[Seite 136↓]


1. Paul JR. Clinical Epidemiology. J Clin Invest 1938; 17: 539-41.

2. Feinstein AR. Clinical Epidemiology. I.The population experiments of nature and of men in human illness. Ann Intern Med 1968; 69: 807-20.

3. A.R.Feinstein. Clinical Epidemiology. The Architecture of Clinical Research. Philadelphia, London, Toronto: 1985.

4. Sackett DL. Clinical epidemiology. Am.J Epidemiol. 1969; 89: 125-8.

5. Fletcher RH. Clinical medicine meets modern epidemiology—and both profit. Ann.Epidemiol. 1992; 2: 325-33.

6. Cochrane, A.L. Effectivness and Efficiency - Random Reflections on Health Services. The Nuffield Provinical Hospitals Trus. 1972.

7. A.L. Cochrane. 1931-1971: a critical review, with particular reference to the medical profession. Medicines for the year 2000., pp 1-11. London: Office of Health Economics, 1979.

8. Oxford database of perinatal trials. Chalmers, I. Oxford disk issue 7 (Version 1.2). 1992. Oxford University Press.

9. Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJ. Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

10. Enkin M, Keirse MJ, Chalmers I. A guide to effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

11. Shelley JH,.Baur MP. Paul Martini: the first clinical pharmacologist? Lancet 1999; 353 : 1870-3.

12. Martini P. Methodenlehre der Therapeutischen Untersuchung. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1932.

13. Bleker J, Jachertz N, (Eds.). Medizin im „Dritten Reich“. Cologne: Deutscher Aerzte-Verlag, 2002.

14. Bäumer A. NS-Biologie. Stuttgart: 1990.

15. Schwartz FW, Frhr.v.Troschke F, Wolter U. Public Health in Deutschland. In Public Health Forschungsverbünde in der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Public Health e.V., ed. Public Health Forschung in Deutschland., pp 23-32. Bern: Hans Huber, 1999.

16. Sackett DL. The competing objectives of randomized trials. N.Engl.J Med 1980; 303: 1059-60.

17. Chalmers TC, Celano P, Sacks HS, Smith H, Jr. Bias in treatment assignment in controlled clinical trials. N.Engl.J.Med. 1983; 309: 1358-61.

18. Sacks H, Chalmers TC, Smith H, Jr. Randomized versus historical controls for clinical trials. Am.J.Med. 1982; 72: 233-40.

19. Horwitz RI,.Feinstein AR. Improved observational method for studying therapeutic efficacy. Suggestive evidence that lidocaine prophylaxis prevents death in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1981; 246: 2455-9.

20. Antman EM, Lau J, Kupelnick B, Mosteller F, Chalmers TC. A comparison of results of meta-analyses of randomized control trials and recommendations of clinical experts. Treatments for myocardial infarction . JAMA 1992; 268: 240-8.

21. Obias MD, Friedmann E, Brooks MM, Thomas SA, Haakenson C, Morris M et al. Adherence and arrhythmic mortality in the cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial (CAST). Ann.Epidemiol. 1996; 6: 93-101.

22. The EC/IC Bypass Study Group. Failure of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke; Results of an international randomized trial. The new England Journal of Medicine 1985; 313: 1191-200.

[Seite 137↓]

23. Besarab A, Bolton WK, Browne JK, Egrie JC, Nissenson AR, Okamoto DM et al. The effects of normal as compared with low hematocrit values in patients with cardiac disease who are receiving hemodialysis and epoetin . N.Engl.J.Med. 1998; 339: 584-90.

24. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, Furberg C, Herrington D, Riggs B et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group . JAMA 1998; 280: 605-13.

25. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 321-33.

26. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, Bosch J, Davies R, Dagenais G. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N.Engl.J Med 2000; 342: 145-53.

27. Yusuf S, Collins R, Peto R. Why do we need some large, simple randomized trials? Stat.Med. 1984; 3: 409-22.

28. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group . Lancet 1995; 345: 669-85.

29. Randomised trial of intravenous atenolol among 16 027 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-1. First International Study of Infarct Survival Collaborative Group. Lancet 1986; 2: 57-66.

30. Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group . Lancet 1988; 2: 349-60.

31. Guyatt G, Sackett D, Taylor DW, Chong J, Roberts R, Pugsley S. Determining optimal therapy--randomized trials in individual patients. N.Engl.J Med 1986; 314: 889-92.

32. Larson EB, Ellsworth AJ, Oas J. Randomized clinical trials in single patients during a 2-year period. JAMA 1993; 270: 2708-12.

33. Campbell MK,.Grimshaw JM. Cluster randomised trials: time for improvement. The implications of adopting a cluster design are still largely being ignored. BMJ 1998; 317: 1171-2.

34. Donner A, Brown KS, Brasher P. A methodological review of non-therapeutic intervention trials employing cluster randomization, 1979-1989. Int J Epidemiol. 1990; 19: 795-800.

35. Ukoumunne OC, Gulliford MC, Chinn S, Sterne JA, Burney PG, Donner A. Methods in health service research. Evaluation of health interventions at area and organisation level . BMJ 1999; 319: 376-9.

36. Gent M,.Sackett DL. The qualification and disqualification of patients and events in long- term cardiovascular clinical trials. Thromb.Haemost. 1979; 41: 123-34.

37. Sackett DL,.Gent M. Controversy in counting and attributing events in clinical trials. N.Engl.J Med 1979; 301: 1410-2.

38. Eisenberg JM. Clinical economics. A guide to the economic analysis of clinical practices. JAMA 1989; 262: 2879-86.

39. The EC/IC Bypass Study Group. Failure of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke; Results of an international randomized trial. The new England Journal of Medicine 1985; 313: 1191-200.

40. McCulloch P, Taylor I, Sasako M, Lovett B, Griffin D. Randomised trials in surgery: problems and possible solutions. BMJ 2002; 324: 1448-51.

41. Collaborative systematic review of the randomised trials of organised inpatient (stroke unit) care after stroke. Stroke Unit Trialists' Collaboration. BMJ 1997; 314 : 1151-9.

42. Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, Melchart D, Eitel F, Hedges LV et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 1997; 350: 834-43.

43. Ernst E. Homöopathie: Argumente und Gegenargumente. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 1997; 94: B-1910.

[Seite 138↓]

44. Ernst E,.Pittler MH. Re-analysis of previous meta-analysis of clinical trials of homeopathy. J Clin.Epidemiol. 2000; 53: 1188.

45. Ernst E,.White AR. Acupuncture for back pain: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch.Intern.Med. 1998; 158: 2235-41.

46. Irnich D, Behrens N, Molzen H, Konig A, Gleditsch J, Krauss M et al. Randomised trial of acupuncture compared with conventional massage and "sham" laser acupuncture for treatment of chronic neck pain. BMJ 2001; 322: 1574-8.

47. van Tulder MW, Cherkin DC, Berman B, Lao L, Koes BW. The effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of acute and chronic low back pain. A systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. . Spine 1999; 24: 1113-23.

48. Ernst E. Herbal medicines: where is the evidence? BMJ 2000; 321: 395-6.

49. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 287: 1807-14.

50. Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg A, Dunner DL, Hirschfeld R, Thase ME et al. Effectiveness of St John's wort in major depression: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001; 285: 1978-86.

51. Ernst E,.Assendelft WJ. Chiropractic for low back pain. We don't know whether it does more good than harm . BMJ 1998; 317: 160.

52. Ottenbacher KJ,.Jannell S. The results of clinical trials in stroke rehabilitation research. Arch Neurol. 1993; 50: 37-44.

53. Fontanarosa PB,.Lundberg GD. Alternative medicine meets science . JAMA 1998; 280: 1618-9.

54. Tonelli MR,.Callahan TC. Why alternative medicine cannot be evidence-based. Acad Med 2001; 76: 1213-20.

55. Guyatt GH,.Rennie D. Users' guides to the medical literature . JAMA 1993; 270: 2096-7.

56. Chalmers I, Hedges LV, Cooper H. A brief history of research synthesis. Eval.Health Prof. 2002; 25: 12-37.

57. Spitzer WO. Meta-meta-analysis: unanswered questions about aggregating data. J Clin.Epidemiol. 1991; 44: 103-7.

58. Shapiro S. Meta-analysis/Shmeta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 1994; 140: 771-8.

59. Spitzer WO. The challenge of meta-analysis. J Clin.Epidemiol. 1995; 48: 1-4.

60. Bailar J. The Promise and Problems of Meta-Analysis. The new England Journal of Medicine 1997 337: 559-61.

61. Meta-analysis under scrutiny . Lancet 1997; 350: 675.

62. Bucher HC, Guyatt GH, Cook RJ, Hatala R, Cook DJ, Lang JD et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 1996; 275: 1113-7.

63. Horner SM. Efficacy of intravenous magnesium in acute myocardial infarction in reducing arrhythmias and mortality. Meta-analysis of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1992; 86: 774-9.

64. Teo KK, Yusuf S, Collins R, Held PH, Peto R. Effects of intravenous magnesium in suspected acute myocardial infarction: overview of randomised trials. BMJ 1991; 303: 1499-503.

65. Yusuf S, Teo K, Woods K. Intravenous magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. An effective, safe, simple, and inexpensive intervention . Circulation 1993; 87: 2043-6.

66. Levine RJ, Hauth JC, Curet LB, Sibai BM, Catalano PM, Morris CD et al. Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia . N.Engl.J.Med. 1997; 337: 69-76.

67. Egger M,.Smith GD. Misleading meta-analysis . BMJ. 1995; 310: 752-4.

[Seite 139↓]

68. Egger M, Zellweger ZT, Schneider M, Junker C, Lengeler C, Antes G. Language bias in randomised controlled trials published in English and German . Lancet 1997; 350: 326-9.

69. Juni P, Holenstein F, Sterne J, Bartlett C, Egger M. Direction and impact of language bias in meta-analyses of controlled trials: empirical study. Int J Epidemiol. 2002; 31: 115-23.

70. Egger M, Davey SG, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test . BMJ 1997; 315: 629-34.

71. Sterne JA,.Egger M. Funnel plots for detecting bias in meta-analysis: guidelines on choice of axis. J Clin.Epidemiol. 2001; 54: 1046-55.

72. Simes RJ. Publication bias: the case for an international registry of clinical trials. J.Clin.Oncol. 1986; 4: 1529-41.

73. European Medical Research Councils (EMRC). Controlled clinical trials. 13, 1-6. 2001. European Science Foundation (ESF).

74. Tramer MR, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Impact of covert duplicate publication on meta-analysis: a case study. BMJ 1997; 315: 635-40.

75. Moher D, Jadad AR, Nichol G, Penman M, Tugwell P, Walsh S. Assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials: an annotated bibliography of scales and checklists. Control.Clin.Trials. 1995; 16: 62-73.

76. Juni P, Witschi A, Bloch R, Egger M. The hazards of scoring the quality of clinical trials for meta-analysis . JAMA 1999; 282: 1054-60.

77. Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D, Egger M, Davidoff F, Elbourne D et al. The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 663-94.

78. Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, Horton R, Moher D, Olkin I et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. The CONSORT statement . JAMA 1996; 276: 637-9.

79. Clarke M. The QUORUM statement. Lancet 2000; 355: 756-7.

80. Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 2000; 283: 2008-12.

81. Memorandum zur Evaluierung diagnostischer Maßnahmen. In Köbberling J, Trampisch HJ, Windeler J, eds. Schattauer, 1989.

82. Sheps SB,.Schechter MT. The assessment of diagnostic tests. A survey of current medical research. JAMA 1984; 252: 2418-22.

83. Arroll B, Schechter MT, Sheps SB. The assessment of diagnostic tests: a comparison of medical literature in 1982 and 1985. J Gen.Intern Med 1988; 3: 443-7.

84. Reid MC, Lachs MS, Feinstein AR. Use of methodological standards in diagnostic test research. Getting better but still not good. JAMA 1995; 274: 645-51.

85. Simel DL, Feussner JR, DeLong ER, Matchar DB. Intermediate, indeterminate, and uninterpretable diagnostic test results. Med Decis.Making 1987; 7: 107-14.

86. Lijmer JG, Mol BW, Heisterkamp S, Bonsel GJ, Prins MH, van der Meulen JH et al. Empirical evidence of design-related bias in studies of diagnostic tests. JAMA 1999; 282: 1061-6.

87. Lijmer JG, Bossuyt PM, Heisterkamp SH. Exploring sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests. Stat.Med. 2002; 21: 1525-37.

88. Feinstein AR. Misguided efforts and future challenges for research on "diagnostic tests". J Epidemiol.Community Health 2002; 56: 330-2.

89. Irwig L, Tosteson AN, Gatsonis C, Lau J, Colditz G, Chalmers TC et al. Guidelines for meta-analyses evaluating diagnostic tests . Ann.Intern.Med. 1994; 120: 667-76.

[Seite 140↓]

90. Midgette AS, Stukel TA, Littenberg B. A meta-analytic method for summarizing diagnostic test performances: receiver-operating-characteristic-summary point estimates. Med.Decis.Making. 1993; 13: 253-7.

91. Shapiro DE. Issues in combining independent estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test. Acad.Radiol. 1995; 2 Suppl 1: S37-S47.

92. Walter SD, Irwig L, Glasziou PP. Meta-analysis of diagnostic tests with imperfect reference standards. J.Clin.Epidemiol. 1999; 52: 943-51.

93. Irwig L, Macaskill P, Glasziou P, Fahey M. Meta-analytic methods for diagnostic test accuracy. J.Clin.Epidemiol. 1995; 48: 119-30.

94. Perrier A, Desmarais S, Miron MJ, de MP, Lepage R, Slosman D et al. Non-invasive diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in outpatients. Lancet 1999; 353: 190-5.

95. Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Cogo A, Cuppini S, Villalta S, Carta M et al. The long-term clinical course of acute deep venous thrombosis . Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125: 1-7.

96. Anis AH, Stiell IG, Stewart DG, Laupacis A. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the Ottawa Ankle Rules. Ann Emerg.Med 1995; 26: 422-8.

97. Auleley GR, Ravaud P, Giraudeau B, Kerboull L, Nizard R, Massin P et al. Implementation of the Ottawa ankle rules in France. A multicenter randomized controlled trial . JAMA 1997; 277: 1935-9.

98. Stiell I, Wells G, Laupacis A, Brison R, Verbeek R, Vandemheen K et al. Multicentre trial to introduce the Ottawa ankle rules for use of radiography in acute ankle injuries. Multicentre Ankle Rule Study Group. BMJ 1995; 311: 594-7.

99. Sackett DL, Haynes RB, Guyatt GH, Tugwell P. Clinical Epidemiology. A basic science for clinical medicine. Boston, Toronto, London: Little, Brown and Company, 1991.

100. Raspe HH. Evidence based medicine: Modischer Unsinn, alter Wein in neuen Schlauchen oder aktuelle Notwendigkeit? Z.Arztl.Fortbild.Jena. 1996; 90: 553-62.

101. Wegscheider K. Evidenzbasierte Medizin - Irrweg oder Aufbruch zu neuen Ufern? Herzschr Elektrophys 2000; 11: 69-76.

102. How to read clinical journals: I. why to read them and how to start reading them critically. Can Med Assoc J 1981; 124: 555-8.

103. Fletcher RH, Fletcher SW, Wagner EH. Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentials. Williams Wilkins, 1996.

104. Sackett DL, Haynes RB, Tugwell P, Guyatt GH. Clinical Epidemiology : A Basic Science for Clinical Medicine. Boston, Toronto, London: Little Brown and Company. 1991, 1985.

105. Maynard A. Evidence-based medicine: an incomplete method for informing treatment choices . Lancet 1997; 349: 126-8.

106. Miles A, Charlton B, Bentley P, Polychronis A, Grey J, Price N. New perspectives in the evidence-based healthcare debate. J Eval.Clin.Pract. 2000; 6: 77-84.

107. Naylor CD. Grey zones of clinical practice: some limits to evidence-based medicine. Lancet 1995; 345: 840-2.

108. Buetow S,.Kenealy T. Evidence-based medicine: the need for a new definition. J Eval.Clin.Pract. 2000; 6: 85-92.

109. Rogler G,.Schrader H. Evidence-based Medicine - oder: Die trügerische Sicherheit der Evidenz. DMW 20010; 125: 1122-8.

110. Straus SE,.McAlister FA. Evidence-based medicine: a commentary on common criticisms. CMAJ. 2000; 163: 837-41.

111. Raspe H. Ethical implications of evidence-based medicine. Dtsch.Med Wochenschr. 2002; 127: 1769-73.

112. Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't . BMJ. 1996; 312: 71-2.

[Seite 141↓]

113. Mühlhauser I,.Höldke B. Mammographie-Screening - Darstellung der wissenschaftlichen Evidenzgrundlage zur Kommunikation mit der Frau. arznei-telegramm 1999; 10 : 101.

114. Wehner M, Köbberling J. Strategien zur Umstrukturierung einer Klinik in Richtung auf EBM. In Klotz T, Grüne F, Weigand C, Lauterbach K, Schrappe M, eds. Gesundheitspolitik, Krankenhausorganisation, Qualitätsmanagement: 3. Kölner Krankenhaus-Kongress, pp 191-205. Göttingen: Cuviller Verlag., 2000.

115. Zielinski W, Goldstein M, Konig U. Evidence-based medicine in internal guideline development in a general hospital—the Park-Clinic EbM-Project. Z.Arztl.Fortbild.Qualitatssich. 2001; 95: 413-7.

116. Ärztliche Zentralstelle Qualitätssicherung. Leitlinien-Clearing-Bericht „Hypertonie“. Germering/München: W.Zuckschwerdt Verlag, 2000.

117. Developing a Methodology for Drawing up Guidelines on Best Medical Practice (Recommendations Rec(2001)13. 2002. Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing.

118. Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Laupacis A, Sackett DL. Rules of evidence and clinical recommendations on the use of antithrombotic agents. Chest 1992; 102: 305S-11S.

119. Echt DS, Liebson PR, Mitchell LB, Peters RW, Obias-Manno D, Barker AH et al. Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide, or placebo. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. N.Engl.J Med 1991; 324: 781-8.

120. Valenstein ES. Great and Desparate Cures: The Rise and Decline of Psychosurgery and other Radical Treatments for Mental Illness. p 338. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

121. Chalmers TC, Smith H, Jr., Blackburn B, Silverman B, Schroeder B, Reitman D et al. A method for assessing the quality of a randomized control trial. Control Clin.Trials 1981; 2: 31-49.

122. Byar DP. Problems with using observational databases to compare treatments. Stat.Med. 1991; 10: 663-6.

123. Concato J, Shah N, Horwitz RI. Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs . N.Engl.J.Med. 2000; 342: 1887-92.

124. Hlatky MA, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Jr., Lee KL, Mark DB, Pryor DB. Comparison of predictions based on observational data with the results of randomized controlled clinical trials of coronary artery bypass surgery. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 1988; 11: 237-45.

125. Horwitz RI, Viscoli CM, Clemens JD, Sadock RT. Developing improved observational methods for evaluating therapeutic effectiveness. Am.J.Med. 1990; 89: 630-8.

126. Horwitz RI,.Feinstein AR. Improved observational method for studying therapeutic efficacy. Suggestive evidence that lidocaine prophylaxis prevents death in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1981; 246: 2455-9.

127. Chalmers TC, Matta RJ, Smith H, Jr., Kunzler AM. Evidence favoring the use of anticoagulants in the hospital phase of acute myocardial infarction. N.Engl.J.Med. 1977; 297: 1091-6.

128. Sacks H, Chalmers TC, Smith H, Jr. Randomized versus historical controls for clinical trials. Am.J.Med. 1982; 72: 233-40.

129. Emerson JD, Burdick E, Hoaglin DC, Mosteller F, Chalmers TC. An empirical study of the possible relation of treatment differences to quality scores in controlled randomized clinical trials. Control Clin.Trials 1990; 11: 339-52.

130. Reimold SC, Chalmers TC, Berlin JA, Antman EM. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of antiarrhythmic therapy for chronic atrial fibrillation: observations on the role of trial design and implications of drug-related mortality. Am.Heart J. 1992; 124: 924-32.

131. Diehl LF,.Perry DJ. A comparison of randomized concurrent control groups with matched historical control groups: are historical controls valid? J.Clin.Oncol. 1986; 4: 1114-20.

132. Worldwide collaborative observational study and meta-analysis on allogenic leukocyte immunotherapy for recurrent spontaneous abortion. Recurrent Miscarriage Immunotherapy Trialists Group. Am.J.Reprod.Immunol. 1994; 32: 55-72.

[Seite 142↓]

133. Watson A, Vandekerckhove P, Lilford R, Vail A, Brosens I, Hughes E. A meta-analysis of the therapeutic role of oil soluble contrast media at hysterosalpingography: a surprising result? Fertil.Steril. 1994; 61: 470-7.

134. Carroll D, Tramer M, McQuay H, Nye B, Moore A. Randomization is important in studies with pain outcomes: systematic review of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acute postoperative pain. Br.J.Anaesth. 1996; 77: 798-803.

135. Colditz GA, Miller JN, Mosteller F. How study design affects outcomes in comparisons of therapy. I: Medical. Stat.Med. 1989; 8: 441-54.

136. Miller JN, Colditz GA, Mosteller F. How study design affects outcomes in comparisons of therapy. II: Surgical. Stat.Med 1989; 8: 455-66.

137. Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995; 273: 408-12.

138. Ottenbacher K. Impact of random assignment on study outcome: an empirical examination. Control Clin.Trials 1992; 13: 50-61.

139. Imperiale TF,.McCullough AJ. Do corticosteroids reduce mortality from alcoholic hepatitis? A meta- analysis of the randomized trials. Ann.Intern.Med. 1990; 113: 299-307.

140. Nurmohamed MT, Rosendaal FR, Buller HR, Dekker E, Hommes DW, Vandenbroucke JP et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus standard heparin in general and orthopaedic surgery: a meta-analysis. Lancet 1992; 340: 152-6.

141. Khan KS, Daya S, Jadad A. The importance of quality of primary studies in producing unbiased systematic reviews. Arch.Intern.Med. 1996; 156: 661-6.

142. Ortiz Z, Shea B, Suarez-Almazor ME, Moher D, Wells GA, Tugwell P. The efficacy of folic acid and folinic acid in reducing methotrexate gastrointestinal toxicity in rheumatoid arthritis. A metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J.Rheumatol. 1998; 25: 36-43.

143. Pyorala S, Huttunen NP, Uhari M. A review and meta-analysis of hormonal treatment of cryptorchidism. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1995; 80: 2795-9.

144. Pyorala K, Pedersen TR, Kjekshus J, Faergeman O, Olsson AG, Thorgeirsson G. Cholesterol lowering with simvastatin improves prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. A subgroup analysis of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 614-20.

145. Khan KS, Daya S, Collins JA, Walter SD. Empirical evidence of bias in infertility research: overestimation of treatment effect in crossover trials using pregnancy as the outcome measure. Fertil.Steril. 1996; 65: 939-45.

146. Ioannidis JP, Haidich AB, Pappa M, Pantazis N, Kokori SI, Tektonidou MG et al. Comparison of evidence of treatment effects in randomized and nonrandomized studies. JAMA 2001; 286: 821-30.

147. Kunz, R., Vist, G., and Oxman, A. D. Randomisation to protect against selection bias in healthcare trials. The Cochrane Libary (3). 2002.

148. Britton A, McKee M, Black N, McPherson K, Sanderson C, Bain C. Choosing between randomised and non-randomised studies: a systematic review. Health Technol.Assess. 1998; 2: i-124.

149. McKee M, Britton A, Black N, McPherson K, Sanderson C, Bain C. Methods in health services research. Interpreting the evidence: choosing between randomised and non-randomised studies. BMJ 1999; 319: 312-5.

150. Djulbegovic, B. Two systematic reviews-two different anserws. www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/319/7205/312; 18.08.1999

151. Kunz R,.Oxman AD. The unpredictability paradox: review of empirical comparisons of randomised and non-randomised clinical trials. BMJ 1998; 317: 1185-90.

152. Benson K,.Hartz AJ. A comparison of observational studies and randomized, controlled trials . N.Engl.J.Med. 2000; 342: 1878-86.

[Seite 143↓]

153. Kunz R, Khan KS, Neumayer HH. Observational studies and randomized trials. N.Engl.J Med 2000; 343: 1194-5.

154. Pocock SJ,.Elbourne DR. Randomized trials or observational tribulations? N.Engl.J.Med 2000; 342: 1907-9

155. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, Furberg C, Herrington D, Riggs B et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group . JAMA 1998; 280: 605-13.

156. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, Bosch J, Davies R, Dagenais G. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N.Engl.J Med 2000; 342: 145-53.

157. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N.Engl.J Med 1996; 334: 1150-5.

158. Kunz R, Khan KS, Neumayer HH. Observational studies and randomized trials. N.Engl.J Med 2000; 343: 1194-5.

159. Khan KS, Kunz R, Kleijnen J, Antes G. Systematic Reviews to Support Evidence-based Medicine: How to review and apply findings of health care literature. London: The Royal Soc Med Press, 2002.

160. Black N. Why we need observational studies to evaluate the effectiveness of health care. BMJ 1996; 312: 1215-8.

161. Stables RH. Observational research in the evidence based environment: eclipsed by the randomised controlled trial? Heart 2002; 87: 101-2.

162. Elphick HE, Tan A, Ashby D, Smyth RL. Systematic reviews and lifelong diseases. BMJ 2002; 325: 381-4.

163. Kunz, R., Cowan, D., Halpern, S., Oxman, A. D., and Sackett, D. L. Development of a database for empirical studies on methodological issues. 2nd International Cochrane Meeting Hamilton, Canada. 1994.

164. Cook DJ, Reeve BK, Guyatt GH, Heyland DK, Griffith LE, Buckingham L et al. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients. Resolving discordant meta-analyses . JAMA 1996; 275: 308-14.

165. Sackett DL, Deeks JJ, Douglas GA. Down with odds ratios! Evidence-Based Medicine 1996; 1: 164.

166. Laupacis A, Sackett DL, Roberts RS. An assessment of clinically useful measures of the consequences of treatment. N.Engl.J.Med. 1988; 318: 1728-33.

167. Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, Isles CG, Lorimer AR, MacFarlane PW et al. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. N.Engl.J Med 1995; 333: 1301-7.

168. Glasziou PP,.Irwig LM. An evidence based approach to individualising treatment. BMJ 19 95; 311: 1356-9.

169. Cook RJ,.Sackett DL. The number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ. 1995; 310: 452-4.

170. Tversky A,.Kahnemann D. Judgement under Uncertainty: heuristics and Biases. Science 1974; 185: 1124-31.

171. Kahneman D,.Tversky A. Choices, Values and Frames. American Psychologist 1984; 39: 341-50.

172. Gigerenzer G. We need statistical thinking, not statistical rituals. Behavioral And Brain Sciences 1998; 21: 199-200.

173. Hoffrage U, Lindsey S, Hertwig R, Gigerenzer G. Medicine. Communicating statistical information. Science 2000; 290: 2261-2.

174. Bucher HC, Weinbacher M, Gyr K. Influence of method of reporting study results on decision of physicians to prescribe drugs to lower cholesterol concentration . BMJ. 1994; 309: 761-4.

175. Naylor CD, Chen E, Strauss B. Measured enthusiasm: does the method of reporting trial results alter perceptions of therapeutic effectiveness? . Ann.Intern.Med. 1992; 117: 916-21.

176. Forrow L, Taylor WC, Arnold RM. Absolutely relative: how research results are summarized can affect treatment decisions. Am J Med 1992; 92: 121-4.

[Seite 144↓]

177. Bobbio M, Demichelis B, Giustetto G. Completeness of reporting trial results: effect on physicians' willingness to prescribe. Lancet 1994; 343: 1209-11.

178. Cranney M,.Walley T. Same information, different decisions: the influence of evidence on the management of hypertension in the elderly. Br J Gen.Pract. 1996; 46: 661-3.

179. Friedmann PD, Brett AS, Mayo-Smith MF. Differences in generalists' and cardiologists' perceptions of cardiovascular risk and the outcomes of preventive therapy in cardiovascular disease. Ann.Intern.Med. 1996; 124: 414-21.

180. Grover SA, Lowensteyn I, Esrey KL, Steinert Y, Joseph L, Abrahamowicz M. Do doctors accurately assess coronary risk in their patients? Preliminary results of the coronary health assessment study. BMJ 1995; 310: 975-8.

181. Hamilton-Craig CR, Tonkin AL, Jobling RG. How accurate are hypertension treatment decisions? Absolute risk assessment and prescribing for moderate hypertension--a study of Cambridge general practitioners. Blood Press 2000; 9: 323-7.

182. Randolph AG, Haynes RB, Wyatt JC, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH. Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: XVIII. How to use an article evaluating the clinical impact of a computer-based clinical decision support system. JAMA 1999; 282: 67-74.

183. Steel N. Thresholds for taking antihypertensive drugs in different professional and lay groups: questionnaire survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 1446-7.

184. Misselbrook D,.Armstrong D. Patients' responses to risk information about the benefits of treating hypertension. Br J Gen.Pract. 2001; 51: 276-9.

185. Rajagopal S, Goodman PJ, Tannock IF. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: discordance between physicians' perception of benefit and the results of clinical trials. J Clin.Oncol. 1994; 12: 1296-304.

186. Sachverständigenrat für die Konzertierte Aktion im Gesundheitswesen. Bedarfsgerechtigkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit - Band III Über-, Unter- und Fehlversorgung. 2001.

187. Kunz R,.Oxman AD. The unpredictability paradox: review of empirical comparisons of randomised and non-randomised clinical trials. BMJ 1998; 317: 1185-90.

188. Cook DJ, Fuller HD, Guyatt GH, Marshall JC, Leasa D, Hall R et al. Risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group . N.Engl.J.Med. 1994; 330: 377-81.

189. Furukawa TA, Guyatt GH, Griffith LE. Can we individualize the 'number needed to treat'? An empirical study of summary effect measures in meta-analyses. Int J Epidemiol. 2002; 31: 72-6.

190. Guyatt GH, Sackett DL, Sinclair JC, Hayward R, Cook DJ, Cook RJ. Users' guides to the medical literature. IX. A method for grading health care recommendations. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1995; 274: 1800-4.

191. Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995; 273: 408-12.

192. Moher D, Pham B, Jones A, Cook DJ, Jadad AR, Moher M et al. Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses? . Lancet 1998 352: 609-13.

193. Altman DG. Confidence intervals for the number needed to treat. BMJ 1998; 317: 1309-12.

194. Grodstein F, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rosner B et al. Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use and the risk of cardiovascular disease. N.Engl.J.Med. 1996; 335: 453-61.

195. The Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users' Guides to the medical literature - A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice. JAMA & Archives Journals, 2002.

196. Bundesärztekammer KB. Das Leitlinien-Clearingverfahren - Ziele und Arbeitsplan. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 1999; 96: A-2105-A-2106.

197. Shaneyfelt T, Mayo-Smith M, Rothwangl J. Are Guidelines Following Guidelines? The Methodological Quality of Clinical Practice Guidelines in the Peer-Reviewed Medical Literature. JAMA 1999; 281: 1900-5.

[Seite 145↓]

198. Cluzeau FA, Littlejohns P, Grimshaw JM, Feder G, Moran SE. Development and application of a generic methodology to assess the quality of clinical guidelines. Int J Qual Health Care 1999; 11: 21-8.

199. Helou A, Perleth M, Schwartz FW. Determining priorities in the development of medical guidelines. 1: Criteria, procedures and actors. Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 2000; 94: 53-60.

200. Deutsche Liga zur Bekämpfung des hohen Blutdrucks e.V. Arterielle Hypertonie.1998.www.uni-duesseldorf.de/WWW/AWMF/ll/ihypto0.1.htm

201. Arzneimittelkommission der Deutschen Ärzteschaft. Empfehlungen zur Therapie der arteriellen Hypertonie. Arzneiverordnungen in der Praxis. 1998; Sonderheft 9.

202. Feldman R, Campbell N, Larochelle P, for the Task Force of the 1999 Canadian Recommendations for the Management of Hypertension. Recommendations for the Management of Hypertension. CMAJ. 1999; 161: S1-ff.

203. Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control. Lifestyle Modification to prevent and control hypertension. CMAJ. 1999; 1999: S1-S50.

204. National Institute of Health. The 6th Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. NIH-Publ.98-4080 . 1997. www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jncintro.htm

205. Institute for Clinical System Integration (ICSI). Hypertension –Diagnosis and Treatment. Bloomington (MN): Ardel Group, 1999.

206. British Hypertension Society. Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. J Hum Hypertension 1999; 13: 569-92.

207. Hypertension Society of South Africa. Guidelines for the Management of hypertension at primary health level. S.Afr.Med J 1995; 95: 1321-5.

208. Department of Veterans Affairs. The Pharmacological Management of Hypertension. U.S.Veterans Health Administration Publ.-No. 96-0003 12/1996. 2002. www.va.gov/health/hypertension/HTN.doc

209. Chalmers JealftW-IHGC. 1999 Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. J Hypertens. 1999; 17: 151-85.

210. New Zealand Guidelines Group. Guidelines for the Management of mildly raised blood pressure in New Zealand. National Health Committee.2002. www.nzgg.org.nz/library/gl_complete/blood pressure/index.htm

211. Erdmann E. Missing medical care? Dtsch.Med Wochenschr. 2002; 127: 1741.

212. Ramsey PG, Carline JD, Inui TS, Larson EB, LoGerfo JP, Norcini JJ et al. Changes over time in the knowledge base of practicing internists. JAMA 1991; 266: 1103-7.

213. Leigh TM, Young PR, Haley JV. Performances of family practice diplomates on successive mandatory recertification examinations. Acad.Med 1993; 68: 912-9.

214. Caulford PG, Lamb SB, Kaigas TB, Hanna E, Norman GR, Davis DA. Physician incompetence: specific problems and predictors. Acad.Med 1994; 69: S16-S18.

215. Osheroff JA, Forsythe DE, Buchanan BG, Bankowitz RA, Blumenfeld BH, Miller RA. Physicians' information needs: analysis of questions posed during clinical teaching. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 576-81.

216. Gorman PN,.Helfand M. Information seeking in primary care: how physicians choose which clinical questions to pursue and which to leave unanswered. Med Decis.Making 1995; 15: 113-9.

217. Williamson JW, German PS, Weiss R, Skinner EA, Bowes F, III. Health science information management and continuing education of physicians. A survey of U.S. primary care practitioners and their opinion leaders. Ann.Intern Med 1989; 110: 151-60.

218. Thomson O'Brien MA, Freemantle N, Oxman AD, Wolf F, Davis DA, Herrin J. Continuing education meetings and workshops: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2001; CD003030.

[Seite 146↓]

219. Davis D, O'Brien MA, Freemantle N, Wolf FM, Mazmanian P, Taylor-Vaisey A. Impact of formal continuing medical education: do conferences, workshops, rounds, and other traditional continuing education activities change physician behavior or health care outcomes? JAMA 1999; 282: 867-74.

220. Davis DA, Thomson MA, Oxman AD, Haynes RB. Changing physician performance. A systematic review of the effect of continuing medical education strategies . JAMA 1995; 274: 700-5.

221. Gerst Th. Ärztlicher Kompetenzerhalt ist Sache der Selbstverwaltung. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2002; A 1940.

222. Evidence-Based Care Resource Group. Evidence-based care: 5. Lifelong learning: how can we learn to be more effective? CMAJ. 1994; 150: 1971-3.

223. Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS, Rosenberg W, Haynes RB. Evidence-Based Medicine - How to Practice and Teach EBM. Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

224. The Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. User's Guides to the Medical Literature - A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice. JAMA & Archives Journals, 2001.

225. Shaughnessy AF,.Slawson DC. Are we providing doctors with the training and tools for lifelong learning? BMJ 1999; 319: 1280.

226. Burls, A. J. E. An evaluation of the impact of half day workshops teaching critical appraisal skills. 1997. Oxford, Institute of Health Sciences.

227. Fritsche L., Neumayer H.-H., and Kunz, R. Vom Konzept in die Praxis. Umsetzbarkeit eines strukturierten Programms für einen Grundkurs in Evidence-based Medicine. ZaeFQ 93, 73-74. 1999.

228. Smith CA, Ganschow PS, Reilly BM, Evans AT, et al. Teaching residents evidence-based medicine skills: a controlled trial of effectiveness and assessment of durability. J Gen.Intern Med 2000; 15: 710-5.

229. Sackett DL,.Parkes J. Teaching critical appraisal: no quick fixes. CMAJ. 1998; 158: 203-4.

230. Fritsche, L., Greenhalgh, T., Falck-Ytter, Y., Neumayer H.-H., and Kunz, R. Do short courses in evidence-based medicine improve knowledge and skills? Validation of the Berlin Questionnaire and Before and After Study of EBM training. BMJ (accepted) . 2002.

231. Norman GR,.Shannon SI. Effectiveness of instruction in critical appraisal (evidence-based medicine) skills: a critical appraisal . CMAJ. 1998; 158: 177-81.

232. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Evidence-based medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA 1992; 268: 2420-5.

233. The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. 1999. Oxford, Update Software.

234. Best Evidence 3. 1999. American College of Physicians.

235. Clinical Evidence. Bern, Göttingen, Toronto, Seattle: Verlag Hans Huber, 1999.

236. Guyatt GH, Meade MO, Jaeschke RZ, Cook DJ, Haynes RB. Practitioners of evidence based care. Not all clinicians need to appraise evidence from scratch but all need some skills . BMJ 2000; 320: 954-5.

237. McColl A, Smith H, White P, Field J. General practitioner's perceptions of the route to evidence based medicine: a questionnaire survey. BMJ 1998; 316: 361-5.

238. Green ML. Evidence-based medicine training in graduate medical education: past, present and future. J Eval.Clin.Pract. 2000; 6: 121-38.

239. Taylor DK,.Buterakos J. Evidence-based medicine: not as simple as it seems. Acad.Med. 1998; 73: 1221-2.

240. Abrahamson S, Baron J, Elstein AS, Hammond WP, Holzman GB, Marlow B et al. Continuing medical education for life: eight principles. Acad.Med. 1999; 74: 1288-94.

241. Dobbie AE, Schneider FD, Anderson AD, Littlefield J. What evidence supports teaching evidence-based medicine? Acad Med 2000; 75: 1184-5.

242. Audet N, Gagnon R, Ladouceur R, Marcil M. How effective is the teaching of critical analysis of scientific publications? Review of studies and their methodological quality. CMAJ. 1993; 148: 945-52.

243. Norman GR. Examining the assumptions of evidence-based medicine. J.Eval.Clin.Pract. 1999; 5: 139-47.

[Seite 147↓]

244. Green ML. Graduate medical education training in clinical epidemiology, critical appraisal, and evidence-based medicine: a critical review of curricula. Acad Med 1999; 74: 686-94.

245. Parkes, J., Hyde, C., Deeks, J., and Milne, R. Teaching critical appraisal skills in health care settings (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library (3). 2001. Oxford, Update Software.

246. Linzer M, Brown JT, Frazier LM, DeLong ER, Siegel WC. Impact of a medical journal club on house-staff reading habits, knowledge, and critical appraisal skills. A randomized control trial. JAMA 1988; 260: 2537-41.

247. Kirkpatrick DI. Evaluation of training. In Craig R.Bittel I., ed. Training and Development handbook, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.

248. Hutchinson L. Evaluating and researching the effectiveness of educational interventions. BMJ 1999; 318: 1267-9.

249. Streiner.D.L., Norman GR. Health Mesurement Scales. Oxford: University Press, 1995.

250. Stern DT, Linzer M, O'Sullivan PS, Weld L. Evaluating medical residents' literature-appraisal skills. Acad Med 1995; 70: 152-4.

251. Norman GR, Van Der Vleuten CPM, Newble D. International Handbook of Research in Medical Education. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

252. Wilkes M,.Bligh J. Evaluating educational interventions. BMJ 1999; 318: 1269-72.

253. Rogler G,.Schrader H. Evidence-based Medicine - oder: Die trügerische Sicherheit der Evidenz. DMW 2001; 125: 1122-8.

254. Sackett DL, Richardson WS, Rosenberg W, Haynes RB, (Deutsche Ausgabe: R.Kunz und L.Fritsche). Evidenzbasierte Medizin. EBM-Umsetzung und -Vermittlung. München: Zuckschwerdt Verlag, 1999.

255. Oxman AD, Sackett DL, Guyatt GH. Users' guides to the medical literature. I. How to get started. The Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1993; 270: 2093-5.

256. Curriculum Evidenzbasierte Medizin. Ärztliche Zentralstelle Qualitätssicherung and Deutsches Netzwerk EbM. DNEbM , 1-50. 2002. 19-9-0002. www.ebm-netzwerk.de

257. Kunz, R., Fritsche L., and Neumayer H.-H. Quality assurance criteria for continuing education in evidence-based medicine. ZaeFQ 95, 371-375. 2001.

258. Greenhalgh T. Consensus Research. In Elwyn G, Greenhalgh T, Macfarlane F, eds. Groups - a Guide to Small Group Work in Health Care Management, Education and Research., Oxford: RAdcliffe Medical Press, 2000.

259. Lienert GA, Raatz U. Testaufbau und Testanalyse. Weinheim: Psychologie Verlagsunion, 1995.

260. Nunnally JC. Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

261. Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests. Psychometrica 1951; 16: 297-334.

262. Khan KS, Awonuga AO, Dwarakanath LS, Taylor R. Assessments in evidence-based medicine workshops: loose connection between perception of knowledge and its objective assessment. Med Teach 2001; 23: 92-4.

263. Knowles MS. Modern Practice of Adult Education - From Pedagogy to Andragony. Chicago: Follett Publishing, 1984.

264. Green ML. Evidence-based medicine training in internal medicine residency programs a national survey. J Gen.Intern Med 2000; 15: 129-33.

265. Greenhalgh T,.Douglas HR. Experiences of general practitioners and practice nurses of training courses in evidence-based health care: a qualitative study. Br.J.Gen.Pract. 1999; 49: 536-40.

266. Freeman AC,.Sweeney K. Why general practitioners do not implement evidence: qualitative study. BMJ 2001; 323: 1100-2.

267. Cranney M,.Walley T. Same information, different decisions: the influence of evidence on the management of hypertension in the elderly. Br J Gen.Pract. 1996; 46: 661-3.

[Seite 148↓]

268. Hersh WR,.Hickam DH. How well do physicians use electronic information retrieval systems? A framework for investigation and systematic review . JAMA 1998; 280: 1347-52.

269. Hunt DL, Jaeschke R, McKibbon KA. Users' guides to the medical literature: XXI. Using electronic health information resources in evidence-based practice. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 2000; 283: 1875-9.

270. Jadad AR,.Gagliardi A. Rating health information on the Internet: navigating to knowledge or to Babel? . JAMA 1998; 279: 611-4.

271. Oakley A, Rajan L, Robertson P. A comparison of different sources of information about pregnancy and childbirth. J.Biosoc.Sci. 1990; 22: 477-87.

272. Fairhurst K,.Huby G. From trial data to practical knowledge: qualitative study of how general practitioners have accessed and used evidence about statin drugs in their management of hypercholesterolaemia. BMJ 1998; 317: 1130-4.

273. Tomlin Z, Humphrey C, Rogers S. General practitioners' perceptions of effective health care. BMJ 1999; 318: 1532-5.

274. Timpka T, Ekstrom M, Bjurulf P. Information needs and information seeking behaviour in primary health care. Scand.J Prim.Health Care 1989; 7: 105-9.

275. Wyatt JC. Clinical questions and information needs. J R.Soc.Med 2000; 93: 168-71.

276. Green ML, Ciampi MA, Ellis PJ. Residents' medical information needs in clinic: are they being met? Am J Med 2000; 109: 218-23.

277. Davidoff F,.Florance V. The informationist: a new health profession? Ann.Intern.Med. 2000; 132: 996-8.

278. Horton R. The information wars. Lancet 1999; 353: 164-5.

279. Chassin MR. Is health care ready for Six Sigma quality? Milbank Q. 1998; 76: 565-91, 510.

280. Grol R. Improving the quality of medical care: building bridges among professional pride, payer profit, and patient satisfaction. JAMA 2001; 286: 2578-85.

281. Lomas J, Anderson GM, Domnick-Pierre K, Vayda E, Enkin MW, Hannah WJ. Do practice guidelines guide practice? The effect of a consensus statement on the practice of physicians. N.Engl.J Med 1989; 321: 1306-11.

282. van der Weijden T,.Grol R. Preventing recurrent coronary heart disease. We need to attend more to implementing evidence based practice. BMJ 1998; 316: 1400-1.

283. Donald, A. The front-line evidence-based medicine project. 1998. NHS Executive North Thames regional office research and development.

284. Dunning, M, Abi-Aad, G, Gilbert, D, Hutton, H, and Brown, C. Experience, Evidence and Everday Practice: Creating systems for delivering effective health care. 1999. King´s Fund.

285. Feder G, Griffiths C, Eldridge S, Spence M. Effect of postal prompts to patients and general practitioners on the quality of primary care after a coronary event (POST): randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1999; 318: 1522-6.

286. Cupples ME,.McKnight A. Randomised controlled trial of health promotion in general practice for patients at high cardiovascular risk. BMJ 1994; 309: 993-6.

287. Christakis DA, Zimmerman FJ, Wright JA, Garrison MM, Rivara FP, Davis RL. A randomized controlled trial of point-of-care evidence to improve the antibiotic prescribing practices for otitis media in children. Pediatrics 2001; 107: E15.

288. Balas EA, Boren SA, Hicks LL, Chonko AM, Stephenson K. Effect of linking practice data to published evidence. A randomized controlled trial of clinical direct reports. Med.Care 1998; 36: 79-87.

289. Campbell NC, Thain J, Deans HG, Ritchie LD, Rawles JM, Squair JL. Secondary prevention clinics for coronary heart disease: randomised trial of effect on health. BMJ 1998; 316: 1434-7.

[Seite 149↓]

290. McAlister FA, Lawson FM, Teo KK, Armstrong PW. Randomised trials of secondary prevention programmes in coronary heart disease: systematic review. BMJ 2001; 323: 957-62.

291. Busse, R., Welte, T., Bode-Böger, St., and Böger, R. Kommunikationsprozess und Therapie-Entscheidungen an der Schnittstelle von stationärer und ambulanter Versorgung im West-/ Ostvergleich. Norddeutscher Forschungsverbund Public Health. Endbericht Projekt D II 1. 1999. Hannover.

292. von Luckner AG. Medical correspondence. Z.Arztl.Fortbild.Qualitatssich. 1997; 91: 563-7.

293. Newton J, Eccles M, Hutchinson A. Communication between general practitioners and consultants: what should their letters contain? BMJ 1992; 304: 821-4.

294. Isaac DR, Gijsbers AJ, Wyman KT, Martyres RF, Garrow BA. The GP-hospital interface: attitudes of general practitioners to tertiary teaching hospitals. Med J Aust. 1997; 166: 9-12.

295. Himmel W, Tabache M, Kochen MM. What happens to long-term medication when general practice patients are referred to hospital?. Eur.J Clin.Pharmacol 1996; 50: 253-7.

296. McKinlay JB. More appropriate evaluation methods for community-level health interventions. Introduction to the special issue. Eval.Rev 1996; 20: 237-43.

297. Donner A. Sample size requirement for stratified cluster randomization designs. Stat.Med 1992; 11: 743-50

298. Cates C,.Senn S. Screening mammography re-evaluated. Lancet 2000; 355: 750.

299. Senn S. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Lancet 2001; 358: 2165.

300. Zielinski W, Kunz R, Rakowsky N, Müller-Lissner S. Niedergelassene Ärzte zur Qualität von Arztbriefen. Ergebnisse einer Befragung aus dem Park-Klinik EbM-Projekt.Projektbaustein EbM-Handlungsempfehlungen. Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement 2002; 7: 225-31.

301. Stalhammar J, Holmberg L, Svardsudd K, Tibblin G. Written communication from specialists to general practitioners in cancer care. What are the expectations and how are they met? Scand.J Prim.Health Care 1998; 16: 154-9.

302. Bolton P, Mira M, Kennedy P, Lahra MM. The quality of communication between hospitals and general practitioners: an assessment. J Qual Clin Pract. 1998; 18: 241-7.

303. Anderson MA,.Helms LB. Communication between continuing care organizations. Res Nurs.Health 1995; 18: 49-57.

304. Brassey J, Elwyn G, Price C, Kinnersley P. Just in time information for clinicians: a questionnaire evaluation of the ATTRACT project. BMJ 2001; 322: 529-30.

305. Allery LA, Owen PA, Robling MR. Why general practitioners and consultants change their clinical practice: a critical incident study. BMJ 1997; 314: 870-4.

306. Kunz R, Ollenschläger G, Raspe H, Jonitz G, Kolkmann FW, (Eds.). Lehrbuch Evidenzbasierte Medizin in Klinik und Praxis. Köln: Deutscher Ärzteverlag, 2000.

307. Greenhalgh T, Hughes J, Humphrey C, Rogers S, Swinglehurst D, Martin P. A comparative case study of two models of a clinical informaticist service. BMJ 2002; 324: 524-9.

308. Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, Isles CG, Lorimer AR, MacFarlane PW et al. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. N.Engl.J Med 1995; 333: 1301-7.

© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am: