[Seite 127↓]

Literatur

[1] Balzano, G.; Bassi, C.; Zerbi, A.; Falconi, M.; Calori, G.; Butturini, G.; Leone, B. E.; Pederzoli, P. and Di Carlo, V. (1997): Evaluation of UICC TNM classification for pancreatic cancer. A study of 228 patients, Int J Pancreatol 21 (2): 111-8.

[2] Flanders, T. Y. and Foulkes, W. D. (1996): Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: epidemiology and genetics, J Med Genet 33 (11): 889-98.

[3] Gudjonsson, B. (1987): Cancer of the pancreas. 50 years of surgery, Cancer 60 (9): 2284-303.

[4] Fontham, E. T. and Correa, P. (1989): Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer, Surg Clin North Am 69 (3): 551-67.

[5] Silverman, D. T.; Dunn, J. A.; Hoover, R. N.; Schiffman, M.; Lillemoe, K. D.; Schoenberg, J. B.; Brown, L. M.; Greenberg, R. S.; Hayes, R. B.; Swanson, G. M. and et al. (1994): Cigarette smoking and pancreas cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews, J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (20): 1510-6.

[6] Boyle, P.; Maisonneuve, P.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ghadirian, P.; Howe, G. R.; Zatonski, W.; Baghurst, P.; Moerman, C. J.; Simard, A.; Miller, A. B.; Przewoniak, K.; McMichael, A. J.; Hsieh, C. C. and Walker, A. M. (1996): Cigarette smoking and pancreas cancer: a case control study of the search programme of the IARC, Int J Cancer 67 (1): 63-71.

[7] Mirvish, S. S. (1986): Effects of vitamins C and E on N-nitroso compound formation, carcinogenesis, and cancer, Cancer 58 (8): 1842-50.

[8] Rivenson, A.; Hoffmann, D.; Prokopczyk, B.; Amin, S. and Hecht, S. S. (1988): Induction of lung and exocrine pancreas tumors in F344 rats by tobacco-specific and Areca-derived N-nitrosamines, Cancer Res 48 (23): 6912-7.

[9] Pour, P. M. and Rivenson, A. (1989): Induction of a mixed ductal-squamous-islet cell carcinoma in a rat treated with a tobacco-specific carcinogen, Am J Pathol 134 (3): 627-31.

[10] Corra, S.; Kazakoff, K.; Lawson, T. A.; Adrian, T. E. and Pour, P. M. (1992): Cholecystokinin inhibits DNA alkylation induced by N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) in hamster pancreas, Cancer Lett 62 (3): 251-6.

[11] Hoffmann, D.; Rivenson, A.; Abbi, R. and Wynder, E. L. (1993): A study of tobacco carcinogenesis: effect of the fat content of the diet on the carcinogenic activity of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in F344 rats, Cancer Res 53 (12): 2758-61.

[12] Schmidt, W. and Popham, R. E. (1981): The role of drinking and smoking in mortality from cancer and other causes in male alcoholics, Cancer 47 (5): 1031-41.

[13] Heuch, I.; Kvale, G.; Jacobsen, B. K. and Bjelke, E. (1983): Use of alcohol, tobacco and coffee, and risk of pancreatic cancer, Br J Cancer 48 (5): 637-43.

[14] Wynder, E. L.; Dieck, G. S. and Hall, N. E. (1986): Case-control study of decaffeinated coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer, Cancer Res 46 (10): 5360-3.

[15] Gordis, L. (1990): Consumption of methylxanthine-containing beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer, Cancer Lett 52 (1): 1-12.

[16] Lowenfels, A. B.; Maisonneuve, P.; Cavallini, G.; Ammann, R. W.; Lankisch, P. G.; Andersen, J. R.; Dimagno, E. P.; Andren Sandberg, A. and Domellof, L. (1993): Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Pancreatitis Study Group, N Engl J Med 328 (20): 1433-7.

[17] Chari, S. T.; Mohan, V.; Pitchumoni, C. S.; Viswanathan, M.; Madanagopalan, N. and Lowenfels, A. B. (1994): Risk of pancreatic carcinoma in tropical calcifying pancreatitis: an epidemiologic study, Pancreas 9 (1): 62-6.

[18] Goldstein, A. M.; Fraser, M. C.; Struewing, J. P.; Hussussian, C. J.; Ranade, K.; Zametkin, D. P.; Fontaine, L. S.; Organic, S. M.; Dracopoli, N. C.; Clark, W. H., Jr. and et al. (1995): Increased risk of pancreatic cancer in melanoma-prone kindreds with p16INK4 mutations, N Engl J Med 333 (15): 970-4.

[19] Mecklin, J. P.; Jarvinen, H. J. and Virolainen, M. (1992): The association between cholangiocarcinoma and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma, Cancer 69 (5): 1112-4.

[20] Warshaw, A. L.; Compton, C. C.; Lewandrowski, K.; Cardenosa, G. and Mueller, P. R. (1990): Cystic tumors of the pancreas. New clinical, radiologic, and pathologic observations in 67 patients, Ann Surg 212 (4): 432-43.

[21] Ooi, L. L.; Ho, G. H.; Chew, S. P.; Low, C. H. and Soo, K. C. (1998): Cystic tumours of the pancreas: a diagnostic dilemma, Aust N Z J Surg 68 (12): 844-6.

[22] Warshaw, A. L. and Rutledge, P. L. (1987): Cystic tumors mistaken for pancreatic pseudocysts, Ann Surg 205 (4): 393-8.

[23] Reznek, R. H. and Stephens, D. H. (1993): The staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Clin Radiol 47 (6): 373-81.

[24] Fearon, E. R. (1993): K-ras gene mutation as a pathogenetic and diagnostic marker in human cancer, J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (24): 1978-80.

[25] Satoh, K.; Sasano, H.; Shimosegawa, T.; Koizumi, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Mochizuki, F.; Kobayashi, N.; Okano, T.; Toyota, T. and Sawai, T. (1993): An immunohistochemical study of the c-erbB-2 oncogene product in intraductal mucin-hypersecreting neoplasms and in ductal cell carcinomas of the pancreas, Cancer 72 (1): 51-6.

[26] Casey, G.; Yamanaka, Y.; Friess, H.; Kobrin, M. S.; Lopez, M. E.; Buchler, M.; Beger, H. G. and Korc, M. (1993): p53 mutations are common in pancreatic cancer and are absent in chronic pancreatitis, Cancer Lett 69 (3): 151-60.

[27] Naumann, M.; Savitskaia, N.; Eilert, C.; Schramm, A.; Kalthoff, H. and Schmiegel, W. (1996): Frequent codeletion of p16/MTS1 and p15/MTS2 and genetic alterations in p16/MTS1 in pancreatic tumors, Gastroenterology 110 (4): 1215-24.

[28] Ghadimi, B. M. and Schlag, P. M. (1999): Molekulare Genetik des Pankreaskarzinoms., Onkologe 5 (3): 188-93.

[29] Almoguera, C.; Shibata, D.; Forrester, K.; Martin, J.; Arnheim, N. and Perucho, M. (1988): Most human carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas contain mutant c-K-ras genes, Cell 53 (4): 549-54.

[30] Kalthoff, H.; Schmiegel, W. and Roeder, C (1993): p53 and k-ras alterations in pancreatic epithelial cell lesions., Oncogene 8, pp.289-98.

[31] DiGiuseppe, J. A.; Hruban, R. H.; Goodman, S. N.; Polak, M.; van den Berg, F. M.; Allison, D. C.; Cameron, J. L. and Offerhaus, G. J. (1994): Overexpression of p53 protein in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, Am J Clin Pathol 101 (6): 684-8.

[32] Warshaw, A. L. and Swanson, R. S. (1988): Pancreatic cancer in 1988. Possibilities and probabilities, Ann Surg 208 (5): 541-53.

[33] Trapnell, J. (1972): The natural history and management of acute pancreatitis, Clin Gastroenterol 1, pp.147-66.

[34] Gullo, L.; Pezzilli, R. and Morselli Labate, A. M. (1994): Diabetes and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Italian Pancreatic Cancer Study Group, N Engl J Med 331 (2): 81-4.


[Seite 128↓]

[35] Rosa, J. A.; Van Linda, B. M. and Abourizk, N. N. (1989): New-onset diabetes mellitus as a harbinger of pancreatic carcinoma. A case report and literature review, J Clin Gastroenterol 11 (2): 211-5.

[36] Yasuda, K.; Mukai, H.; Fujimoto, S.; Nakajima, M. and Kawai, K. (1988): The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer by endoscopic ultrasonography, Gastrointest Endosc 34 (1): 1-8.

[37] Nakaizumi, A.; Uehara, H.; Iishi, H.; Tatsuta, M.; Kitamura, T.; Kuroda, C.; Ohigashi, H.; Ishikawa, O. and Okuda, S. (1995): Endoscopic ultrasonography in diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer, Dig Dis Sci 40 (3): 696-700.

[38] Palazzo, L. (1998): Staging of pancreatic carcinoma by endoscopic ultrasonography, Endoscopy 30 (1): 103-7.

[39] Soto, J. A.; Barish, M. A.; Yucel, E. K.; Siegenberg, D.; Ferrucci, J. T. and Chuttani, R. (1996): Magnetic resonance cholangiography: comparison with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Gastroenterology 110 (2): 589-97.

[40] Ueno, E.; Takada, Y.; Yoshida, I.; Toda, J.; Sugiura, T. and Toki, F. (1998): Pancreatic diseases: evaluation with MR cholangiopancreatography, Pancreas 16 (3): 418-26.

[41] Merckle, E. M.; Nussle, K.; Glasbrenner, B.; Tomczak, R.; Preclik, G.; Rieber, A.; Adler, G. and Brambs, H. J. (1998): MRCP - eine aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme, Z Gastroenterol 36 (3): 215-24.

[42] Raedsch, R. and Sauerbruch, T. (1992): Einsatz der ERCP bei Verdacht auf Gallengangs- und Pankreaskarzinom, Z Gastroenterol 30 (10): 765-9.

[43] Riemann, J. F. and Kohler, B. (1993): Endoscopy of the pancreatic duct: value of different endoscope types, Gastrointest Endosc 39 (3): 367-70.

[44] Sugiyama, M.; Atomi, Y.; Wada, N.; Kuroda, A. and Muto, T. (1996): Endoscopic transpapillary bile duct biopsy without sphincterotomy for diagnosing biliary strictures: a prospective comparative study with bile and brush cytology, Am J Gastroenterol 91 (3): 465-7.

[45] Palazzo, L.; Roseau, G.; Gayet, B.; Vilgrain, V.; Belghiti, J.; Fekete, F. and Paolaggi, J. A. (1993): Endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Results of a prospective study with comparison to ultrasonography and CT scan, Endoscopy 25 (2): 143-50.

[46] Villanueva, R. R.; Nguyen Ho, P. and Nguyen, G. K. (1994): Needle aspiration cytology of acinar-cell carcinoma of the pancreas: report of a case with diagnostic pitfalls and unusual ultrastructural findings, Diagn Cytopathol 10 (4): 362-4.

[47] Warshaw, A. L.; Tepper, J. E. and Shipley, W. U. (1986): Laparoscopy in the staging and planning of therapy for pancreatic cancer, Am J Surg 151 (1): 76-80.

[48] Fernandez del Castillo, C. L. and Warshaw, A. L. (1998): Pancreatic cancer. Laparoscopic staging and peritoneal cytology, Surg Oncol Clin N Am 7 (1): 135-42.

[49] Merchant, N. B. and Conlon, K. C. (1998): Laparoscopic evaluation in pancreatic cancer, Semin Surg Oncol 15 (3): 155-65.

[50] Zimny, M.; Bares, R.; Fass, J.; Adam, G.; Cremerius, U.; Dohmen, B.; Klever, P.; Sabri, O.; Schumpelick, V. and Buell, U. (1997): Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma: a report of 106 cases, Eur J Nucl Med 24 (6): 678-82.

[51] Scheurer, U. (1996): Pankreaskarzinom: Diagnostik, Ther Umsch 53 (5): 377-86.

[52] Warshaw, A. L. and Fernandez del Castillo, C. (1992): Pancreatic carcinoma, N Engl J Med 326 (7): 455-65.

[53] Alanen, K. A. and Joensuu, H. (1993): Long-term survival after pancreatic adenocarcinoma--often a misdiagnosis?, Br J Cancer 68 (5): 1004-5.

[54] Schöfl, R. (1994): Pankreaskarzinom--Diagnose und Screening--endoskopische Therapie, Wien Klin Wochenschr 106 (22): 698-700.

[55] Steinberg, W. (1990): The clinical utility of the CA 19-9 tumor-associated antigen, Am J Gastroenterol 85 (4): 350-5.

[56] Forsmark, C. E.; Lambiase, L. and Vogel, S. B. (1994): Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and prediction of unresectability using the tumor-associated antigen CA19-9, Pancreas 9 (6): 731-4.

[57] Ishii, H.; Okada, S.; Sato, T.; Wakasugi, H.; Saisho, H.; Furuse, J.; Ishikawa, O.; Matsuno, S. and Yokoyama, S. (1997): CA 19-9 in evaluating the response to chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer, Hepatogastroenterology 44 (13): 279-83.

[58] Gogas, H.; Lofts, F. J.; Evans, T. R.; Daryanani, S. and Mansi, J. L. (1998): Are serial measurements of CA19-9 useful in predicting response to chemotherapy in patients with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas?, Br J Cancer 77 (2): 325-8.

[59] Heinemann, V.; Schermuly, M.M.; P., Stieber; Schulz, L.; Jüngst, D.; Wilkowski, R. and Schalhorn, A. (1999): CA 19-9: A Predictor of Response in Pancreatic Cancer Treated with Gemcitabine and Cisplatin, Anticancer Research 19, pp.2433-36.

[60] Urrutia, R. and DiMagno, E. P. (1996): Genetic markers: the key to early diagnosis and improved survival in pancreatic cancer?, Gastroenterology 110 (1): 306-10.

[61] Matsumoto, S.; Harada, H.; Tanaka, J.; Ochi, K.; Seno, T.; Tsurumi, T. and Kunichika, K. (1994): Evaluation of cytology and tumor markers of pure pancreatic juice for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer at early stages, Pancreas 9 (6): 741-7.

[62] Trumper, L. H.; Burger, B.; von Bonin, F.; Hintze, A.; von Blohn, G.; Pfreundschuh, M. and Daus, H. (1994): Diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma by polymerase chain reaction from pancreatic secretions, Br J Cancer 70 (2): 278-84.

[63] Tada, M.; Ohashi, M.; Shiratori, Y.; Okudaira, T.; Komatsu, Y.; Kawabe, T.; Yoshida, H.; Machinami, R.; Kishi, K. and Omata, M. (1996): Analysis of K-ras gene mutation in hyperplastic duct cells of the pancreas without pancreatic disease., Gastroenterology 110 (1): 227-31.

[64] Tada, M.; Omata, M.; Kawai, S.; Saisho, H.; Ohto, M.; Saiki, R. K. and Sninsky, J. J. (1993): Detection of ras gene mutations in pancreatic juice and peripheral blood of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Cancer Res 53 (11): 2472-4.

[65] Urban, T.; Ricci, S.; Grange, J. D.; Lacave, R.; Boudghene, F.; Breittmayer, F.; Languille, O.; Roland, J. and Bernaudin, J. F. (1993): Detection of c-Ki-ras mutation by PCR/RFLP analysis and diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (24): 2008-12.

[66] Farthing, M. (1999): Detection of mutations (p53, K-ras) in plasma and stool, Biliopancreatic malignancy: from gene to cure, A 33.

[67] Sobin, L. H. and Wittekind, C. (1997): UICC (1997) TNM Classification of malignent tumours, ICD-O C25.0-2.8, Wiley, New York.

[68] Cullinan, S.; Moertel, C. G.; Wieand, H. S.; Schutt, A. J.; Krook, J. E.; Foley, J. F.; Norris, B. D.; Kardinal, C. G.; Tschetter, L. K. and Barlow, J. F. (1990): A phase III trial on the therapy of advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Evaluations of the Mallinson regimen and combined 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cisplatin, Cancer 65 (10): 2207-12.

[69] Bukowski, R. M.; Fleming, T. R.; Macdonald, J. S.; Oishi, N.; Taylor, S. A. and Baker, L. H. (1993): Evaluation of combination chemotherapy and phase II agents in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A Southwest Oncology Group study, Cancer 71 (2): 322-5.


[Seite 129↓]

[70] Brennan, MF; Kinsella, TJ and Casper, E (1993): Cancer of the pancreas, 4. ed., De Vita, VT jr.; Hellman, S and Rosenberg, SA, Eds, Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA.

[71] Smalley, SR and Macdonald, JS (1993): Pancreatic cancer, 2. ed., Calabres, P and Schein, PS, Eds, Medical Oncology, McGraw-Hill, New York.

[72] Tajiri, H.; Yoshimori, M.; Okazaki, N. and Miyaji, M. (1991): Phase II study of continuous venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil in advanced pancreatic cancer, Oncology 48 (1): 18-21.

[73] Lionetto, R.; Pugliese, V.; Bruzzi, P. and Rosso, R. (1995): No standard treatment is available for advanced pancreatic cancer, Eur J Cancer 31a (6): 882-7.

[74] Kollmannsberger, C.; Peters, H. D. and Fink, U. (1998): Chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Cancer Treat Rev 24 (2): 133-56.

[75] Mallinson, CN.; Rake, MO.; Cocking, JB.; Fox, CA.; Cwynarski, MT.; Diffey, BL.; Jackson, GA.; Hanley, J. and Wass, VJ. (1980): Chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Results of a controlled, prospective, randomised multicentre trial., BMJ [281): 1589-91.

[76] Palmer, K. R.; Kerr, M.; Knowles, G.; Cull, A.; Carter, D. C. and Leonard, R. C. (1994): Chemotherapy prolongs survival in inoperable pancreatic carcinoma, Br J Surg 81 (6): 882-5.

[77] Glimelius, B.; Hoffman, K.; Sjoden, P. O.; Jacobsson, G.; Sellstrom, H.; Enander, L. K.; Linne, T. and Svensson, C. (1996): Chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer, Ann Oncol 7 (6): 593-600.

[78] Rothenberg, M. L.; Abbruzzese, J. L.; Moore, M.; Portenoy, R. K.; Robertson, J. M. and Wanebo, H. J. (1996): A rationale for expanding the endpoints for clinical trials in advanced pancreatic carcinoma, Cancer 78 (3): 627-32.

[79] Burris, H. and Storniolo, A. M. (1997): Assessing clinical benefit in the treatment of pancreas cancer: gemcitabine compared to 5-fluorouracil, Eur J Cancer 33 (1): 18-22.

[80] Casper, E. S.; Green, M. R.; Kelsen, D. P.; Heelan, R. T.; Brown, T. D.; Flombaum, C. D.; Trochanowski, B. and Tarassoff, P. G. (1994): Phase II trial of gemcitabine (2,2'-difluorodeoxycytidine) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, Invest New Drugs 12 (1): 29-34.

[81] Carmichael, J.; Fink, U.; Russell, R. C.; Spittle, M. F.; Harris, A. L.; Spiessi, G. and Blatter, J. (1996): Phase II study of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, Br J Cancer 73 (1): 101-5.

[82] Burris, H. A. 3rd; Moore, M. J.; Andersen, J.; Green, M. R.; Rothenberg, M. L.; Modiano, M. R.; Cripps, M. C.; Portenoy, R. K.; Storniolo, A. M.; Tarassoff, P.; Nelson, R.; Dorr, F. A.; Stephens, C. D. and Von Hoff, D. D. (1997): Improvements in survival and clinical benefit with gemcitabine as first-line therapy for patients with advanced pancreas cancer: a randomized trial, J Clin Oncol 15 (6): 2403-13.

[83] Storniolo, A. M.; Enas, N. H.; Brown, C. A.; Voi, M.; Rothenberg, M. L. and Schilsky, R. (1999): An investigational new drug treatment program for patients with gemcitabine: results for over 3000 patients with pancreatic carcinoma, Cancer 85 (6): 1261-8.

[84] Di Constanzo, F.; Sdrobolini, A. and Gasperoni, S. (1999): [Possibilities of palliation in pancreatic cancer], Tumori 85 (1): 47-53.

[85] Glimelius, B.; Linne, T.; Hoffman, K.; Larsson, L.; Svensson, J. H.; Nasman, P.; Svensson, B. and Helmers, C. (1998): Epoetin beta in the treatment of anemia in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer, J Clin Oncol 16 (2): 434-40.

[86] Sporn, J. R. (1999): Practical recommendations for the management of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, Drugs 57 (1): 69-79.

[87] van Riel, J. M.; van Groeningen, C. J.; Pinedo, H. M. and Giaccone, G. (1999): Current chemotherapeutic possibilities in pancreaticobiliary cancer, Ann Oncol 10 (4): 157-61.

[88] Parker, S. L.; Tong, T.; Bolden, S. and Wingo, P. A. (1997): Cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin 47 (1): 5-27.

[89] Blaszkowsky, L. (1998): Treatment of advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, Front Biosci 3, pp.214-25.

[90] Moertel, C. G. (1976): Chemotherapy of gastrointestinal cancer, Clin Gastroenterol 5 (3): 777-93.

[91] Hansen, R.; Quebbeman, E.; Ritch, P.; Chitambar, C. and Anderson, T. (1988): Continuous 5-fluorouracil (5FU) infusion in carcinoma of the pancreas: a phase II study, Am J Med Sci 295 (2): 91-3.

[92] DeCaprio, J. A.; Mayer, R. J.; Gonin, R. and Arbuck, S. G. (1991): Fluorouracil and high-dose leucovorin in previously untreated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: results of a phase II trial, J Clin Oncol 9 (12): 2128-33.

[93] Ahlgren, J. D. (1996): Chemotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma, Cancer 78 (3): 654-63.

[94] Cullinan, S. A.; Moertel, C. G.; Fleming, T. R.; Rubin, J. R.; Krook, J. E.; Everson, L. K.; Windschitl, H. E.; Twito, D. I.; Marschke, R. F.; Foley, J. F. and et al. (1985): A comparison of three chemotherapeutic regimens in the treatment of advanced pancreatic and gastric carcinoma. Fluorouracil vs fluorouracil and doxorubicin vs fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and mitomycin, JAMA 253 (14): 2061-7.

[95] Oster, M. W.; Gray, R.; Panasci, L. and Perry, M. C. (1986): Chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer. A comparison of 5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, and mitomycin (FAM) with 5-fluorouracil, streptozotocin, and mitomycin (FSM), Cancer 57 (1): 29-33.

[96] Kelsen, D.; Hudis, C.; Niedzwiecki, D.; Dougherty, J.; Casper, E.; Botet, J.; Vinciguerra, V. and Rosenbluth, R. (1991): A phase III comparison trial of streptozotocin, mitomycin, and 5-fluorouracil with cisplatin, cytosine arabinoside, and caffeine in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma, Cancer 68 (5): 965-9.

[97] Rothenberg, M. L.; Moore, M. J.; Cripps, M. C.; Andersen, J. S.; Portenoy, R. K.; Burris, H. A., 3rd; Green, M. R.; Tarassoff, P. G.; Brown, T. D.; Casper, E. S.; Storniolo, A. M. and Von Hoff, D. D. (1996): A phase II trial of gemcitabine in patients with 5-FU-refractory pancreas cancer, Ann Oncol 7 (4): 347-53.

[98] Heinemann, V.; Xu, Y. ZChubb S.; Sen, A.; Hertel, L. W.; Grindey, G. B. and Plunkett, W. (1990): Inhibition of ribonucleotide reduction in CCRF-CEM cells by 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine, Mol Pharmacol 38 (4): 567-572.

[99] Ardalan, B.; Luis, R.; Jaime, M. and Franceschi, D. (1998): Biomodulation of Fluorouracil in colorectal cancer, Cancer Invest 16 (4): 237-51.

[100] Schmoll, H. J.; Köhne, C. H.; Lorenz, M.; Schöffski, P.; Voigtmann, R.; Bokemeyer, C.; Lutz, M. P.; Leeberg, U.; Ridwelski, K.; Souchon, R.; El-Sarafi, M.; Weiss, U.; Couvreur, M. L.; Baron, B. and A., Wils J. (2000): Weekly 24h infusion of high-dose (HD) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU 24 h) with or without folinic acid (FA) vs. bolus 5-FU/FA (NCCTG/Mayo) in advanded colorectal cancer (CRC): A randomized phase III study of the EORTC GITCCG and the AIO, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 935.

[101] Karnofsky, D. A.; Abelmann, W. H.; Craver, L. F. and Burchenal, J. H. (1948): The use of nitrogen mustards in the palliative treatment of carcinoma. Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), Cancer 1, pp.634-666.

[102] Heinemann, V.; Wilke, H.; Possinger, K. and al., et (1996): Gemcitabine and cisplatin: combination treatment for advanced and metastic pancreatic carcinoma, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 15 (246], A 623.

[103] Borner, M. M.; Mauerer, C. A.; Friess, H.; Ludwig, C. U.; Büchler, M. W. and Fey, M. F. (1998): Gemcitabine (GEM) and continuous infusion fluorouracil (CIF): a phase II Study in advanced pancreatic cancer (APC), Ann Oncol 9 (4], A 241 P.


[Seite 130↓]

[104] Cascinu, S.; Silva, R. R.; Barni, S. and al., et (1998): on behalf of GISCAD (Italian Group for the study of digestive tract cancer), Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17 (264a], A 1013.

[105] de Gusmao, C. ; Murad, A. M.; Scalabrini-Neto, A. O. and al., et (1998): Phase II trial of the use of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of advanced pancreatic (APC) and biliary tract (ABTC) adenocarcinoma., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17, A 1016.

[106] Polyzos, A.; Tsavaris, N.; Kosmas, C. and al., et (1998): Gemcitabine (GEM) plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) modulated by leucovorin (LV) for advanced pancreatic cancer, Ann Oncol 9 (4], A 262.

[107] Hidalgo, M.; Castellano, D.; Paz Ares, L.; Gravalos, C.; Diaz Puente, M.; Hitt, R.; Alonso, S. and Cortes Funes, H. (1999): Phase I-II study of gemcitabine and fluorouracil as a continuous infusion in patients with pancreatic cancer, J Clin Oncol 17 (2): 585-92.

[108] Oettle, H.; Pelzer, U.; Hochmuth, K.; Diebold, T.; Langrehr, J.; Schmidt, C. A.; Arning, M.; Vogl, T. J.; Neuhaus, P.; Huhn, D. and Riess, H. (1999): Phase I trial of gemcitabine (Gemzar ®), 24 h infusion 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer, Anti-Cancer-Drugs 10, pp.699-704.

[109] Louvet, C.; Hammel, P.; Andre and al., et (1999): Multicenter phase II study in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients treated with a combination of leucovorin, 5-FU bolus and infusion and gemcitabine (FOLFUGEM regimen)., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1097.

[110] Rodriguez-Lescure, A.; Carrato, A.; Massuti, B. and al., et (1999): Phase I-II study of gemcitabine (GEM) and weekly 48-hour continuous infusion (CI) high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in advanced exocrine pancreatic cancer (APC)., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1145.

[111] Gützler, F.; Moehler, M.; Hosch, W. P. and al., et (1999): A phase I study of gemcitabine (GEM) in combination, with five days 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid (FA) in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of pancreas or bile duct., Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1097.

[112] Cascinu, S.; Silva, R. R.; Barni, S.; Labianca, R.; Frontini, L.; Piazza, E.; Pancera, G.; Giordani, P.; Giuliodori, L.; Pessi, M. A.; Fusco, V.; Luporini, G.; Cellerino, R. and Catalano, G. (1999): A combination of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil in advanced pancreatic, cancer, a report from the Italian Group for the Study of Digestive Tract Cancer (GISCAD), British Journal of Cancer 80 (10): 1595-8.

[113] Philip, P. A.; Zalupski, M.; Vaitkevicius, V. K. and al., et (1999): Phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1053.

[114] Heinemann, V.; Wilke, H.; K., Possinger and al., et (1999): Gemcitabine and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer: Final results of a phase II study, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1052.

[115] Colucci, G.; Riccardi, F.; Giulani, F. and al., et (1999): Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine alone or with Cisplatin (CDDP) in the Treatment of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer (APC): A Phase II Multicenter Study of the Southern Italy Oncology Group., Proc Ann Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 961.

[116] Lueck, A.; Ridwelski, K. and Lippert, H. (1998): Phase I study of a treatment with Gemcitabine and Docetaxel weekly in advanced pancreatic cancer, Proc. ESMO, A249.

[117] Jacobs, A. D.; Otero, H.; Picozzi, V. and al., et (1999): Gemcitabine (G) and Taxotere (T) in patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, Proc Ann Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 18 (288a], A 1128.

[118] Kakolyris, S.; Stathopoulos, G.; Tsavaris, N. and al., et (1999): First line treatment with Docetaxel (D) and Gemcitabine (G) in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. A Multicenter Phase II Study., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 960.

[119] Neri, B.; Mini, E.; Fioretto, L. and al., et (1999): Dose-finding study of gemcitabine and epirubicin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, Proc Ann Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1128.

[120] Raderer, M.; Kornet, G. V.; Valencak, J. and al., et (1998): Phase II trials of gemcitabine, epirubicin and G-CSF in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, Ann Oncol 9 (2], A 169.

[121] Takimoto, C. H.; Yee, L. K.; Venzon, D. J.; Schuler, B.; Grollman, F.; Chabuk, C.; Hamilton, J. M.; Chen, A. P.; Allegra, C. J. and Grem, J. L. (1999): High inter- and intrapatient variation in 5-fluorouracil plasma concentrations during a prolonged drug infusion, Clin Cancer Res 5 (6): 1347-52.

[122] Gamelin, E.; Boisdron Celle, M.; Delva, R.; Regimbeau, C.; Cailleux, P. E.; Alleaume, C.; Maillet, M. L.; Goudier, M. J.; Sire, M.; Person Joly, M. C.; Maigre, M.; Maillart, P.; Fety, R.; Burtin, P.; Lortholary, A.; Dumesnil, Y.; Picon, L.; Geslin, J.; Gesta, P.; Danquechin Dorval, E.; Larra, F. and Robert, J. (1998): Long-term weekly treatment of colorectal metastatic cancer with fluorouracil and leucovorin: results of a multicentric prospective trial of fluorouracil dosage optimization by pharmacokinetic monitoring in 152 patients, J Clin Oncol 16 (4): 1470-8.

[123] Oettle, H.; Arning, M.; Pelzer, U.; Arnold, D.; Stroszczynski, C.; Langrehr, J.; Reitzig, P.; Kindler, M.; Herrenberger, J.; Musch, R.; Korsten, F. W.; Huhn, D. and Riess, H. (2000): Phase II trial of gemcitabine in combination with 5-fluorouracil (24-hour) and folinic acid in patients with chemonaive advanced pandreatic cancer, Ann Oncl 11, pp.1267-72.

[124] Abe, M. and Takahashi, M. (1982): Klinische Erfahrungen mit der intraoperativen Strahlentherapie von lokal fortgeschrittenen Pankreaskarzinomen., Strahlentherapie 158 (10): 585-93.

[125] Moertel, C. G.; Childs, D. S., Jr.; Reitemeier, R. J.; Colby, M. Y., Jr. and Holbrook, M. A. (1969): Combined 5-fluorouracil and supervoltage radiation therapy of locally unresectable gastrointestinal cancer, Lancet 2 ((7626)): 865-7.

[126] Moertel, C. G.; Frytak, S.; Hahn, R. G.; O'Connell, M. J.; Reitemeier, R. J.; Rubin, J.; Schutt, A. J.; Weiland, L. H.; Childs, D. S.; Holbrook, M. A.; Lavin, P. T.; Livstone, E.; Spiro, H.; Knowlton, A.; Kalser, M.; Barkin, J.; Lessner, H.; Mann Kaplan, R.; Ramming, K.; Douglas, H. O., Jr.; Thomas, P.; Nave, H.; Bateman, J.; Lokich, J.; Brooks, J.; Chaffey, J.; Corson, J. M.; Zamcheck, N. and Novak, J. W. (1981): Therapy of locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: a randomized comparison of high dose (6000 rads) radiation alone, moderate dose radiation (4000 rads + 5-fluorouracil), and high dose radiation + 5-fluorouracil: The Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group, Cancer 48 (8): 1705-10.

[127] Ishikawa, O.; Ohigashi, H.; Imaoka, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Iwanaga, T.; Matayoshi, Y. and Inoue, T. (1994): Is the long-term survival rate improved by preoperative irradiation prior to Whipple's procedure for adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head?, Arch Surg 129 (10): 1075-80.

[128] Hoffman, J. P.; Lipsitz, S.; Pisansky, T.; Weese, J. L.; Solin, L. and Benson, A. B., 3rd (1998): Phase II trial of preoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy for patients with localized, resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study, J Clin Oncol 16 (1): 317-23.

[129] Kamthan, A. G.; Morris, J. C.; Dalton, J.; Mandeli, J. P.; Chesser, M. R.; Leben, D.; Cooperman, A. and Bruckner, H. W. (1997): Combined modality therapy for stage II and stage III pancreatic carcinoma, J Clin Oncol 15 (8): 2920-7.

[130] Leichman, C. G. (1994): Prolonged infusion of fluorinated pyrimidines in gastrointestinal malignancies: a review of recent clinical trials, Cancer Invest 12 (2): 166-75.

[131] Dobelbower, R. R., Jr. (1979): The radiotherapy of pancreatic cancer, Semin Oncol 6 (3): 378-89.

[132] Whittington, R.; Dobelbower, R. R.; Mohiuddin, M.; Rosato, F. E. and Weiss, S. M. (1981): Radiotherapy of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: a six year experience with 104 patients, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7 (12): 1639-44.


[Seite 131↓]

[133] Dobelbower, R. R., Jr.; Borgelt, B. B.; Suntharalingam, N. and Strubler, K. A. (1978): Pancreatic carcinoma treated with high-dose, small-volume irradiation, Cancer 41 (3): 1087-92.

[134] Garton, G. R.; Gunderson, L. L.; Nagorney, D. M.; Donohue, J. H.; Martin, J. K.; McIlrath, D. C. and Cha, S. S. (1993): High-dose preoperative external beam and intraoperative irradiation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 27 (5): 1153-7.

[135] Mohiuddin, M.; Regine, W. F.; Stevens, J.; Rosato, F.; Barbot, D.; Biermann, W. and Cantor, R. (1995): Combined intraoperative radiation and perioperative chemotherapy for unresectable cancers of the pancreas, J Clin Oncol 13 (11): 2764-8.

[136] Roldan, G. E.; Gunderson, L. L.; Nagorney, D. M.; Martin, J. K.; Ilstrup, D. M.; Holbrook, M. A.; Kvols, L. K. and McIlrath, D. C. (1988): External beam versus intraoperative and external beam irradiation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer, Cancer 61 (6): 1110-6.

[137] Shipley, W. U.; Nardi, G. L.; Cohen, A. M. and Ling, C. C. (1980): Iodine-125 implant and external beam irradiation in patients with localized pancreatic carcinoma: a comparative study to surgical resection, Cancer 45 (4): 709-14.

[138] Tepper, J. E.; Shipley, W. U.; Warshaw, A. L.; Nardi, G. L.; Wood, W. C. and Orlow, E. L. (1987): The role of misonidazole combined with intraoperative radiation therapy in the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma, J Clin Oncol 5 (4): 579-84.

[139] Ishii, H.; Okada, S.; Tokuuye, K.; Nose, H.; Okusaka, T.; Yoshimori, M.; Nagahama, H.; Sumi, M.; Kagami, Y. and Ikeda, H. (1997): Protracted 5-fluorouracil infusion with concurrent radiotherapy as a treatment for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma, Cancer 79 (8): 1516-20.

[140] McGinn, C. J.; Smith, D. C.; O`Dywer, P. J. and al., et (1998): A phase I study of gemcitabine in combination with radiation therapy in patients with localized unresectable pancreatic carcinoma., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17, A 1014.

[141] Blackstock, A. W.; Bernard, S. A.; Richards, F. and al., et (1998): Phase I study of concurrent radiation and twice weekly gemcitabine in advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17, A 1015.

[142] Watanapa, P. and Williamson, R. C. (1992): Surgical palliation for pancreatic cancer: developments during the past two decades, Br J Surg 79 (1): 8-20.

[143] Trede, M.; Schwall, G. and Saeger, H. D. (1990): Survival after pancreatoduodenectomy. 118 consecutive resections without an operative mortality, Ann Surg 211 (4): 447-58.

[144] Lillemoe, K. D. and Pitt, H. A. (1996): Palliation. Surgical and otherwise, Cancer 78 (3): 605-14.

[145] Yeo, C. J.; Cameron, J. L.; Sohn, T. A.; Lillemoe, K. D.; Pitt, H. A.; Talamini, M. A.; Hruban, R. H.; Ord, S. E.; Sauter, P. K.; Coleman, J.; Zahurak, M. L.; Grochow, L. B. and Abrams, R. A. (1997): Six hundred fifty consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies in the 1990s: pathology, complications, and outcomes, Ann Surg 226 (3): 248-57.

[146] Trede, M. (1987): Treatment of pancreatic carcinoma: the surgeon's dilemma, Br J Surg 74 (2): 79-80.

[147] Edge, S. B.; Schmieg, R. E., Jr.; Rosenlof, L. K. and Wilhelm, M. C. (1993): Pancreas cancer resection outcome in American University centers in 1989-1990, Cancer 71 (11): 3502-8.

[148] Lillemoe, K. D. (1995): Current management of pancreatic carcinoma, Ann Surg 221 (2): 133-48.

[149] Staley, C. A.; Lee, J. E.; Cleary, K. R.; Abbruzzese, J. L.; Fenoglio, C. J.; Rich, T. A. and Evans, D. B. (1996): Preoperative chemoradiation, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and intraoperative radiation therapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head, Am J Surg 171 (1): 118-24.

[150] Yeo, C. J.; Cameron, J. L.; Lillemoe, K. D.; Sitzmann, J. V.; Hruban, R. H.; Goodman, S. N.; Dooley, W. C.; Coleman, J. and Pitt, H. A. (1995): Pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of the head of the pancreas. 201 patients, Ann Surg 221 (6): 721-31.

[151] Bramhall, S. R.; Allum, W. H.; Jones, A. G.; Allwood, A.; Cummins, C. and Neoptolemos, J. P. (1995): Treatment and survival in 13,560 patients with pancreatic cancer, and incidence of the disease, in the West Midlands: an epidemiological study, Br J Surg 82 (1): 111-5.

[152] Willett, C. G.; Lewandrowski, K.; Warshaw, A. L.; Efird, J. and Compton, C. C. (1993): Resection margins in carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Implications for radiation therapy, Ann Surg 217 (2): 144-8.

[153] Cameron, J. L.; Crist, D. W.; Sitzmann, J. V.; Hruban, R. H.; Boitnott, J. K.; Seidler, A. J. and Coleman, J. (1991): Factors influencing survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer, Am J Surg 161 (1): 120-4.

[154] Trede, M.; Saeger, H. D.; Schwall, G. and Rumstadt, B. (1998): Resection of pancreatic cancer--surgical achievements, Langenbecks Arch Surg 383 (2): 121-8.

[155] Rattner, D. W. (1992): Pancreatic cancer in 1992: has any progress been noted?, Mayo Clin Proc 67 (9): 907-9.

[156] Cameron, J. L. (1995): Long-term survival following pancreaticoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas, Surg Clin North Am 75 (5): 939-51.

[157] McGrath, P. C.; Sloan, D. A. and Kenady, D. E. (1996): Surgical management of pancreatic carcinoma, Semin Oncol 23 (2): 200-12.

[158] Griffin, J. F.; Smalley, S. R.; Jewell, W.; Paradelo, J. C.; Reymond, R. D.; Hassanein, R. E. and Evans, R. G. (1990): Patterns of failure after curative resection of pancreatic carcinoma, Cancer 66 (1): 56-61.

[159] Kayahara, M.; Nagakawa, T.; Ueno, K.; Ohta, T.; Takeda, T. and Miyazaki, I. (1993): An evaluation of radical resection for pancreatic cancer based on the mode of recurrence as determined by autopsy and diagnostic imaging, Cancer 72 (7): 2118-23.

[160] (1979): A multi-institutional comparative trial of radiation therapy alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil for locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group, Ann Surg 189 (2): 205-8.

[161] Kalser, M. H. and Ellenberg, S. S. (1985): Pancreatic cancer. Adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection., Arch Surg 120 (8): 899-903.

[162] Group, Gastrointestinal Tumour Study (1997): Further evidence of effective adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection of pancreatic cancer., Cancer 59 (12): 2006-10.

[163] Yeo, C. J.; Abrams, R. A.; Grochow, L. B.; Sohn, T. A.; Ord, S. E.; Hruban, R. H.; Zahurak, M. L.; Dooley, W. C.; Coleman, J.; Sauter, P. K.; Pitt, H. A.; Lillemoe, K. D. and Cameron, J. L. (1997): Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation improves survival. A prospective, single-institution experience, Ann Surg 225 (5): 621-33.

[164] Klinkenbijl, JHL; Sahmound, T; van Pel, R and al., et (1997): Radiotherapy and 5-FU after curative resection for the cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: a phase III-trial of the EORTC-GITCCG., Eur J Cancer 33, 274.

[165] Foo, M. L.; Gunderson, L. L.; Nagorney, D. M.; McLlrath, D. C.; van Heerden, J. A.; Robinow, J. S.; Kvols, L. K.; Garton, G. R.; Martenson, J. A. and Cha, S. S. (1993): Patterns of failure in grossly resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated with adjuvant irradiation +/- 5 fluorouracil, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26 (3): 483-9.

[166] Zerbi, A.; Fossati, V.; Parolini, D.; Carlucci, M.; Balzano, G.; Bordogna, G.; Staudacher, C. and Di Carlo, V. (1994): Intraoperative radiation therapy adjuvant to resection in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, Cancer 73 (12): 2930-5.

[167] Shibamoto, Y.; Manabe, T.; Baba, N.; Sasai, K.; Takahashi, M.; Tobe, T. and Abe, M. (1990): High dose, external beam and intraoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19 (3): 605-11.


[Seite 132↓]

[168] Whittington, R.; Bryer, M. P.; Haller, D. G.; Solin, L. J. and Rosato, E. F. (1991): Adjuvant therapy of resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21 (5): 1137-43.

[169] Bosset, J. F.; Pavy, J. J.; Gillet, M.; Mantion, G.; Pelissier, E. and Schraub, S. (1992): Conventional external irradiation alone as adjuvant treatment in resectable pancreatic cancer: results of a prospective study, Radiother Oncol 24 (3): 191-4.

[170] Picus, J.; Myerson, R.; Drebin, J. and Strasberg, S. (1998): A phase II trial of continuous infusion 5-FU with 3-D conformal radiation in the adjuvant treatment of pancreatic, ampullary and biliary cancers., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol,A 1023.

[171] Paulino, A. C. (1999): Resected pancreatic cancer treated with adjuvant radiotherapy with or without 5-fluorouracil: treatment results and patterns of failure, Am J Clin Oncol 22 (5): 489-94.

[172] Glaser, K.; Bodner, E. and Kingler, A. (1993): Adjuvant intraoperative radiation therapy during pancreatectomy., Büchler, M. and Malfertheiner, P., Eds, Standards in Pancreatic Surgery, Springer - Verlag, Berlin - Heidelberg - New York.

[173] Rich, T. A. and Evans, D. B. (1995): Preoperative combined modality therapy for pancreatic cancer, World J Surg 19 (2): 264-9.

[174] Pisters, P. W.; Abbruzzese, J. L.; Janjan, N. A.; Cleary, K. R.; Charnsangavej, C.; Goswitz, M. S.; Rich, T. A.; Raijman, I.; Wolff, R. A.; Lenzi, R.; Lee, J. E. and Evans, D. B. (1998): Rapid-fractionation preoperative chemoradiation, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and intraoperative radiation therapy for resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, J Clin Oncol 16 (12): 3843-50.

[175] Chakravarthy, A.; Yeo, C. J.; Cameron, J. L.; Grochow, J. B.; Donehower, R. C.; O´Reilly, S.; Hurwitz, H. I.; Zahurek, M. L.; Jaffe, E.; Hruban, R. H.; Korman, L. and Abrams, R. A. (1998): Preliminary results of a phase II study of adjuvant combined modality therapy for resected pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma using local irridation, 5-FU, LV, Dipyridamole and Mitimycin C, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 1024.

[176] Hoffmann, H. P.; McGinn, C. J.; Szarka, C.; Morphis, J.; Cooper, H. S.; Wilkes, J. and Nicol, S. (1998): A phase I study of preoperative Gemcitabine (GEM) with radiation therapy (RF) followed by postoperative GEM for patients with localized, resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PaC)., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17, A 1090.

[177] Kudrimoti, M.; Regine, W.; John, W.; Hanna, N. and Mohiuddin, M. (1999): Concurrent infusional gemcitabine and radiation in the treatment of advanced unresectable GI-malignancy : A phase I/II study., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 928.

[178] Ozaki, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Kosuge, T.; Egawa, S. and Kishi, K. (1990): Effectiveness of multimodality treatment for resectable pancreatic cancer, Int J Pancreatol 7 (1-3): 195-200.

[179] Abrams, R. A.; Grochow, L. B.; Chakravarthy, A.; Sohn, T. A.; Zahurak, M. L.; Haulk, T. L.; Ord, S.; Hruban, R. H.; Lillemoe, K. D.; Pitt, H. A.; Cameron, J. L. and Yeo, C. J. (1999): Intensified adjuvant therapy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma: survival results and observations regarding patterns of failure, radiotherapy dose and CA19-9 levels, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 44 (5): 1039-46.

[180] Morganti, A. G.; Trodella, L.; Valentini, V.; Doglietto, G. B.; Ziccarelli, P.; Macchia, G.; Alfieri, S.; Smaniotto, D.; Luzi, S.; Brizi, M. G.; Fadda, G.; Fiorino, M.; Di Gesu, C. and Cellini, N. (1999): [Preoperative radiochemotherapy in pancreatic cancer: preliminary results], Tumori 85, pp.27-32.

[181] Picozzi, V. J.; Kozarek, R. E.; Rieke, J. W.; Boone-Hill, N. K.; Jacobs, A. D.; Rudolph, R. H. and Traverso, L. W. (1999): Adjuvant combined modality therapy for resected, high-risk adenocarcinoma of the pancreas using Cisplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Alpha-Interferon as radiosensitizing agents: A Phase-II-Study., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 999.

[182] Friedman, N. S.; Brenner, M. J.; Linder, J. A.; Bosley, J. A.; Burdick, J. A. and Didolkar, M. S. (1999): Adjuvant Radiation and Continuous 5-FU Followed by Gemcitabine as Adjuvant Treatment for Resected Pancreatic Cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 1089.

[183] Bakkevold, K. E.; Arnesjo, B.; Dahl, O. and Kambestad, B. (1993): Adjuvant combination chemotherapy (AMF) following radical resection of carcinoma of the pancreas and papilla of Vater--results of a controlled, prospective, randomised multicentre study, Eur J Cancer 29a (5): 698-703.

[184] Splinter, T. A.; Obertop, H.; Kok, T. C. and Jeekel, J. (1989): Adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of adenocarcinoma of the periampullary region and the head of the pancreas. A non-randomized pilot study, J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 115 (2): 200-2.

[185] Amano, H.; Takada, T.; Kato, H.; Matsushiro, T.; Nimura, Y.; Nagakawa, T.; Nakayama, T. and Gomi, K. (1999): Five-year results of a randomized Study of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for resected pancreatic-biliary carcinomas., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 1049.

[186] Beger, H. G.; Link, K. H. and Gansauge, F. (1998): Adjuvant regional chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer: results of a prospective study, Hepatogastroenterology 45 (21): 638-43.

[187] Ishikawa, O.; Ohigashi, H.; Imaoka, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Kameyama, M.; Nakamori, S.; Kabuto, T. and Furukawa, H. (1997): Regional chemotherapy to prevent hepatic metastasis after resection of pancreatic cancer, Hepatogastroenterology 44 (18): 1541-6.

[188] Beger, HG.; Gansauge, F.; Büchler, M. and Link, KH. (1999): Intraarterial adjuvant chemotherapy after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer: significant reduction of occurrence of liver metastasis., World J Surg 23 (9): 946-9.

[189] Gansauge, F.; Link, K. H.; Rilinger, N.; Kunz, R. and Beger, H. G. (1996): [Adjuvant regional chemotherapy in resected advanced pancreas carcinoma], Chirurg 67 (4): 362-5.

[190] Spitzer, W. O.; Dobson, A. J.; Hall, J.; Chesterman, E.; Levi, J.; Shepherd, R.; Battista, R. N. and Catchlove, B. R. (1981): Measuring the quality of life of cancer patients: a concise QL-index for use by physicians, J Chronic Dis 34 (12): 585-97.

[191] Neoptolemos, J. P.; Kerr, D. J.; Beger, H.; Link, K.; Pederzoli, P.; Bassi, C.; Dervenis, C.; Fernandez Cruz, L.; Lacaine, F.; Friess, H. and Buchler, M. (1997): ESPAC-1 trial progress report: the European randomized adjuvant study comparing radiochemotherapy, 6 months chemotherapy and combination therapy versus observation in pancreatic cancer, Digestion 58 (6): 570-7.

[192] Neoptolemos, J. P.; Dunn, J. A.; Moffitt, D. D.; Almond, J.; Beger, H.; Bassi, C.; Dervernis, C.; Fernandez-Cruz, L.; Lacaine, F.; Spooner, D.; Kerr, D. J. and Buchler, M. (2000): ESPAC-1 interim results: A European, randomised study to assess the roles of adjuvant chemotherapy (5-FU + Folinic Acid) and adjuvant chemoradiation (40 Gy + 5-FU) in resectable pancreatic cancer, ASCO, A 923.

[193] Link, K. H.; Formentini, A.; Leder, G.; Fortnagel, G.; Sartori, N.; Schatz, M. and Beger, H. G. (1998): Resection and radiochemotherapy of pancreatic cancer--the future?, Langenbecks Arch Surg 383 (2): 134-44.

[194] Yamanaka, Y.; Friess, H.; Kobrin, M. S.; Buchler, M.; Kunz, J.; Beger, H. G. and Korc, M. (1993): Overexpression of HER2/neu oncogene in human pancreatic carcinoma, Hum Pathol 24 (10): 1127-34.

[195] Apple, S. K.; Hecht, J. R.; Lewin, D. N.; Jahromi, S. A.; Grody, W. W. and Nieberg, R. K. (1999): Immunohistochemical evaluation of K-ras, p53, and HER-2/neu expression in hyperplastic, dysplastic, and carcinomatous lesions of the pancreas: evidence for multistep carcinogenesis, Hum Pathol 30 (2): 123-9.

[196] Manu, M.; Buckels, J. and Bramhall, S. (2000): Molecular technology and pancreatic cancer, Br J Surg 87 (7): 840-53.

[197] Jacobson, D. R. and Mills, N. E. (1994): A highly sensitive assay for mutant ras genes and its application to the study of presentation and relapse genotypes in acute leukemia, Oncogene 9 (2): 553-63.


[Seite 133↓]

[198] Thiede, C.; Bayerdorffer, E.; Blasczyk, R.; Wittig, B. and Neubauer, A. (1996): Simple and sensitive detection of mutations in the ras proto-oncogenes using PNA-mediated PCR clamping, Nucleic Acids Res 24 (5): 983-4.

[199] Behn, M.; Thiede, C.; Neubauer, A.; Pankow, W. and Schuermann, M. (2000): Facilitated detection of oncogene mutations from exfoliated tissue material by a PNA-mediated 'enriched PCR' protocol, J Pathol 190 (1): 69-75.

[200] Ratilainen, T.; Holmen, A.; Tuite, E.; Haaima, G.; Christensen, L.; Nielsen, P. E. and Norden, B. (1998): Hybridization of peptide nucleic acid, Biochemistry 37 (35): 12331-42.

[201] Ratilainen, T.; Holmen, A.; Tuite, E.; Nielsen, P. E. and Norden, B. (2000): Thermodynamics of sequence-specific binding of PNA to DNA, Biochemistry 39 (26): 7781-91.

[202] Sugimoto, N.; Satoh, N. and Yamamoto, K. (1999): Comparison of thermodynamic stabilities between PNA (peptide nucleic acid)/DNA hybrid duplexes and DNA/DNA duplexes, Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 42, pp.93-4.

[203] Lay, M. J. and Wittwer, C. T. (1997): Real-time fluorescence genotyping of factor V Leiden during rapid-cycle PCR, Clin Chem 43 (12): 2262-7.

[204] Rowell, C. A.; Kowalczyk, J. J.; Lewis, M. D. and Garcia, A. M. (1997): Direct demonstration of geranylgeranylation and farnesylation of Ki-Ras in vivo, J Biol Chem 272 (22): 14093-7.

[205] Berlin, J. D.; Adak, S.; Vaughn, D. J.; Flinker, D.; Blaszkowsky, L.; Harris, J. E. and Benson, I. (2000): A phase II study of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil in metastatic pancreatic cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study (E3296), Oncology 58 (3): 215-8.

[206] Heinemann, V.; Wilke, H.; Possinger, K.; Mergenthaler, K.; Clemens, M.; König, H.J.; Illiger, H.J.; Lackhoff, A.; Blatter, J.; Schallhorn, A. and Fink, U. (1997): Activity and tolerability of gemcitabine plus cisplatin in advanced metastatic pancreatic carcinoma, Proc. ESMO, A1240.

[207] Cascinu, S.; Gasparini, G.; Catalano, V. and al., et (1999): A Phase I - II Study of Gemcitabine and Docetaxel in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. A report from the Italian Group for the Study of Digestive Tract Cancer (GISCAD), Ann Oncol 10, pp.1377-9.

[208] Clark, J. W.; Ryan, D. P.; Kulki, M. H.; Grossbard, M. L.; Fuchs, C. S.; Grossman, S. R.; Morgan, JA.; Earle, C. C.; Shivdasani, R.; Grenon, N.; Berg, D. and Mayer, R. J. (2000): Phase II study of gemcitabine and docetaxel in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1238.

[209] Jacobs, A. D.; Otero, H.; Picozzi, V.; Aboulafia, D. and Weiden, P. L. (2000): A phase I/II study of gemcitabine (G) and Taxotere (T) in patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1032.

[210] Lück, A.; Ridwelski, K. and Lippert, H. (1998): Phase I study of a treatment with Gemcitabine and docetaxel weekly in advanced pancreatic cancer, ESMO-Meeting 1998 poster, A:249.

[211] Liebmann, J. E.; Cook, J. A.; Lipschultz, C.; Teague, D.; Fisher, J. and Mitchell, J. B. (1993): Cytotoxic studies of paclitaxel (Taxol) in human tumour cell lines, Br J Cancer 68 (6): 1104-9.

[212] De Greve, J.; Vergeylen, A.; Vandamme, B.; Egawa, N.; Vandewoude, K.; Schallier, D. and Kloppel, G. (1994): Preclinical activity of paclitaxel (Taxol) against human pancreatic cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 13, A 655.

[213] Hainsworth, J. D.; Burris, H. A., 3rd; Erland, J. B.; Thomas, M. and Greco, F. A. (1998): Phase I trial of docetaxel administered by weekly infusion in patients with advanced refractory cancer, J Clin Oncol 16 (6): 2164-8.

[214] Sikov, W.; Akerley, W.; Cummings, F.; Safran, H. and Strenger, R. (1997): High-dose weekly paclitaxel for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 669.

[215] Chang, A.; Hui, L.; Boros, L.; Asbury, R. and Rubins, J. (1997): Phase I study of one-hour paclitaxel treatment in advanced malignant diseases, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 817.

[216] Seidman, A. D.; Murphy, B.; Hudis, C.; McCaffrey, J.; Tong, W.; Currie, V.; Moynahan, M.; Theodoulou, M.; Tepler, I.; Gollup, M. and Norton, L. (1997): Activity of Taxol by weekly 1 hour infusion in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a phase II and pharmacology study., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 517.

[217] Breier, S.; Lebedinsky, C.; Pelayes, L.; Traine, G. and Roffe, C. (1997): Phase I/II weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m² in pretreated patients with breast and ovarian cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 568.

[218] Abu-Rustum, N. R.; Aghajanian, C.; Barakat, R. R. and Spriggs, D. (1997): salvage weekly paclitaxel (Taxol) for recurrent ovarian cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 1296.

[219] Perez, E. A.; Irwin, D. H.; Patel, R.; Vogel, C. L. and Kirshner, J. (1999): A large Phase II trial of Paclitaxel administered as a weekly one hour infusion in patients with metastatic breast cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 848.

[220] Loffler, T. M.; Freund, W.; Lipke, J. and Hausamen, T. U. (1996): Schedule- and dose-intensified paclitaxel as weekly 1-hour infusion in pretreated solid tumors: results of a phase I/II trial, Semin Oncol 23 (6): 32-4.

[221] Oettle, H.; Arnold, D.; Korsten, F. W.; Huhn, D. and Riess, H. (2000): Paclitaxel as weekly secondline therapy in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma, Anti-Cancer Drugs 11, pp.635-8.

[222] Abbruzzese, J. L.; Evans, D.; Gravel, D.; Markowitz, A.; Patt, Y.; Pazdur, R. and al., et (1995): Docetaxel, a potentially active agent for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 14, A 561.

[223] Androulakis, N.; Kourousis, C.; Dimopoulos, AM.; Samelis, G.; Kakolyris, S.; Tsavaris, N.; Genatas, K.; Aravantinos, G.; Papadimitrou, C.; Karabekios, S.; Stathopoulos, G. and Georgoulias, V. (1999): Treatment of pancreatic cancer with docetaxel and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: A multicenter phase II study., Journal of Clinical Oncology 17 (6): 1179-85.

[224] Brown, T. D.; Tangen, C.; Fleming, T. and Macdonald, J. (1993): A phase II trial of Taxol and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 12, A 592.

[225] Rougier, P.; de Forni, M.; Adenis, A.; Ducreux, M.; Djazouli, K.; Adams, D.; Bonneterre, J.; Clouet, P. and al., et (1994): Phase II study of Taxotere (RP56976) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC)., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 13, A 587.

[226] Ducreux, M.; Adenis, A.; Blanc, C.; Djazouli, K.; Estevez, G.; Clouet, P.; Baysass, M.; Bizarri, J. P.; Bonneterre, J.; Armand, J. P.; De Forni, M. and Rougier, P. (1994): Phase II study of docetaxel in pancreatic adenocarcinoma., Ann Oncol 5 (8], 82.

[227] Milross, C. G.; Mason, K. A.; Hunter, N. R.; Chung, W. K.; Peters, L. J. and Milas, L. (1996): Relationship of mitotic arrest and apoptosis to antitumor effect of paclitaxel, J Natl Cancer Inst 88 (18): 1308-14.

[228] Klauber, N.; Parangi, S.; Flynn, E.; Hamel, E. and D'Amato, R. J. (1997): Inhibition of angiogenesis and breast cancer in mice by the microtubule inhibitors 2-methoxyestradiol and taxol, Cancer Res 57 (1): 81-6.

[229] Gebbia, N. and Gebbia, V. (1996): Single agent paclitaxel in the treatment of unresectable and/or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Eur J Cancer 32a (10): 1822-3.

[230] Whitehead, R. P.; Jacobson, J.; Brown, T. D.; Taylor, S. A.; Weiss, G. R. and Macdonald, J. S. (1997): Phase II trial of paclitaxel and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with pancreatic carcinoma: a Southwest Oncology Group study, J Clin Oncol 15 (6): 2414-9.


[Seite 134↓]

[231] Preusser, P.; Niederle, N.; Harstrick, A.; Lersch, C.; Heider, A.; Berns, T.; Schwalb, M. and Achterrath, W. (1999): Phase II study of docetaxel as first line chemotherapy in metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1142.

[232] Rivkin, S.; Burris, H.; Gerstein, H.; Reynolds, R.; Staddon, A.; Lenaz, L.; Marinaro, J. A. and Sun, S.-L. (2000): A phase II study of Rubitecan in patients with refractory pancreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 1020.

[233] Von Hoff, D.; Cox, J. V.; Tempero, M. A.; Eder, J. P.; Eckhardt, S. G.; Rowinsky, E. K.; Smith, S. L.; Smith, C. L.; Proper, J. and MacDonald, J. R. (2000): Phase II trial of Irofulven (MGI 114) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who have progressed on Gemcitabine., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 1219.

[234] Sharma, J. J.; Razvillas, B.; Stephens, C. D.; Hilsenbeck, S. G.; Sharma, A. and Rothenberg, M. L. (1997): Phase II study of flutamide as second line chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, Invest New Drugs 15 (4): 361-4.

[235] Rothenberg, M. L.; Sharma, A.; Weiss, G. R.; Villalona Calero, M. A.; Eckardt, J. R.; Aylesworth, C.; Kraynak, M. A.; Rinaldi, D. A.; Rodriguez, G. I.; Burris, H. A., 3rd; Eckhardt, S. G.; Stephens, C. D.; Forral, K.; Nicol, S. J. and Von Hoff, D. D. (1998): Phase I trial of paclitaxel and gemcitabine administered every two weeks in patients with refractory solid tumors, Ann Oncol 9 (7): 733-8.

[236] Lück, A.; Ridwelski, K.; Kettner, E.; Florschütz, A.; Klein, U.; Eichelmann, K. and Lippert, H. (2000): Final results of a phase I study of weekly Gemcitabine and Docetaxel in pancreatic carcinoma and preliminary results of a phase II study, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, A 1256.

[237] Parkin, D. M.; Whelan, S. L.; Ferlay, L. and al., et (1997): Cancer Incidence in five Continents, IARC, Lyon.

[238] Alter, C. L. (1996): Palliative and supportive care of patients with pancreatic cancer, Semin Oncol 23 (2): 229-40.

[239] Howard, J. M. and Jordan, G. L., Jr. (1977): Cancer of the pancreas, Curr Probl Cancer 2 (3): 5-52.

[240] Evans, D. B.; Abbruzzese, J. L. and Rich, T. A. (1997): Cancer of the pancreas, DeVita, V. T.; Hellman, S. and Rosenberg, S. A., Eds, Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, Philadelphia: Lippincott.

[241] Glimelius, B. (1998): Chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer of the pancreas, J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 5 (3): 235-41.

[242] Andersen, J. R.; Friis Moller, A.; Hancke, S.; Roder, O.; Steen, J. and Baden, H. (1981): A controlled trial of combination chemotherapy with 5-FU and BCNU in pancreatic cancer, Scand J Gastroenterol 16 (8): 973-5.

[243] Frey, C.; Twomey, P.; Keehn, R.; Elliott, D. and Higgins, G. (1981): Randomized study of 5-FU and CCNU in pancreatic cancer: report of the Veterans Administration Surgical Adjuvant Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group, Cancer 47 (1): 27-31.

[244] Andren Sandberg, A.; Holmberg, J. T. and Ihse, I. (1983): Treatment of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma with 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, and CCNU, Scand J Gastroenterol 18 (5): 609-12.

[245] Okada, S. and Taguchi, T. (1998): Phase II trial of docetaxel (taxotere) as first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic cancer. A Japanese cooperativ study, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17, A 1019.

[246] Kouroussis, C.; Kakolyris, S.; Samelis, G. and al., et (1998): Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) with docetaxel (D): a multicenter phase II study, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17, A 1021.

[247] Scher, R. M.; Kosierowski, R.; Lusch, C.; Alexander, R.; Fox, S.; Redei, I.; Green, F.; Raskay, B.; Amfoh, K.; Engstrom, P. F. and O'Dwyer, P. J. (1996): Phase II trial of topotecan in advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, Invest New Drugs 13 (4): 347-54.

[248] Pazdur, R.; Meropol, N. J.; Casper, E. S.; Fuchs, C.; Douglass, H. O., Jr.; Vincent, M. and Abbruzzese, J. L. (1996): Phase II trial of ZD1694 (Tomudex) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, Invest New Drugs 13 (4): 355-8.

[249] Moore, M. J.; Feld, R.; Hedley, D.; Oza, A. and Siu, L. L. (1998): A phase II study of temozolomide in advanced untreated pancreatic cancer, Invest New Drugs 16 (1): 77-9.

[250] Oettle, H.; Arnold, D.; Hempel, C. and Riess, H. (2000): The role of gemcitabine alone and in combination in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, Anti-Cancer Drugs 11 (10): 771-86.

[251] Serke, S.; Riess, H.; Oettle, H. and Huhn, D. (1999): Elevated reticulocyte count--a clue to the diagnosis of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) associated with gemcitabine therapy for metastatic duodenal papillary carcinoma: a case report, Br J Cancer 79 (9-10): 1519-21.

[252] Anchisi, S.; Delaloye, B.; Petite, J. and al., et (2000): gemcitabine and continuous infusion 5-FU (Cif) is active and well tolerated in advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1280 H.

[253] Shulman, K. L.; Kindler, H. L. and Lad, T. E. (2000): Phase II study of gemcitabine (Cr) and continuous intravenous infusion (CIV) 5-fluorouracil (5-FI) 9n advanced pancratic cancer (PC). A Unversity of Chicago phase II consortium study, Clin Oncol 19, A 1126.

[254] Riedel, C.; Wein, A.; Wehler, M. and al., et (2000): High-dose fluorouracil (FU) 24-h-infusion with gemcitabine (GEM): Tolerable and efficient in pallative outpatient treatment of pancreatic cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1248.

[255] Pastorelli, D.; Pedrazzoli, S.; Sperti, C. and al., et (2000): Phase II trial with gemcitabine (GEM) + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in advanced pancreatic cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1110.

[256] Tarantani, P.; Corsi, D. C.; Cassano, A. and al., et (1999): Weekly gemcitabine (GEM) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in pancreatic carcinoma. Phase I-II study., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 582.

[257] Polyzos, A.; Tsavaris, N.; Kosmas, C. and al., et (2000): A phase II study of gemcitabine (GEM) plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) modulated by leucovorin (LV) for advanced pancreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1229.

[258] Mousseau, M.; Rebischung, C.; Garnier, C. and al., et (2000): Phase I/II study in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (APA) and carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP): a combination of leucovorin (LV), 5-FU bolus and infusion, gemcitabine (GEM) and oxaliplatine (L-OHP) (FOLFU GEMOX REGIMEN)., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 913.

[259] Jovtis, S.; Marantz, A.; Almira, E. and al., et (1999): Phase II trial of gemcitabine (GEM), 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (LV) in advanced pancreatic cancer (APC)., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 586.

[260] Castellano, D.; Paz-Ares, L.; Pronk, L. and al., et (2000): A phase I/II clinical and pharmacologic study of dose-escalating and dose-sequencing of administration of gemcitabine (G) and folinic acid (FA)/fluorouracil (FU) in advanced pancreatic cancer (APC)., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1133.

[261] Lencioni, M.; Falcone, A.; Masi, L. and al., et (2000): Phase I-II study of gemcitabine (GEM) in combination with 24 hours continuous infusion (CI) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and L-leucovorin (LV) in patients (pts) with advanced pancreatic carcinoma (APC)., Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1235.

[262] Hermann, R.; Borner, M.; Morant, R. and al., et (2000): Combining gemcitabine (GEM) and capecitabine (CAP) in advanced pancreatic cancer: Results of a phase I trial., Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1235.


[Seite 135↓]

[263] De Castro, J.; Lopez-Alvarez, M.; Rodriguez, A. and al., et (2000): Phase II trial of gemcitabine and UFT modulated by leucovorin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1040.

[264] Bergman, A. M.; Ruiz van Haperen, V. W.; Veerman, G.; Kuiper, C. M. and Peters, G. J. (1996): Synergistic interaction between cisplatin and gemcitabine in vitro, Clin Cancer Res 2 (3): 521-30.

[265] Klapdor, R.; Martini-Svendsen, J.; Seuttler, R. and al., et (1999): Combination therapy with oxaliplatin + gemcitabine in advanced pancreatic cancer., Eur J Cancer 35, A 536.

[266] Sporn, J. R.; Buzaid, A. C.; Slater, D.; Cohen, N. and Greenberg, B. R. (1997): Treatment of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma with 5-FU, leucovorin, interferon-alpha-2b, and cisplatin, Am J Clin Oncol 20 (1): 81-3.

[267] Rougier, P. (1995): Docetaxel delivers new management opportunities for gastrointestinal carcinomas, Anticancer Drugs 6 (4): 25-9.

[268] Lueck, A.; Ridwelski, K. and Lippert, H. (2000): Final results of a phase I study of weekly gemcitabine and docetaxel in pancreatic cancer and preliminary results of a phase II study., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1256.

[269] Androulakis, N.; Stathopoulos, G.; Tsavaris, N. and al., et (1999): First-line treatment with docetaxel (D) and gemcitabine (G) in patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer: A multicenter phase II study., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 521.

[270] Graziano, F.; Cascinu, S. and Georgoulias, V. (2000): Docetaxel chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer: Do results support certainly? Italian Group for the Study of Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, J Clin Oncol 18 (2): 445-6.

[271] Okada, S.; Sakata, Y.; Matsuno, S.; Kurihara, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Ohashi, Y. and Taguchi, T. (1999): Phase II study of docetaxel in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: a Japanese cooperative study. Cooperative Group of Docetaxel for Pancreatic Cancer in Japan, Br J Cancer 80 (3-4): 438-43.

[272] Klapdor, R.; Seutter, E.; Lang Polckow, E. M.; Reichle, H. and Hinrichs, A. (1999): Locoregional/systemic chemotherapy of locally advanced/metastasized pancreatic cancer with a combination of mitomycin-C and gemcitabine and simultaneous follow-up by imaging methods and tumor markers, Anticancer Res 19 (4a): 2459-69.

[273] Kath, R.; Hoffken, K.; Raida, M. and al., et (1998): Phase II trial of high dose continuous octreotide infusion (hdcoi) and gemcitabine (gm) in advanced pancreatic cancer (pc)., Ann Hematol 77 (2], A 548.

[274] Caillouette, C.; Hammond, L. A.; Razvillas, B. and al., et (1999): A phase I/II trial of SMS 201-995 pa LAR (SMS pa LAR) and gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1071.

[275] Tomao, S.; Ionta, M. T.; Romiti, A. and al., et (1998): Gemcitabine (GEM) and tamoxifen (TAX) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC). Impact on quality of life of an innovative association., Ann Oncol 9 (2], A 682.

[276] White, J. D.; Carmichael, J.; Woll, P. J. and al., et (1998): Phase I study of concurrent administration of marimastat and gemcitabine in nonresectable pancreatic cancer., Br J Cancer 79 (3], A P07.

[277] Carmichael, J.; Ledermann, J. D.; Woll, P. J. and al., et (1998): Phase I study of concurrent administration of marimastat and gemcitabine in non-resectable pandreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17, A 888.

[278] Herrmann, R.; Borner, M.; Morant, R. and al., et (2000): Combining gemcitabine (GEM) and capecitabine (CAP) in advanced pancreatic cancer. Results of a phase I trial., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1038.

[279] Cartwright, T. (2000): A phase II trial of capecitabine in advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1038.

[280] Stathopoulos, G.; Rigatos, G.; Dimopoulos, M. and al., et (2000): Front-line treatment of pancreatic carcinoma with gemcitabine in combination with irinotecan (CPT-11): Preliminary results of a multicentre phase II study., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1023.

[281] Rocha Lima, D.; Savarese, H.; Bruckner, A. and al., et (2000): Multicenter phase II trial of first-line irinotecan and gemcitabine (Iriongem) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC)., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1023.

[282] Oettle, H. and Riess, H. (2000): Are biliary tract and gallbladder carcinomas treatable with Irinotecan?, Onkologie 23 (4): 29-30.

[283] Villa, E. (1999): PEF-G (cisplatin, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion, gemcitabine): A new combination in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Phase II study, Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1055.

[284] Reni, M.; Ferreri, A. J. M.; Panucci, M. G. and al., et (1999): Significant improvement of response rate and survival with cisplatin, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine (PEF-G regimen) in metastatic pancreatic cancer., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 547.

[285] Childs, D. S.; Moertel, C. G.; Holbrook, M. A.; Reitemeier, R. J. and Colby, M. Y. (1965): Treatment of malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract with a combination of 5-fluorouracil and radiation, Radiology 84, pp.843-7.

[286] Group, Gastrointestinal Tumor Study (1988): Treatment of locally unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas: comparison of combined-modality therapy (chemotherapy plus radiotherapy) to chemotherapy alone., J Natl Cancer Inst 80 (10): 751-5.

[287] Luderhoff, E. C.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D. and Bakker, P. (1996): Pilot study in locally advanced unresectable pancreas carcinoma using a combination of accelerated radiotherapy and continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil, Radiother Oncol 40 (3): 241-3.

[288] Prott, F. J.; Schonekaes, K.; Preusser, P.; Ostkamp, K.; Wagner, W.; Micke, O.; Potter, R.; Sulkowski, U.; Rube, C.; Berns, T. and Willich, N. (1997): Combined modality treatment with accelerated radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced inoperable carcinoma of the pancreas: results of a feasibility study, Br J Cancer 75 (4): 597-601.

[289] Kornek, G. V.; Schratter Sehn, A.; Marczell, A.; Depisch, D.; Karner, J.; Krauss, G.; Haider, K.; Kwasny, W.; Locker, G. and Scheithauer, W. (2000): Treatment of unresectable, locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma with combined radiochemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and cisplatin, Br J Cancer 82 (1): 98-103.

[290] Shewach, D. S. and Lawrence, T. S. (1996): Radiosensitization of human solid tumor cell lines with gemcitabine, Semin Oncol 23 (5): 65-71.

[291] Fuchs, C. S.; Clark, J. W.; Berg, D. T. and al., et (1999): Phase I trial of concurrent gemcitabine (GEM) infusional 5-fluorouracil (FU) and radiation therapy (RT) in patients with localized unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1091.

[292] Wolff, R. A.; Evans, D. B. and Gravel, D. M. (1998): Phase I trial of gemcitabine combined with radiation for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17, A 1091.

[293] Epelbaum, R.; Rosenblatt, E.; Nasrallah, S. and al., et (2000): Phase II study of gemcitabine (GEM) combined with radiation therapy (RT) in patients with localized, unresectable pancreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1029.


[Seite 136↓]

[294] Maurer, U.; Segmeier, P.; Boitte, R. and al., et (1999): Gemcitabine (G) in combination radiationtherapy (RT) in stage III - IV pancreatic cancer: First results of a current Phase I study., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 544.

[295] Antonisse, I. E.; Van Groeningen, C. J.; Langendijk, J. A. and al., et (1999): A phase II study of hypofractionated radiotherapy in combination with gemcitabine in the palliative treatment of advanced pancreatic carcinoma., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 514.

[296] Reyes-Vidal, J. M.; Rodriguez, P. A.; Reyes, J. and al., et (2000): Chemoradiation therapy with gemcitabine (GEM) in advanced pancreatic cancer (APC)., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1183.

[297] Wilkowski, R.; Heinemann, V. and H., Rau (2000): Radiochemotherapy including gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil for treatment of laxally advanced pancreatic cancer., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1078.

[298] Brunner, T. B.; Grabenbauer, G. G.; Kasle, S. and al., et (1999): Pancreatic carcinoma: Simultaneous radiochemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin. A pilot study., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 564.

[299] Mazin Safar, A.; Sans Altamira, P.; Recht, A. and al., et (1999): Phase I trial of gemcitabine, cisplatin (CDDP) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for pancreatic cancer., Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 874.

[300] Brunner, T. B.; Grabenbauer, G. G.; Kasle, S. and al., et (1999): Locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma: Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-FU and mitomycin C., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 498.

[301] Osinsky, D. and al., et (1999): Intra-arterial chemotherapy (iaCT) combined with radiation (RT) for advanced pancreatic cancer., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 535.

[302] Picozzi, V. J.; Kozarek, R. E.; Rieke, J. W. and al., et (2000): Adjuvant combined modality therapy for resected high-risk adenocarcinoma of the pancreas using cisplatin (CDDP), 5-FU, and alpha-interferon (IFNgamma) as radiosensitising agents: Update of a phase II trial., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19, A 1034.

[303] Spagnuolo, P.; Roversi, R.; Rossi, G. and al., et (1999): Phase II study of gemcitabine as locoregional treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18, A 1153.

[304] Carrio, M.; Romagosa, A.; Mercade, E.; Mazo, A.; Nadal, M.; Gomez Foix, A. M. and Fillat, C. (1999): Enhanced pancreatic tumor regression by a combination of adenovirus and retrovirus-mediated delivery of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, Gene Ther 6 (4): 547-53.

[305] Mulvihill, S. J.; Warren, R. S.; Fell, S. and al, et (1998): A phase I trial of intratumoral injection of an E1B attenuated adenovirus, ONYX-015, into unresectable carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas., Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 21, A 815.

[306] Cascallo, M.; Calbo, J.; Carrio, M. and a., et (2000): Gemcitabine-Ad5CMVp53 combination treatment enhaces the regression of human pancreatic tumours., Proc Am Ass Cancer Res 41, A 5479.

[307] Nelson, N. J. (1998): Inhibitors of angiogenesis enter phase III testing, J Natl Cancer Inst 90 (13): 960-3.

[308] Bazin, I.; Garin, A.; Bulat, J. and al., et (1998): Preliminary results of gemzar + mitomycin in treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer., Ann Oncol 9 (2], A 681.

[309] Bazin, I.; Garin, A.; Bulat, J. and al., et (1999): Gemzar (GEM) + Mitomycin C (MMC) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC)., Eur J Cancer 35 (4], A 556.

[310] Berns, T.; Prott, F. J.; Preusser, K. and et, al (1997): Feasibility and phase II study of combined modality treatment with accelerated radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced inoperable carcinoma of the pancreas, Eur J Cancer 33, A 1251.


© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am:
13.01.2005