Kern, Hartmut : „SIRS und Sepsis nach kardiochirurgischen Eingriffen - Vergleich verschiedener Modelle zur Risikostratifizierung“

100

Literaturliste:

1. Abraham E, Matthay MA, Dinarello CA, Vincent JL, Cohen J, Opal SM, Glauser M, Parsons P, Fisher CJ Jr., Repine JE "Consensus conference definitions for sepsis, sepsic shock, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome: Time for a reevaluation. " Crit Care Med 28: 232-235 (2000)

2. Albelda SM, Smith CW, Ward PA "Adhesion molecules and inflammatory injury. " FASEB J 8: 504-512 (1994)

3. Argenziano M, Choudri AF, Moazami N, Levin H, Landry DW, Oz MC "A prospective randomized trial of arginine vasopressin in the treatment of vasodilatory shock after left ventricular assist device placement. " Circulation 96 (Suppl. 2). II286-290 (1997)

4. Argenziano M, Chen JM, Choudri AF, Cullinane S, Garfein E, Weinberg AD, Smith CR, Rose EA, Landry DW, Oz MC "Management of vasodilatory shock after cardiac surgery: identification of predisposing factors and use of a novel pressure agent. " J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 116: 973-980 (1998)

5. Arregui LM, Moyes DG, Lipmann J, Fatti LP "Comparison of disease severity scoring systems in septic shock. " Crit Care Med 19: 1165-1171 (1991)

6. Asimakopoulos G "Mechansims of the systemic inflammatory response. " Perfusion 14: 269-277 (1999)

7. Aouifi A, Piriou V, Bouvier H, Bastien O, Chiari P, Rousson R, Evans R, Lehot JJ "Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein concentrations. " Br J Anesth 83: 602-607 (1999)

8. Barriere, SL, Lowry, SF "An overview of mortality prediction in sepsis. " Crit Care Med 23: 376-393 (1995)


101

9. Bassenge E "Clinical relevance of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). " Br J Clin Pharmacol 34 (Suppl. 1): 37S-42S (1992)

10. Bennett-Guerrero E, Ayuso L, Hamilton-Davies C, White WD, Barclay R, Smith PK, King SA, Muhlbaier LH, Newman MF, Mythen MG "Relationship of preoperative antiendotoxin core antibodies and adverse outcomes following cardiac surgery. " JAMA 277: 646-650 (1997)

11. Becker RB, Zimmermann JE, Knaus WA, Wagner DP, Sennef MG, Draper EA, Higgins TL, Estafanous FG, Loop FD "The use of APACHE III to evaluate ICU length of stay, resource and mortality after coronary bypass surgery. " J Cardiovasc Surg 36 (1): 1-11 (1995)

12. Bein T, Unertl K "Möglichkeiten und Grenzen von Score-Systemen in der Intensivmedizin. " Anästesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 28:47 6-83 (1993)

113. Betschart M "Was kostet ein Pflegetag auf der chirurgischen Intensivstation des Kantonsspitals St. " Gallen? Schw Med Wochenschr 125 (Suppl. 73) S7 (1995)

14. Boeken U, Feindt P, Zimmermann N, Kalweit G, Petzold T, Gams E "Increased preoperative C-reactive (CRP)-values without signs of infection and complicated course after cariopulmonary bypass (CPB)-operations. " Eur J Cardio-thoracic Surg 13: 541-545 (1998)

15. Boeken U, Feindt P, Mohan E, Zimmermann N, Micek M, Kalweit G, Gams E "Post-perfusion syndrome and disturbed microcirculation after cardiac surgery: the role of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. " Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 47: 347-351 (1999)


102

16. Boldt J, Müller M, Heesen M, Papsdorf M, Hempelmann G "Does age influence circulating adhesion molecules in the crtically ill? " Crit Care Med 1: 95-100 (1997)

17. Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, Dellinger RP, Fein AM, Knaus WA, Schein RMH, Sibbald WJ "Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. " Chest 101: 1644-1655 (1992)

18. Bone RC "Toward the theory regarding the pathogenesis of the systemic inlammatory response syndrome: What we do and do not know about cytokine regulation. " Crit Care Med 24: 163-172 (1996)

19. Bone RC, Grodzin CJ, Balk RA "Sepsis: a new hypothesis for pathogenesis of the disease process. " Chest 112: 225-43 (1997)

20. Boyd O, Grounds RM "Physiological scoring systems and audit. " Lancet 341: 1573-1574 (1993)

21. Boyle EM Jr, Pohlmann TH, Johnson MC, Verrier ED "The systemic inflammatory response. " Ann Thorac surg 64: S31-37 (1997)

22. Brun-Buisson C, Doyon F, Carlet J, Dellamonica P, Gouin F, Lepoutre A, Mercier JC, Offenstadt G, Regnier B "Incidence, risk factors and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults. A multicenter prospective study in intensive care units. French ICU Group for severe Sepsis. " JAMA 274: 968-974 (1995)

23. Bucala R, Tracey KJ, Cerami A "Advanced glycosylation products quench nitric oxide and mediate defective endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in diabetes. " J Clin Invest 87: 432-438 (1991)

24. Burchardi H "Brauchen wir die Vorhersage des „Outcome“ in der Intensivmedizin ? " Anästh Intensivmed 36: 153-160 (1995)


103

25. Burns SM, Ryan B, Burns JE "The weaning continuum use of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III, Burns Weaning assessment Program, Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, and Wean Index scores to establish stages of weaning. " Crit Care Med 28. 2259-2267 (2000)

26. Butler J, Rocker GM, Westaby S "Inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. " Ann Thorac Surg 55: 552-229 (1993)

27. Castella X, Artigas A, Bion JF, Kari A "A comparison of severity of illness scoring systems for intensive care unit patients: Results of a multicenter, multinational study. " Crit Care Med 23: 1327-1332 (1995)

28. Chang RWS, Bihari DJ "Outcome prediction for the individual patient in the ICU. " Unfallchirurg 97: 199-204 (1994)

29. Chang RWS, Jacobs S, Lee B "Predicting outcome among intensive care unit patients using computerised trend analysis of daily APACHE II scores corrected for organ systems failure. " Intensive Care Med 14: 558-566 (1988)

30. Charlson ME, Ales KL, Simon R, MacKenzie CR "Why predictive indexes perform less well in validation studies. Is it magic or methods? " Arch Intern Med 147: 2155-2162 (1987)

31. Clinical Process Improvement: Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Clinical Benchmarking Database Report no. 3 Oack Brook, IL, University HealthSystem Consortium: Clinical Practice Advancement Center (1998)

32. Coronado BE, Griffith JL, Beshansky JR, Selker HP "Hospital mortality in women and men with acute cardiac ischemia: a prospective multicenter study. " J Am Coll Cardiol 29: 1490-1496 (1997)


104

33. Cox CS, Allen SA, Brennan M "Analysis of intestinal microvascular permeability associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. " J Surg Res 83: 19-26 (1999)

34. Cremer, J, Martin M, Redl H, Bahrami S, Abraham C, Graeter T, Haverich A, Schlag G, Borst HG "Systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac operations. " Ann Thorac Surg 61: 1714-1720 (1996)

35. Christiakis GT, Fremes SE, Koch FP, Harwood S, Juhasz S, Sharpe E, Deemar KA, Hamilton C, Chen E, Rao V, Chang G, Goldman BS "Determinants of low systemic vascular resistance during cardiopulmonary bypass. " Ann Thorac Surg 58: 1040-1049 (1994)

36. Christensen VB, Tonnesen E, Sorensen IJ, Bilfinger TV, Sanchez RG, Stefano GB "Effects of anesthesia based on high versus low doses of opioids on acute phase cytokine and acute phase protein levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. " Acta Anesthesiol Scand 41: 1-8 (1997)

37. Cullen DJ, Civetta JM, Briggs BA, Ferrara L "Therapeutic Intervention Scoring system: a method for quantitative comparison of patient care. " Crit Care Med 2: 57-60 (1974)

38. Cullen DJ "Results and costs of intensive care. " Anesthesiology 47: 203-216 (1977)

39. Danner RL, Ellin RJ, Hosseini JM, Wesley RA, Reilly JM, Parillo JE "Endotoxemia in human septic shock. " Chest 99: 169-175 (1991)

40. Dick W, Pehl S, Tsanova I, Heinrichs W, Brost F, Eich P "Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS). Untersuchung zur Bemessung des Pflegezeitaufwandes auf einer interdisziplinären operativen Intensivbehandlungsstation. " Anästhesiol Intensivmed 31: 18-21 (1990)


105

41. Diehl JM, Staufenbiel T Statistik mit SPSS für Windows, 1. Auflage, Verlag Dietmar Klotz, Eschborn (1997)

42. Edwards FH, Clark RE, Schwartz M "Coronary artery bypass grafting: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database experience. " Ann Thorac Surg 57: 12-19 (1994)

43. Elgebaly SA, Houser SL, El Kerm AF, Doyle K, Gillies C, Dalecki K "Evidence of cardiac inflammation after open heart operations. " Ann Thorac Surg 57: 391-396 (1994)

44. Falk V, Walther T, Diegeler A, Mohr FW "Stellenwert von Scoringsystemen in der Herzchirurgie. " Langenbecks Arch Chir (Suppl II): 303-306 (1996)

45. Fery-Lemonnier E, Landais P, Loirat P, Kleinknecht D, Brivet F "Evaluation of severity scoring systems in ICUs- translation, conversion and definition ambiguities as a source of inter-observer variability in APACHE II, SAPS II and OSF. " Intensive Care Med 21: 356-360 (1995)

46. Fink MP "Gastrointestinal mucosal injury in experimental models of shock, trauma, and sepsis. " Crit Care Med 19: 627-638 (1991)

47. Fitzpatrick MA, Dodd M, Schoevers D, Tracey E "Do management algorithms improve chest pain triage? " Med J Aust 171(8): 396-397 (1999)

48. Ford EG, Baisden CE, Matteson ML, Picone AL "Sepsis after coronary bypass grafting: evidence for loss of the gut mucosal barrier. " Ann Thorac Surg 52: 514-517 (1991)


106

49. Frering B, Philipp I,Ddehoux M, Rolland C, Langlois JM, Desmonts JM "Circulating cytokines in poatients undergoing normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. " J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 108: 636-641 (1994)

50. Frutiger A "Qualitätssicherung in der Intensivmedizin: die Situation in der Schweiz. " Schw Med Wochenschr 129: 1592-1599 (1999)

51. Fujishima S, Aikawa N "Neutrophil-mediated tissue injury and its modulation. " Intensive Care Med 21: 277-285 (1995)

52. Galley HF, Dubbels AM, Webster NR "The effect of midazolam and propofol on interleukin-8 from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. " Anesth Analg 86: 1289-1293 (1998)

53. Geissler HJ, Hölzl P, Marohl S, Kuhn-Régnier F, Mehlhorn U, Südkamp M, deVivie ER "Risk stratification in heart surgery: comparison of six score systems. " Eur J Cardio-thorac Surg 17: 400-406 (2000)

54. Gemke RJBJ, Bonsel GJ, McDonald J, van Vught AJ "Patient characteristics and resource utilisation in pediatric intensive care. " Arch Dis Child 71: 291-296 (1994)

55. Girotti MJ, Brown SJL "Factors predicting discharge from intensive care: a canadian experience. " Can Anaesth Soc J 33: 294-299 (1985)

56. Goldhill DR, Withington PS "The effect of casemix adjustment on mortality as predicted by APACHE II. " Intensive Care Med 22: 415-419 (1996)


107

57. Grünenefelder J, Zünd G, Schoeberlein A, Maly FE, Schurr U, Guntli S, Fischer K, Turina M "Modified ultrafiltation lowers adhesion molecule and cytokine levels after cardiopulmonary bypass without clinical relevance in adults. " Eur J Cardio-Thorac Surg 17: 77-83 (2000)

58. Hamilton-Davies C, Barclay GR, Cardigan RA, McDonald SJ, Purdy G, Machin SJ, Webb AR "Relationship between preoperative endotoxin immune status, gut perfusion, and outcome from valve replacement surgery. " Chest 112: 1189-1196 (1997)

59. Hanley JA, Mc Neil BJ "The Meaning and Use of the Area under a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve. " Radiology 143: 29-36 (1982)

60. Hannan EL, Kilburn H Jr, O´Donnell JF, Lukacik G, Shields EP "Adult open heart surgery in New York State: an analysis of risk factors and hospital mortality rates. " JAMA 264: 2768-2774 (1990)

61. Harig F, Feyrer R, Mahmoud F, Blum U, von der Emde J "Reducing the post-pump syndrome by using heparin-coated circuits, steroids, or aprotinin. " Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 47: 111-118 (1999)

62. Harrell FE, Lee KL, Mark DB "Multivariable prognostic models: Issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing costs. " Stat Med 15: 361-387 (1996)

63. Hattler BG, Madia C, Johnson C, Armitage JM, Hardesty RL, Kormos RL, Payne DN, Griffith BP "Risk stratification using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons program. " Ann Thorac Surg 52: 1348-1352 (1994)


108

64. Hebert PC, Drummond AJ, Singer J, Bernhard GR, Russell JA "A simple multiple system organ failure scoring system predicts mortality of patients who have sepsis syndrome. " Chest 104: 230-35 (1993)

65. Hensel M, Volk T, Docke WD, Kern F, Tschirna D, Egerer K, Konertz W, Kox WJ "Hyperprocalcitonemia in patients with noninfectious SIRS and pulmonary dysfunction associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. " Anesthesiology 89: 93-104 (1998)

666. Higgins TL, Estafanous FG, Loop FD, Beck GJ, Blum JM, Paranadi L "Stratification of morbidity and mortality outcome by preoperative risk factors in coronary bypass patients. " JAMA 267: 2344-2348 (1992)

67. Higgins TL, Estafanous FG, Loop FD, Beck GJ, Lee JR, Starr NJ, Knaus WA, Cosgrove DM "ICU Admission Score for Predicting Morbidity and Mortality Risk After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. " Ann Thorac Surg 64: 1050-1058 (1997)

68. Higgins TL "Quantifying risk and assessing outcome in cardiac surgery. " J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 12: 330-340 (1998)

69. Hill GE "Cardiopulmonary bypass-induced inflammation: is it important? " J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 12 (2 Suppl. 1): 21-25 (1998a)

70. Hill GE, Pohorecki R, Whitten CW "Plasma lipid concentations correlate inversly with CPB-induced interleukin-6 release. " Can J Anaesth 45: 509-514 (1998b)

71. Hirsh PD, Campbell WB, Willerson JT, Hillis LD "Prostaglandins and ischemic heart disease. " Am J Med 71: 1009-1026 (1981)


109

72. Hochman JS, McCabe CH, Stone PH, Becker RC, Cannon CP, DeFeo-Fraulini T, Thompson B, Steingart R, Knatterud G, Braunwald E, for the TIMI investigators "Outcome and profile of women amd men presenting with acute coronary syndromes: a report from TIMI IIIB. " J Am Coll Cardiol 30: 141-148 (1997)

73. Hoffmann N Simulation Neuronaler Netze. Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1. Auflage, S. 114-131 (1991)

74. Holzheimer RG, Molloy RG, Görlach H, Wilkert S, Hehrlein F "IL-6 and TNFalpha release in association with neutophil activation after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. " Infection 22: 37-42 (1994)

75. Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S Applied logistic regression. New York: John Wiley and Sons, p. 25-26 (1989)

76. Johnson MR "Low systemic vascular resistance after cardiopulmonary bypass: Are we any closer to understanding the enigma? " Crit Care Med 27: 1048-1050 (1999)

77. Khabar KS, elBarbary MA, Khouqueer F, Devol M, el-Gains S, el-Halees Z "Circulating endotoxin and cytokines after cardiopulmonary bypass: differential correlation with duration of bypass and systemic inflammatory response/ multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. " Clin Immunol Immunopathol 85: 97-103 (1997)

78. Keene R, Cullen DJ "Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System: Update 1983: " Crit Care Med 11: 1-3 (1983)

79. Kern H, Kox WJ "Impact of standard procedures and clinical standards on cost-effectiveness and intensive care unit performance in adult patients after cardiac surgery. " Intensive Care Med 25: 1367-1373 (1999)


110

80. Kern H, Johnen W, Braun J, Frey B, Rüstow B, Kox WJ, Schlame M "Origin of heparin-induced phospholipase A2 during cardiopulmonary bypass. " Anesth Analg 91: 528-532 (2000)

81. Kern H, Redlich U, Hotz H, v. Heymann C, Grosse J, Konertz W, Kox WJ "Risk factors for prolonged ventilation after cardiac surgery using APACHE II, SAPS II, and TISS- comparison of three different models. " Intensive Care Med 27: 407-415 (2001a)

82. Kern H, Wittich R Rohr U, Kox WJ, Spies CD "Increased endothelial injury in septic patients with coronary artery disease. " Chest 119 : 874-883 (2001b)

83. Kirklin JK "Prospects for understanding and eliminating the deleterious effects of cardiopulmonary bypass. " Ann Thorac Surg 51: 529-531 (1991)

84. Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmermann JE "APACHE II: A severity of disease classification system. " Crit Care Med 13: 818-829 (1985a)

85. Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmermann JE "Prognosis in acute organ-system failure. " Ann Surg 202: 685-693 (1985b)

86. Knaus WA, Wagner DP, Draper EA, Zimmermann JE, Berger M, Bastsos PG, Sirio CA, Murphy DJ, Lotring T, Damiano A, Harrell FE "The APACHE III prognostic system : risk prediction of hospital mortality for critically ill hospitalized adults. " Chest 100: 1619-1636 (1991)

87. Knaus WA, Sun X, Nystrom PO, Wagner DP "Evaluation of definitions for sepsis. " Chest 101: 1656-1662 (1992)


111

88. Knaus WA, Harrell FE, Fisher CJ, Wagner DP, Opal SM, Sadoff JC, Draper EA, Walawander CA, Conboy K, Grasela TH "The clinical evaluation of new drugs for sepsis : a prospective study design based on survival analysis. " JAMA 270: 1233-1241 (1993)

89. Kondruweit M, Deng M, Roeder N, Middelbergt D, Hammel D, Scheld HH "Anwendung des modifizierten Cleveland Score in einer herzchirurgischen Klinik. " Journal für Anästhesie und Intensivbehandlung 3: 8-10 (1996)

90. Kotani N, Hashimoto H, Sessler D, Muaoka M, Wang JS, O´Connor MF, Matsuki A "Cardiopulmonary bypass produces greater pulmonary than systemic proinflammatory cytokines. " Anesth Analg 90: 1039-1045 (2000)

91. Kox WJ, Wauer H "Grenzen der Intensivmedizin. " Zentralbl Chir 121: 515-520 (1996)

92. Kress HG, Gehrsits P, Elert O "Predictive value of skin testing, neutrophil migration and C-reactive protein for postoperative infections in cardiopulmonary bypass patients. " Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 31: 397-404 (1987)

93. Kristof AS, Magder S "Low systemic vascular resistance state in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. " Crit Care Med 27: 1121-1127 (1999)

94. Krongrad A, Lai S "Artificial neuronal networks in urology: con. " Urology 54: 949-951 (1999)

95. Kuhn C, Müller-Werdan U, Schmitt DV, Lange H, Pilz G, Kreuzer E, Mohr FW, Zerkowski HR, Werdan K "Improved outcome of APACHE II score-defined escalating systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients post cardiac surgery in 1996 compared to 1988-1990: the ESICS-study pilot project. " Eur J Cardio-Thorac Surg 17: 30-37 (2000)


112

96. Kruse JA, Thill-Baharozian MC, Carlson RW "Comparison of clinical assessment with APACHE II for predicting mortality risk in patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit. " JAMA 260: 1739-1742 (1988)

97. Lahat N, Zlotnick AY, Shtiller R, Bar I, Merin G "Serum levels of IL-1, Il-6 and tumor necrosis factors in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafts or cholecystectomy. " Clin Exp Immunol 89: 255-260 (1992)

98. Le Deist F, Menasche P, Bel A, Lariviere J, Piwnica A, Bloch G "Patterns of changes in neutrophil adhesion molecules during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. A clinical study. " Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 10: 279-283 (1996)

99. Lee KL, Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Califf RM, Behar VS, Floyd WL, Morris JJ, Waugh RA, Whalen RE, Rosati RA "Predicting outcome in coronary disease. Statistical models versus expert clinicians. " Am J Med 80: 553-560 (1986)

100. Le Gall JR, Loirat P, Alperovitsch A, Glaser P, Granthil C, Mathieu D, Mercier P, Thomas R, Villers D "A simplified acute physiology score for ICU patients. " Crit Care Med 12: 975-977 (1984)

101. Le Gall JR, Lemeshow S, Saulnier F "A New Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) Based on a European/North American Multicenter Study. " JAMA 270: 2957-2963 (1993)

102. Lilliefors WH "On the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for Normality with mean and variance unknown. " J of the American Statistical Association 62: 399-402 (1967)

103. Little JP, Oduro A, Ghosh S "Length of intensive care and outcome after cardiac surgery. " Lancet 345: 729 (1995)


113

104. Livingston BM, MacKirdy FN, Howie JC, Jones R, Norrie JD "Assessment of the performance of five intensive care scoring models within a large Scottish database. " Crit Care Med 28: 1820-1827 (2000)

105. Loick HM, Mölhoff T, Berendes E, Hammel D, Van Aken H "Influence of enoximone on systemic and splanchnic oxygen utilization and endotoxin release following cardiopulmonary bypass. " Intensive Care Med 23: 267-275 (1997)

106. Loop FD "You are in charge of cost. " Ann Thorac Surg 60: 1509-1512 (1995)

107. Ludmer PL "Paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholin in atherosclerotic coronary arteries. " N Engl J Med 315: 1046-1051 (1986)

108. Mälstam J, Lind L "Therapeutic Intervention Scoring system (TISS)- a method for measuring workload and calculating costs in the ICU. " Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 36: 758-763 (1992)

109. Marie C, Muret J, Fitting C, Losser MR, Payen D, Cavaillon JM "Reduced ex vivo interleukin-8 production by neutrophiles in septic and nonseptic inflammatory response syndrome. " Blood 91: 3439-3446 (1998)

110. Marshall J, Sweeney D "Microbial infection and the septic response in critical surgical illness. Sepsis, not infection, determines outcome. " Arch Surg 125: 17-23 (1990)

111. Martinez-Pellus AE, Merino P, Bru M, Canovas J, Seller G, Sapina J, Fuentes T, Moro J "Endogenous endotoxinemia of intestinal origin during cardiopulmonary bypass. Role of type of flow and protective effect of selective digestive decontamination. " Intensive Care Med 23: 1251-1257 (1997)


114

112. Mazer CD, Byrick RJ, Sibbald WJ, Chovaz PM, Goodmann SJL, Girotti MJ, Hall JK, Pagliarello J "Postoperative utilization of critical care services by cardiac surgery: A multicenter study in the Canadian healthcare system. " Crit Care Med 21: 851-859 (1993)

113. Members of the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference Commitee "Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies. " Crit Care Med 20: 864-74 (1992):

114. Menasche P, Haydar S, Peynet J, Du Buit C, Merval R, Bloch G, Tedgui A "A potential mechanism of vasodilation after warm heart surgery: the temperature dependent release of catokines. " J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 107: 293-299 (1994)

115. Menasche P "The inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass and its impact on postoperative myocardial function. " Curr Opinion Cardiol 10: 597-604 (1995)

116. Michalopoulos A, Stavridis G, Geroulanos S "Severe sepsis in cardiac surgical patients. " Eur J Surg 164: 217-222 (1998)

117. Miranda DR "Outcome assessment- TISS as a tool to evaluate cost-effectiveness of immunological treatment. " Eur J Surg Suppl 584: 51-55 (1999)

118. Moore FD "Therapeutic regulation of the complement system in acute injury states. " Adv Immunol 56: 267-299 (1994)

119. Moore Jr FD, Warner KG, Assousa S, Valeri CR, Khuri SF "The effects of complement activation during cardiopulmonary bypass. " Ann Surg 208: 95-103 (1988)


115

120. Müller-Plathe O "Säure-Basen-Gleichgewicht und Blutgase. " In: Thomas L (ed), Labor und Diagnose. Frankfurt: TH Books Verlagsgesellschaft, 5. Auflage, S. 327 (1998)

121. Müller-Werdan U, Reithmann C, Werdan K "Cytokines and the heart - molecular mechanisms of septic cardiomyopathy. " R.G. Landes Company, Austin. Chapman & Hall, New York USA/ Springer, Heidelberg New York Tokyo 1996

122. Murkin JM "Cardiopulmonary bypass and the inflammatory response: a role for serine protease inhibitors? " J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 11: 19-23 (1997)

123. Nakamura H, Kim DK, Philbin D, Peterson MB, Delvos F, Koski G, Bonventre JV "Heparin-enhanced plasma phospholipase A2 activity and prostacyclin synthesis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. " J Clin Invest 95: 1062-1070 (1995)

124. Natanson C (moderator) "Selected treatment strategies for septic shock based on proposed mechanisms of pathogenesis. " Ann Intern Med 120 : 771-83 (1994)

125. Neugebauer E, Lefering R, Bouillon B "Die Bedeutung von Scores für die Therapieplanung und Therapiebeurteilung beim individuellen Intensivpatienten- Grundsätzliches. " Arch Chir 113 (Suppl II): 293-289 (1996)

126. Nevalainen TJ "Serum phospholipases A2 in inflammatory diseases. " Clin Chem 39: 2453-2459 (1993)

127. O‘Connor GT, Plume SK, Olmstead EM, Coffin LN, Morton JR, Maloney CT, Nowicki ER, Levy DG, Tryzelaar JF, Hernandez F "Multivariate prediction of in-hospital mortality associated with coronary bypass graft sur-gery. " Circulation 85: 2110-2118 (1992)


116

128. Ohri SK "Systemic inflammatory response and the splanchnic bed in cardiopulmonary bypass. " Perfusion 11: 200-212 (1996)

129. Paiement B, Pelletier C, Dyrda I, Maille JG, Boulanger M, Taillefer J, Sahab P, Delorme M, Dupont E "A Simple Classification of the Risk in Cardiac Surgery. " Can J Anaesth 30: 61-68 (1983)

130. Partrick DA, Moore FA, Moore EE, Barnett CC, Silliman CC "Neutrophil priming and activation in the pathogenesis of postinjury multiple organ failure. " New Horizons 4: 194-210 (1996)

131. Partrick DA, Moore EE, Fullerton DA, Barnett CC, Meldrum DR, Silliman CC "Cardiopulmonary bypass renders patienst at risk for multiple organ failure via early neutrophil priming and late neutrophil disability. " J Surg Res 86: 42-49 (1999)

132. Parsonnet V, Dean D, Bernstein AD "A method of uniform stratification of risk for evaluating the results of surgery in acquired " adult heart desease. Circulation 79 I3-I12 (1989)

133. Picone AL, Lutz CL, Finck C, Carney D, Gatto LA, Paskanik A, Searles B, Sneyder K, Nieman G "Multiple sequential insults cause post-pump syndrome. " Ann Thorac Surg 67: 978-985 (1999)

134. Pilz G, Kääb S, Kreuzer E, Werdan K "Evaluation of definitions and parameters for sepsis assessment in patients after cardiac surgery. " Infection 22: 8-17 (1994a)

135. Pilz G, Frauenberger P, Appel R, Kreuzer E, Werdan K, Walli A, Seidel D "Early prediction of outcome in score-identified, post-cardiac surgical patients at high risk for sepsis, using soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 concentrations. " Crit Care Med 24: 596-600 (1996)


117

136. Pilz G, Kreuzer E, Kääb S, Appel R, Werdan K "Early sepsis treatment with immunoglobulins after cardiac surgery in score-identified high-risk patients. " Chest 105: 76-82 (1994b)

137. Pittet D "Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock: Incidence, morbidities and outcomes in surgical ICU patients. " Intensive Care Med 21: 302-309 (1995)

138. Pons JMV, Granados A, Espinas JA, Borras JM, Martin I, Moreno V "Assessing open heart surgery mortality in Catalonia (Spain) throug a predictive risk model. " Eur J Cardio-thorac Surg 11: 415-423 (1997)

139. Prondzinsky R, Müller-Werdan U, Pilz G, Witthaut R, Stabenow I, Werdan K, Zerkowski HR "Systemische Entzündungsreaktionen extrakorporaler Verfahren (II): Der kardiopulmonale Bypass. " Wien Klin Wochenschr 109: 346-353 (1997)

140. Riordan CL, Engoren M, Zacharias A, Schwann TA, Parenteau GL, Durham SJ, Habib RH "Resource utilization in coronary artery bypass operation: does surgical risk predict costs? " Ann Thorac Surg 69: 1092-1097 (2000)

141. Rochell B, Roeder N "DRGs für Deutschland: Die Selbstverwaltung verständigt sich auf die australischen AR-DRGs als Basis für das künftige deutsche Patientenklassifikationssystem. " Arzt und Krankenhaus, 8: 1-16 (2000)

142. Roques F, Gabrielle F, Michel P, de Vincentiis C, David M, Baudet E "Quality of care in adult heart surgery: proposal for self-assessment approach based on a french multicenter study. " Eur J Cardio-thorac Surg 9: 433-440 (1995)


118

143. Roques F, Nashef SAM, Michel P, Gauducheau E, de Vincentiis C, Baudet E, Cortina J, David M, Faichney A, Gabrielle F, Gams E, Harjula A, Jones MT, Pinna Pintor P, Salomon R, Thulin L "Risk factors and outcome in european cardiac surgery: analysis of the EuroSCORE multinational database of 19030 patients. " Eur J Cardio-thorac Surg 15: 816-823 (1999)

144. Rowan KM, Kerr JH, Major E, Mc Pherson K, Short A, Vessey MP "Intensive Care Society‘s APACHE II study in Britain and Ireland-II: outcome comparison Of intensive care units after adjustment for case mix by the American APACHE II method. " BMJ 307: 977-981 (1993)

145. Sakorafas GH, Tsiotos GG "Intra-abdominal complications after cardiac surgery. " Eur J Surg 165: 820-827 (1999)

146. Sands KE, Bates DW, Lanken PN, Graman PS, Hibberd PL, Kahn KL, Parsonnet J, Panzer R, Orav EJ, Snydman DR "Epidemiology of sepsis syndrome in 8 academic medical centers. Academic Medical Center Consortium Sepsis Project Working Group. " JAMA 278: 234-40 (1997)

147. Schlame M, Schmid AB, Haupt R, Rüstow B, Kox WJ "Study of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in the perioperative period of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. " Shock 9: 313-319 (1998)

148. Schöneburg E, Hansen N, Gawelczyk A "Neuronale Netzwerke. " Haar: Markt & Technik, 1. Auflage, S. 90-100 (1990)

149. Scott BH "Opioids in cardiac surgery: cardiopulmonary bypass and inflammatory response. " Int J Cardiol 64 [Suppl. 1] S35-41 (1998)


119

150. Singer M, Myers S, Hall G, Cohen SL, Armstrong RF "The cost of intensive care: a comparison of one unit between 1988 and 1991. " Intensive Care Med 20: 542-549 (1994)

151. Smith PK, Smith LR, Muhlbaier LH "Risk Stratification for Adverse Economic Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery. " Ann Thorac Surg 64: 61-63 (1997)

152. Spies CD, Kern H, Schröder T, Sepold H, Lang P, Stangl K, Sinha P, Schaffartzik W, Kox WJ, Jain U "Myocardial ischemia is associated with immune modulation and increased morbidity after noncardiac surgery. " Anesthesiology (submitted 2001)

153. Stanojevic-Bakic N, Vuckovic-Dekic L, Radomirovic S, Juranic Z, Jovanovic N "The influence of surgery and anesthesia on lymphocyte functions in breast cancer patients: in vitro effects of indomethacin. " Neoplasma 46: 54-60 (1999)

154. Star AR "Southwest internal medical conference : nitric oxide. " Am J Med Sci 306: 348-358 (1993)

155. Suffredini AF, Fromm RE, Parker MM, Brenner M, Kovacs JA, Wesley RA, Parillo JE "The cardiovascular response of normal humans to the administration of endotoxin. " N Engl J Med 321: 280-287 (1989)

156. Tassani P, Richter JA, Barankay A, Braun SL, Haehnel C, Spaeth P, Schad H, Meisner H "Does high-dose methylprednisolone in aprotini-treated patients attenuate the systemic inflammatory response during coronary artery bypas grafting procedures? " J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 13: 165-172 (1999)

157. Teasdale G, Jennet B "Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. " Lancet 2: 81-84 (1974)


120

158. Thompson MJ, Elton RA, Sturgeon KR, Manclarck SL, Fraser AK, Walker WS, Cameron EWJ "The Edinburgh cardiac surgery score survival prediction in the long stay ICU cardiac surgical patient. " Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 8: 419-425 (1995)

159. Tjoelker LW, Wilder C, Eberhardt C, Stafforini DM, Dietsch G, Schimpf B, Hooper S, Le Trong H, Cousens LS, Zimmerman GA, et al. "Anti-inflammatory properties of a platelet-activating factor acetyhydrolase. " Nature 374: 549-553 (1995)

160. Tremblay NA, Hardy JF, Perault J, Carrier M "A simple classification of the risk in cardiac surgery: the first decade. " Can J Anaesth 40: 103-111 (1993)

161. Tu JV, Jaglal SB, Naylor CD, and the Steering Committee of the Provincial Adult Cardiac Care Network of Ontario "Multicenter validation of a risk index for hospital mortality, intensive care unit stay, and overall hospital length of stay after cardiac surgery. " Circulation 91: 677-684 (1995)

162. Tuman KJ, Mc Carthy RJ, March RJ, Najafi H, Ivankowich AD "Morbidity and duration of ICU day after cardiac surgery; a model for preoperative risk assessment. " Chest 102: 36-44 (1992)

163. Tuman KJ, McCarthy RJ, O´Connor CJ, Holm WE, Ivankovich AD "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increase vasoconstrictor requirements after cardiopulmonary bypass. " Anesth Analg 80: 473-479 (1995)

164. Turner JS, Mudaliar YM, Chang RWS, Morgan CJ "Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scoring in a cardio-thoracic intensive care unit. " Crit Care Med 19 1266-1269 (1991)

165. Turner JS, Morgan CJ, Thakrar B, Pepper JR "Difficulties in prediction outcome in cardiac surgery patients. " Crit Care Med 23: 1843-1850 (1995)


121

166. Verrier ED, Shen I "Potential role of neutrophil anti-adhesion therapy in myocardial stunning, myocardial infarction, and organ dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass. " J Cradiol Surg 8: 309-312 (1993)

167. Vincent JL "Which therapeutic interventions in critical care medicine have been shown to reduce mortality in prospective, randomized, clinical trials? A survey of candidates for the Belgian Board Examination in Intensive Care Medicine. " Crit Care Med 28: 1616-1620 (2000)

168. Wagner DP "Economics of prolonged mechanical ventilation. " Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 14-18 (1989)

169. Wei JT, Tewari A "Artificial neuronal networks in urology: pro. " Urology 54: 945-948 (1999)

170. Weiss SJ "Tissue destruction by neutrophiles. " N Engl J Med 320: 365-376 (1989)

171. Welbourn CRB, Goldman G, Paterson IS, Valeri CR, Shepro D, Hechtman HB "Pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury: Central role of the neutrophile. " Br J Surg 78: 651-655 (1991)

172. Werdan K "The overall concept: immunglobulins as adjuvants for mediastinitis- does it make sense? " Eur J Surg Suppl 584: 33-38 (1999)

173. Wernecke KD Angewandte Statistik für die Praxis. Addison-Wesley, Bonn, Paris [u.a.], S. 166-168 (1995)


122

174. Westaby S "Organ dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass: a systemic inflammatory reaction initiated by the extracorporeal circuit. " Intensive Care Med 13: 89-95 (1987)

175. Williams Jr TE, Fanning WJ, Benton Jr WC, Kakos GS, Miller RL, Esterline WJ, Hankins D "What is the marginal cost for marginal risk in cardiac surgery? " Ann Thorac Surg : 1969-1971 (1998)

176. Wong DT, Cheng DCH, Kustra R, Tibshirani R, Karski J, Carroll-Monro J, Sandler A "Risk factors of delayed extubation, prolonged length of stay in the intensive care unit, and mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with fast-track cardiac anesthesia: a new cardiac risk score. " Anesthesiology 91: 936-944 (1999)

177. Yilmaz M, Ener S, Akalin H, Sagdic K, Serdar OA, Cengiz M "Effect of low-dose methyl prednisolone on serum cytokine levels following extracorporal circulation. " Perfusion 14: 201-206 (1999)

178. Ziegler EJ, Fisher CJ, Sprung CL, Straube RC, Sadoff JC, Foulke GE, Wortel CH, Fink MP, Dellinger RP, Teng NNH, Allen IE, Bergher HJ, Knatterud GL, Lobuglio AF, Smith CR "Treatment of gram-negative bacteriemia and septic shock with HA-1A human monoclonal antibody against endotoxin. " New Engl. J Med 324: 429-436 (1991)

179. Zimmerman JE, Knaus WA, Wagner DP, Sun X, Hakim RB, Nystrom PO "A comparison of risk and outcomes for patients with organ system failure : 1982-1990. " Crit Care Med 24: 1633-1641 (1996)


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.

DiML DTD Version 2.0
Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML - Version erstellt am:
Thu Dec 6 15:40:32 2001