184.

[138] Pojda, Z.; Tanaka, K.; Aoki, Y. und Tsuboi, A. (1992): In vivo and in vitro interaction between Interleukin 6 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the regulation of murine hematopoiesis, Experimental Hematology 20, Seite 874-878.

[139] Uchida, T. und Yamagiwa, A. (1992): Kinetics of rG-CSF-induced neutrophilia in mice, Experimental Hematology 20, Seite 152-155.

[140] Lister, P. D.; Gentry, M. J. und Preheim, L. C. (1993): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects control rats but not ethanol-fed rats from fatal pneumococcal pneumonia, Journal of Infectious Diseases 168, Seite 922-926.

[141] Freeman, B. D.; Quezado, Z.; Zeni, F.; Natanson, C.; Danner, R. L.; Banks, S.; Quezado, M.; Fitz, Y.; Bacher, J. und Eichacker, P. Q. (1997): rG-CSF reduces endotoxemia and improves survival during E. coli pneumonia, Journal of Applied Physiology 83 [5], Seite 1467-1475.

[142] Eichacker, P. Q.; Waisman, Y.; Natanson, C.; Farese, A.; Hoffman, W. D.; Banks, S. M. und MacVittie, T. J. (1994): Cardiopulmonary effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in a canine model of bacterial sepsis, Journal of Applied Physiology 77 [5], Seite 2366-2373.

[143] Matsumoto, M.; Matsubara, S. und Yokota, T. (1991): Effect of combination therapy with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rG-CSF) and antibiotics in neutropenic mice unresponsive to antibiotics alone, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 29, Seite 447-453.

[144] Serushago, B. A.; Yoshikai, Y.; Handa, T.; Mitsuyama, M.; Muramori, K. und Nomoto, K. (1992): Effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on murine resistance against Listeria monocytogenes , Immunology 75, Seite 475-480.


[Seite 81↓]

[145] Villa, P.; Shaklee, C. L.; Meazza, C.; Agnello, D.; Ghezzi, P. und Senaldi, G. (1998): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and antibiotics in the prophylaxis of a murine model of polymicrobial peritonitis and sepsis, Journal of Infectious Diseases 178 [2], Seite 471-477.

[146] Buisman, A.-M.; Langermans, J. A. M. und van Furth, R. (1996): Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on the course of infection with gram-positive bacteria in mice during granulocytopenia induced by sublethal irradiation or cyclophosphamide, Journal of Infectious Diseases 174, Seite 417-421.

[147] Patton, J. H., Jr.; Lyden, S. P.; Ragsdale, N.; Croce, M. A.; Fabian, T. C. und Proctor, K. G. (1998): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improves host defense to resuscitated shock and polymicrobial sepsis without provoking generalized neutrophil-mediated damage, Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 44 [5], Seite 750-759.

[148] Hustinx, W.; Benaissa-Trouw, B.; van Kessel, K.; Kuenen, J.; Tavares, L.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Verhoef, J. und Hoepelman, A. (1997): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances protection by anti-K1 capsular IgM antibody in murine Escherichia coli sepsis, European Journal of Clinical Investigation 27 [12], Seite 1044-1048.

[149] Haberstroh, J.; Wiese, K.; Geist, A.; Dursunoglu, G. B.; Gippner-Steppert, C.; Jochum, M. und von Specht, B.-U. (1998): Effect of delayed treatment with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on survival and plasma cytokine levels in a non-neutropenic porcine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, Shock 9 [2], Seite 128-134.

[150] DeMarsh, P. L.; Wells, G. I.; Lewandowski, T. F.; Bhatnagar, P. K.; and Ostovic, E. J. (1996): Effect of SK&F 107647, a novel hemoregulatory peptide, M-CSF or G-CSF in the rat fibrin-thrombin clot model of gram-negative and gram-positive sepsis. 96th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, May 19-23.Abstract E-1

[151] Karzai, W.; von Specht, B. U.; Parent, C.; Haberstroh, J.; Wollersen, K.; Natanson, C.; Banks, S. M. und Eichacker, P. Q. (1999): G-CSF during Escherichia coli versus Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in rats has fundamentally different and opposite effects, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 159, Seite 1377-1382.


[Seite 82↓]

[152] Rao, R.; Prinz, R. A.; Kazantsev, G. B.; Hecht, D.; Gattuso, P.; Jacobs, H. K.; Djuricin, G. und Castelli, M. (1996): Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in severe pancreatitis, Surgery 119, Seite 657-663.

[153] Roilides, E.; Walsh, T. J.; Pizzo, P. A. und Rubin, M. (1991): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances the phagocytic and bactericidal activity of normal and defective human neutrophils, Journal of Infectious Diseases 163, Seite 579-583.

[154] Østergaard, C.; Benfield, T.; Gesser, B.; Kharazmi, A.; Frimodt-Møller, N.; Espersen, F. und Lundgren, J. D. (1999): Pretreatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor attenuates the inflammatory response but not the bacterial load in cerebrospinal fluid during experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits, Infection and Immunity 67 [7], Seite 3430-3436.

[155] Kullberg, B. J.; Netea, M. G.; Curfs, J. H. A. J.; Keuter, M.; Meis, J. F. G. M. und van der Meer, J. W. M. (1998): Recombinant murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects against acute disseminated Candida albicans infection in nonneutropenic mice, Journal of Infectious Diseases 177, Seite 175-181.

[156] Toki, S.; Hiromatsu, K.; Aoki, Y.; Makino, M. und Yoshikai, Y. (1997): Protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on endotoxin shock in mice with retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome, Cytokine 9 [10], Seite 781-786.

[157] Weiss, M.; Moldawer, L. L. und Schneider, E. M. (1999): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to prevent the progression of systemic nonresponsiveness in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis, Blood 93 [2], Seite 425-439.

[158] Cross, A. S.; Sadoff, J. C.; Kelly, N.; Bernton, E. und Gemski, P. (1989): Pretreatment with recombinant murine tumor necrosis factor a/cachectin and murine interleukin 1 a protects mice from lethal bacterial infection, Journal of Experimental Medicine 169, Seite 2021-2027.

[159] Grünewald, T.; Schüler-Maué, W. und Ruf, B. (1993): Interleukin-8 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, or tuberculosis, Journal of Infectious Diseases 168, Seite 1077-1078.


[Seite 83↓]

[160] Kolls, J. K.; Nelson, S. und Summer, W. R. (1993): Recombinant cytokines and pulmonary host defense, American Journal of the Medical Sciences 306, Seite 330-335.

[161] Salkowski, C. A.; Detore, G. R. und Vogel, S. N. (1997): Lipopolysaccharide and monophosphoryl lipid A differentially regulate interleukin-12, gamma interferon, and interleukin-10 mRNA production in murine macrophages, Infection and Immunity 65 [8], Seite 3239-3247.

[162] Salkowski, C. A.; Detore, G.; Franks, A.; Falk, M. C. und Vogel, S. N. (1998): Pulmonary and hepatic gene expression following cecal ligation and puncture: monophosphoryl lipid A prophylaxis attenuates sepsis-induced cytokine and chemokine expression and neutrophil inflammation, Infection and Immunity 66 [8], Seite 3569-3578.

[163] Henricson, B. E.; Benjamin, W. R. und Vogel, S. N. (1990): Differential cytokine induction by doses of lipopolysaccharide and monophosphoryl lipid A that result in equivalent early endotoxin tolerance, Infection and Immunity 58, Seite 2429-2437.

[164] Cross, A. S.; Opal, S. M.; Sadoff, J. C. und Gemski, P. (1993): The choice of bacteria in animal models of sepsis, Infection and Immunity 61, Seite 2741-2747.

[165] Opal, S. M.; Jhung, J. W.; Keith, J. C., Jr.; Goldman, S. J.; Palardy, J. E. und Parejo, N. A. (1999): Additive effects of human recombinant interleukin-11 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in experimental gram-negative sepsis, Blood 93 [10], Seite 3467-3472.

[166] Serizawa, I.; Amano, K.; Ishii, H.; Ichikawa, T.; Kusaka, M.; Taguchi, T.; Kiyokawa, N. und Fujimoto, J. (2000): Long-term overexpression of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic mice: persistent neutrophilia with no increased mortality for more than one year, Cytokine 12 [6], Seite 630-635.

[167] Pollmächer, T.; Korth, C.; Schreiber, W.; Hermann, D. und Mullington, J. (1996): Effects of repeated administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on neutrophil counts, plasma cytokine, and cytokine receptor levels, Cytokine 8 [10], Seite 799-803.


[Seite 84↓]

[168] Pollmächer, T.; Korth, C.; Mullington, J.; Schreiber, W.; Sauer, J.; Vedder, H.; Galanos, C. und Holsboer, F. (1996): Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on plasma cytokine and cytokine receptor levels and on the in vivo host response to endotoxin in healthy men, Blood 87 [3], Seite 900-905.

[169] Pajkrt, D.; Manten, A.; van der Poll, T.; Tiel-van Buul, M. M. C.; Jansen, J.; ten Cate, J. W. und van Deventer, S. J. H. (1997): Modulation of cytokine release and neutrophil function by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during endotoxemia in humans, Blood 90 [4], Seite 1415-1424.

[170] Vollmar, B.; Messner, S.; Wanner, G. A.; Hartung, T. und Menger, M. D. (1997): Immunomodulatory action of G-CSF in a rat model of endotoxin-induced liver injury: in intravital microscopic analysis of Kupffer cell and leukocyte response, Journal of Leukocyte Biology 62, Seite 710-718.

[171] Dunzendorfer, S.; Schratzberger, P.; Reinisch, N.; Kähler, C. M. und Wiedermann, C. J. (1997): Pentoxifylline differentially regulates migration and respiratory burst activity of the neutrophil, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 832, Seite 330-340.

[172] Amura, C. R.; Fontán, P. A.; Sanjuan, N. und Sordelli, D. O. (1994): The effect of treatment with interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor on Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in a granulocytopenic mouse model, Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 73, Seite 261-266.

[173] Whiteside, T. L. (1994): Cytokine measurements and interpretation of cytokine assays in human disease, Journal of Clinical Immunology 14, Seite 327-339.

[174] Cavaillon, J.-M.; Munoz, C.; Fitting, C.; Misset, B. und Carlet, J. (1992): Circulating cytokines: the tip of the iceberg?, Circulatory Shock 38, Seite 145-152.

[175] Dinarello, C. A. und Cannon, J. G. (1993): Cytokine measurements in septic shock (editorial), Annals of Internal Medicine 119, Seite 853-854.


[Seite 85↓]

[176] Casey, L. C.; Balk, R. A. und Bone, R. C. (1993): Plasma cytokine and endotoxin levels correlate with survival in patients with the sepsis syndrome, Annals of Internal Medicine 119, Seite 771-778.

[177] Hierholzer, C.; Kelly, E.; Lyons, V.; Billiar, T. R. und Tweardy, D. J. (1996): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) instillation into the lung results in neutrophil recruitment and lung damage, Surgical Forum 47, Seite 118-120.

[178] Wang, J. M.; Chen, Z. G.; Colella, S.; Bonilla, M. A.; Welte, K.; Bordignon, C. und Mantovani, A. (1988): Chemotyctic activity of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Blood 72 [5], Seite 1456-1460.

[179] Hierholzer, C.; Kelly, E.; Lyons, V.; Roedling, E.; Davies, P.; Billiar, T. R. und Tweardy, D. J. (1998): G-CSF instillation into rat lungs mediates neutrophil recruitment, pulmonary edema, and hypoxia, Journal of Leukocyte Biology 63, Seite 169-174.

[180] Hierholzer, C.; Kelly, E.; Tsukada, K.; Loeffert, E.; Watkins, S.; Billiar, T. R. und Tweardy, D. J. (1997): Hemorrhagic shock induces G-CSF expression in bronchial epithelium, American Journal of Physiology 273, Seite L1085-L1064.

[181] King, J.; Deboisblanc, B. P.; Mason, C. M.; Onofrio, J. M.; Lipscomb, G.; Mercante, D. E.; Summer, W. R. und Nelson, S. (1995): Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on acute lung injury in the rat, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 151, Seite 302-309.

[182] Koeffler, H. P.; Gasson, J. und Tobler, A. (1988): Transcriptional and posttranscriptional modulation of myeloid colony-stimulating factor expression by tumor necrosis factor and other agents, Molecular and Cellular Biology 8, Seite 3432-3438.

[183] Niitsu, N.; Iki, S.; Muroi, K.; Motomura, S.; Murakami, M.; Takeyama, H.; Ohsaka, A. und Urabe, A. (1997): Interstitial pneumonia in patients receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during chemotherapy: survey in Japan 1991-96, British Journal of Cancer 76 [12], Seite 1661-1666.


[Seite 86↓]

[184] Takahashi, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Chikayama, S.; Ikeda, M. und Kondo, M. (1999): Effect of granulocyte/colony-stimulating factor on the onset of the adult respiratory distress syndrome, Acta Haematologica 101 [3], Seite 124-129.

[185] Hanaoka, M.; Kubo, K.; Miyahara, T.; Hayano, T.; Koizumi, T.; Kobayashi, T. und Sekiguchi, M. (1998): Effect of post-treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on endotoxin-induced lung injury in sheep, Experimental Lung Research 24, Seite 15-25.

[186] Koizumi, T.; Kubo, K.; Koyama, S.; Hanaoka, M.; Hayano, T.; Miyahara, T.; Kobayashi, T. und Sekiguchi, M. (1997): Neutrophils pretreated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are not related to the severity of endotoxin-induced lung injury, Experimental Lung Research 23, Seite 393-404.

[187] Davis, K. A.; Fabian, T. C.; Ragsdale, D. N.; Trenthem, L. L.; Croce, M. A. und Proctor, K. G. (1999): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and neutrophil-related changes in local host defense during recovery from shock and intra-abdominal sepsis, Surgery 126 [2], Seite 305-313.

[188] Hofmann, G. und Schobersberger, W. (1998): Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro, European Journal of Pharmacology 358 [2], Seite 169-176.

[189] MacMicking, J.; Xie, Q.-W. und Nathan, C. (1997): Nitric oxide and macrophage function, Annual Review of Immunology 15, Seite 323-350.

[190] Denis, M.; Campbell, D. und Gregg, E. O. (1991): Interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulate growth of a virulent strain of Escherichia coli , Infection and Immunity 59, Seite 1853-1856.

[191] Shiratsuchi, H.; Johnson, J. L. und Ellner, J. J. (1991): Bidirectional effects of cytokines on the growth of Mycobacterium avium within human monocytes, Journal of Immunology 146, Seite 3165-3170.


[Seite 87↓]

[192] Denis, M. (1992): Interleukin-6 is used as a growth factor by virulent Mycobacterium avium: presence of specific receptors, Cellular Immunology 141, Seite 182-188.

[193] Abou-Sabe, M. und Reilly, T. (1978): Insulin action on Escherichia coli. Regulation of the adenylate cyclase and phosphotransferase enzymes, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 542, Seite 442-455.

[194] Stute, N.; Santana, V. M.; Rodman, J. H.; Schell, M. J.; Ihle, J. N. und Evans, W. E. (1992): Pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in children, Blood 79, Seite 2849-2854.

[195] Fukunaga, R.; Ishizaka-Ikeda, E.; Seto, Y. und Nagata, S. (1990): Expression cloning of a receptor for murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Cell 61, Seite 341-350.

[196] Shimoda, K.; Okamura, S.; Harada, N.; Kondo, S.; Okamura, T. und Niho, Y. (1993): Identification of a functional receptor for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on platelets, Journal of Clinical Investigation 91 [1310], Seite 1313.

[197] Uzumaki, H.; Okabe, T.; Sasaki, N.; Hagiwara, K.; Takaku, F.; Tobita, M.; Yasukawa, K.; Ito, S. und Umezawa, Y. (1989): Identification and characterization of receptors for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on human placenta and trophoblastic cells, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86, Seite 9323-9326.

[198] Hanazono, Y.; Hosoi, T.; Kuwaki, T.; Matsuki, S.; Miyazono, K.; Miyagawa, K. und Takaku, F. (1990): Structural analysis of the receptors for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutrophils, Experimental Hematology 18, Seite 1097-1103.

[199] Kaczmarski, R. S. und Mufti, G. J. (1991): The cytokine receptor superfamily, Blood Reviews 5, Seite 193-203.

[200] Luo, G.; Niesel, D. W.; Shaban, R. A.; Grimm, E. A. und Klimpel, G. R. (1993): Tumor necrosis factor alpha binding to bacteria: evidence for a high-affinity receptor and alteration of bacterial virulence properties, Infection and Immunity 61, Seite 830-835.


[Seite 88↓]

[201] Visai, L.; Speziale, P. und Bozzini, S. (1990): Binding of collagens to an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli , Infection and Immunity 58, Seite 449-455.

[202] Ullberg, M.; Kronvall, G.; Karlsson, I. und Wiman, B. (1990): Receptors for human plasminogen on gram-negative bacteria, Infection and Immunity 58, Seite 21-25.

[203] Kim, K. S. und Le, J. (1992): IL-1b and Escherichia coli , Science 258, Seite 1561-1561.

[204] Treseler, C. B.; Maziarz, R. T. und Levitz, S. M. (1992): Biological activity of interleukin-2 bound to Candida albicans , Infection and Immunity 60, Seite 183-188.

[205] Johns, M. A.; Sipe, J. D.; Melton, L. B.; Strom, T. B. und McCabe, W. R. (1988): Endotoxin-associated protein: interleukin-1-like activity on serum amyloid A synthesis and T-lymphocyte activation, Infection and Immunity 56 [6], Seite 1593-1601.

[206] Bjornson, B. H.; Agura, E.; Harvey, J. M.; Johns, M.; Andrews, R. G. und McCabe, W. R. (1988): Endotoxin-associated protein: a potent stimulus for human granulocytopoietic activity which may be accessory cell independent, Infection and Immunity 56 [6], Seite 1602-1607.

[207] Holmgren, A. und Bränden, C.-I. (1989): Crystal structure of chaperone protein PapD reveals an immunoglobulin fold, Nature 342, Seite 248-251.

[208] Abraham, E. und Stevens, P. (1992): Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in modifying mortality from Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia after hemorrhage, Critical Care Medicine 20, Seite 1127-1133.


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am:
18.01.2005