[Seite 123↓]


1. Achiron A, Barak Y, Miron S, Sarova-Pinhas I. Immunoglobulin treatment in refractory myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve 2000; 23: 551-555

2. Acuff TE, Mack MJ, Ryan WH, Bowman RT, Douthit MB. Thoracoscopic thymoma resection. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 55: 562-563

3. Adler E. Das Thymus - Myasthenie - Problem aus der Sicht des Chirurgen. Münch Med Wochenschr 1965; 107: 990

4. Adler H. Thymus und Myasthenie. Arch Klin Chir 1937; 189: 529-532

5. Akamine S, Takahashi T, Oka T, Kishimoto K, Ayabe H. Thymic cystectomy through subxyphoid by video-assisted thoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 68: 2339-2341

6. Alpert LI, Papatestas AE, Kark AE. A histological reappraisal of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. A correlative study of thymic pathology and response to thymectomy. Arch Pathol 1971; 91: 55-61

7. Altman DG. Clinical trials. In Practical statistics for medical research, 440-476. London: Chapman & Hall 1991

8. Arsura EL, Bick A, Brunner NG, Namba T, Grob D. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in the management of myasthenia gravis. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146: 1365-1368

9. Ashour M. Prevalence of ectopic thymic tissue in myasthenia gravis and its clinical significance. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995; 109: 632-635

10. Baigrie RJ, Lamont PM, Kwiatkowski D, Dallman MJ, Morris PJ. Systemic cytokine response after major surgery. Br J Surg 1992; 79: 757-760

11. Ball C, Sackett D, Phillips B, Haynes B, Straus S. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendations. http://minerva.minervation.com/cebm/. 1999.

12. Bannister LH. Thymus. In Williams PL Gray's Anatomy, 1423-1431. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston 1995

13. Barohn RJ, McIntire D, Herbelin L. Reliability testing of the quantitative myasthenia gravis score. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998; 841: 769-772

14. Bedard P, Keon WJ, Brais MP, Goldstein W. Submammary skin incision as a cosmetic approach to median sternotomy. Ann Thorac Surg 1986; 41: 339-341

15. Beekman R, Kuks JBM, Oosterhuis HJGH. Myasthenia gravis: diagnosis and follow-up of 100 consecutive patients. J Neurol 1997; 224: 112-118

16. Bellows CF, Hartz RS, Cullinane C, Pigott JD. Cosmetic approach to anterior mediastinal masses. Ann Thorac Surg 2002; 74: 1724-1726

17. Bertram P. Chirurgische Therapie bei MG und Thymom. Chirurg 1993; 801

18. Biffle WL, Moore EE, Peterson VM. Interleukin-6 in the injured patient: marker of injury or mediator of inflammation. Ann Surg 1996; 224: 647-664

19. Bimstone DN, McGee JP, Liptay MJ, Fry WA. Continuous paravertebral extrapleural infusion for post-thoracotomy pain management. Surgery 1999; 126: 650-657

20. Birkmeyer JD, Siewers AE, Finlayson EVA, Stukel TA, Lucas FL, Batista I, Welch HG, Wennberg DE. Hospital volume and surgical mortality in the United States. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 1128-1137

21. Blalock A. Thymectomy in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. Report of20 cases. J Thorac Surg 1944; 316-339

22. Blalock A, Mason MF, Morgan HJ, Riven SS. Myasthenia gravis and tumors of the thymic region. Report of a case in

[Seite 124↓]

which the tumor was removed. Ann Surg 1939; 110: 554-559

23. Blalock A, McGehee AH, Ford FR. The treatment of myasthenia gravis by removal of the thymus. JAMA 1941; 18: 1529-1533

24. Brutel de la Riviere A, Brom GHM, Brom AG. Horizontal submammary skin incision for median sternotomy. Ann Thorac Surg 1981; 32: 101-104

25. Buckingham JM, Howard FM, Bernatz PE. The value of thymectomy in MG: a computer-assisted matched pair study. Ann Surg 1976; 184: 453-458

26. Budde JM, Morris CD, Gal AA, Mansour KA, Miller J. Predictors of outcome in thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 72: 197-202

27. Bulkley GB, Bass KN, Stephenson GR, Diener-West M, George S, Reilly PA, Baker RR, Drachman DB. Extended cervicomediastinal thymectomy in the integrated management of myasthenia gravis. Ann Surg 1997; 226: 324-334

28. Busch, Machens, Pichlmeier, Emskötter, Izbicki. Long-term outcome and quality of live after thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Surg 1996; 224: 225-232

29. Bussel A, Sitthy X, Reviron J. Technical aspects and complications of plasma-exchange. La Ricerca Clin Lab 1983; 13: 111-132

30. Byrne E. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis: place of thymectomy and preferred technique. Intern Med J 2002; 32: 365-366

31. Calhoun RF, Ritter JH, Guthrie TJ, Pestronk A, Meyers BF, Patterson GA, Pohl MS, Cooper JD. Results of transcervical thymectomy for myasthenia gravis in 100 consecutive patients. Ann Surg 1999; 230: 555-559

32. Carrieri PB, Marano E, Perretti A, Caruso G. The thymus and myasthenia gravis: immunological and neurophysiological aspects. Ann Med 1999; 31: 52-56

33. Castleman B, Norris EH. The pathology of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Medicine 1949; 28: 27-58

34. Chen H, Doty JR, Schlossberg L, Bulkley GB. Technique of thymectomy by anterior-superior cervicomediastinal exenteration. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 195: 895-900

35. Chin ML. Organization of an acute pain service. In Ashburn MA and Rice LJ The Management of Pain, 537-556. New York: Churchill Livingstone 1998

36. Christensen PB, Jensen TS, Tsiropoulos I, Sorensen T, Kjaer M, Hojer-Pedersen E, Rasmussen MJK, Lehfeldt E. Mortality and survival in myasthenia gravis: a Danish population based study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1998; 64: 78-83

37. Cinat M, Waxman K, Vaziri ND, Daughters K, Yousefi S, Scannell G, Tominaga GT. Soluble cytokine receptors and receptor antagonists are sequentially released after trauma. J Trauma 1995; 39: 112-118

38. Clagett OT, Eaton LM. Surgical treatment of myasthenia gravis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1947; 16: 62-80

39. Consensus Development Conference, National Institute of Health. The utility of therapeutic plasmapheresis for neurological disorders. JAMA 1986; 256: 1333-1337

40. Cooper A. The Anatomy of the Thymus gland. London, Longman rees Orme Green & Brown 1832; 44-47

41. Cooper JD, Al-Jilaihawa AN, Pearson FG, Humphrey JG, Humphrey HE. An improved technique to facilitate transcervical thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 1988; 45: 242-247

42. Coosemans W, Lerut TE, Van Raemdonck DE. Thoracoscopic surgery:

[Seite 125↓]

the Belgian experience. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 56: 721-730

43. Crile G. Thymectomy through the neck. Surgery 1966; 59: S 213

44. Dadmanesh F, Sekihara T, Rosai J. Histologic typing of thymoma according to the new World Health Organization classification. Chest Surg Clin N Am 2001; 11: 407-420

45. Dapper F, Nestle HW, Scheld HH, Hehrlein FW. Thymus surgery in myasthenia gravis. Helv Chir Acta 1988; 55: 455-458

46. Dau PC, Lindstrom JM, Cassel JK. Plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive drug therapy in myasthenia gravis. N Engl J Med 1977; 297: 1134-1140

47. De Perrot M, Liu J, Bril V, McRae K, Bezjak A, Keshavjee SH. Prognostic significance of thymomas in patients with myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 2002; 74: 1658-1662

48. Deeb ME, Brinster CJ, Kucharzuk J, Shrager JB, Kaiser LR. Expanded indications for transcervical thymectomy in the management of anterior mediastinal masses. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 72: 208-211

49. DeFillipi VJ. Transcervical thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 1994; 57: 194-197

50. Devathasan G, Kueh YK, Chong PN. High-dose intravenous gamma globulin for myasthenia gravis. Lancet 1981; II: 809-810

51. DiGeorge AM. Discussion. In: Cooper MD, Peterson RDA, Good RA. A new concept of the cellular basis of immunity. J Pediatr 1965; 67: 907-908

52. Dixon JR. The international conference on harmonization good clinical practice guideline. Qual Assur 1998; 6: 65-74

53. Djelmis J, Sostarko M, Mayer D, Ivanisevic M. Myasthenia gravis in pregnancy: report on 69 cases. Euro J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002; 104: 21-25

54. Donaldson DH. The relationship of age to outcome in myasthenia gravis. Neurology 1990; 40: 786-790

55. Drachman DB. Myasthenia gravis. N Engl J Med 1994; 330 (25): 1797-1810

56. Drobni S. Thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Chirurg 1968; 39: 287-296

57. Durelli L, Maggi G, Casadio C, Ferri R, Ferrero B, Poccardi G, Dutto A, Bergamini L. Searching for prognostic factors at the time of thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Correlation between outcome after long-term follow-up and immunophenotype of thymic and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 681: 556-560

58. Eaton LM, Clagett OT. Thymectomy in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. J Amer Med Ass 1950; 142: 963-967

59. Eaton LM, Clagett OT. Present status of thymectomy in treatment of myasthenia gravis. Am J Med 1955; 19: 703-717

60. Egerer K, Kuckelkorn U, Rudolph PE, Rückert JC, Dorner T, Burmester GR, Kloetzel PM, Feist E. Circulating proteasomes are markers of cell damage and immunologic activity in autoimmune disease. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 2045-2052

61. Evoli A, Batocchi AP, Bartoccioni E, Lino MM, Minisci C, Tonali P. Juvenile myasthenia gravis with prepubertal onset. Neuromuscul Disord 1998; 8: 561-567

62. Evoli A, Batocchi AP, Lino MM, Tonali P. Thymectomy for early-onset myasthenia gravis: a case-control study. Abstract. Neurology 1996; 46: A270

63. Fateh-Moghadam A, Wick M, Besinger U, Guerson RG. High-dose intravenous gamma globulin for myasthenia gravis. Lancet 1984; I: 848-849

64. Feist E, Dörner T, Kuckelkorn U, Scheffler S, Burmester GR, Kloetzel

[Seite 126↓]

PM. Diagnostic importance of anti-proteasome antibodies. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000; 123: 92-97

65. Ferguson MK. Transcervical thymectomy. Techn Mediast Surg 1996; 6: 105-115

66. Ferguson MK. Transcervical thymectomy. Sem Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 11: 59-64

67. Fischer JE, Grinvalski HT, Nussbaum MS, Sayers HJ, Cole RE, Samaha FJ. Aggressive surgical approach for drug-free remission from myasthenia gravis. Ann Surg 1987; 205: 496-503

68. Fleischer E. Myasthenia gravis und verwandte neuromuskuläre Erkrankungen. Sandorama 1996; 4: 12-22

69. Förster R, Heinecke A, Leschber G, Linder A, Kästel M, Stamatis G. Das Dilemma des Vergleichs von Thorakoskopie und Thorakotomie und seine Bedeutung für die Qualitätssicherung in der Thoraxchirurgie. Zentralbl Chir 1999; 124: 120-127

70. Förster R, Storck M, Schäfer JR, Hönig E, Lang G, Liewald F. Thoracoscopy versus thoracotomy: a prospective comparison of trauma and quality of life. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 2002; 387: 32-36

71. Friedleben A. Die Physiologie der Thymusdrüse in Gesundheit und Krankheit, vom Standpunkt experimenteller Forschung und klinischer Erfahrung. Literarische Anstalt, Frankfurt 1858;

72. Frist WH, Thirumalai S, Doehring CB, Merrill WH, Stewart JR, Fenichel GM, Bender Jr HW. Thymectomy for the myasthenia gravis patient: factors influencing outcome. Ann Thorac Surg 1994; 57: 334-338

73. Gajdos PH, Outlin H, Elkharrat D, Brune LD, de Rohan-Chabot P, Raphael JC, Goulon M, Goupon-Goram C, Morel E. High-dose intravenous gamma globulin for myasthenia gravis. Lancet 1984; I: 406-407

74. Galen. The usefulness of parts of the body. In May MT(ed): Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press 1968; 283-286

75. Gebhardt FTH, Becker HP, Gerngross H, Brückner UB. Reduced inflammatory response in minimal invasive surgery of pneumothorax. Arch Surg 1996; 131: 1079-1082

76. Gellert K. Die thorakoskopische Thymektomie. Akt Neurologie 1998; 25: S70-S72

77. Gerli R, Paganelli R, Cossarizza A, Muscat C, Piccolo G, Barbieri D, Mariotti S, Monti D, Bistoni O, Rasiola E, Venanzi FM, Bertotto A, Franceschi C. Long-term immunologic effects of thymectomy ín patients with myasthenia gravis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103: 865-872

78. Glaser F, Sannwald GA, Buhr HJ, Kuntz C, Mayer H, Klee F, Herfarth C. General stress response to conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ann Surg 1995; 221: 372-380

79. Goti P, Spinelli A, Marconi G. Comparative effects of plasma exchange and pyridostigmine on respiratory muscle strength and breathing pattern in patients with myasthenia gravis. Thorax 1995; 50: 1080-1086

80. Granone P, Margaritora S, Cesario A, Galetta D. Thymectomy in myasthenia gravis via video-assisted infra-mammary cosmetic incision. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1999; 15: 861-863

81. Gronseth GS, Barohn RJ. Practice parameter: thymectomy for autoimmune myasthenia gravis (an evidence-based review). Neurology 2000; 55: 7-15

82. Gronseth GS, Barohn RJ. Thymectomy for Myasthenia Gravis. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2002; 4: 203-209

83. Gross M. Innovations in surgery. J Bone Joint Surg 1993; 75: 351-354

[Seite 127↓]

84. Gupta A, Watson DI. Effect of laparoscopy on immune function. Br J Surg 2001; 88: 1296-1306

85. Guth S, Nix HWA, Mayer E, Schmiedt W, Kramm T, Moersig W, Oelert H. Die Thymektomie bei Myasthenia gravis. Zentralbl Chir 1997; 122: 655-660

86. Halevy A, Lin G, Gold-Deutsch R, Lavi R, Negri M, Evans S. Comparison of serum C-reactive protein concentrations for laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 1995; 9: 280-282

87. Hammar JA. Die Menschenthymus in Gesundheit und Krankheit. Ergebnisse der numerischen Analyse von mehr als tausend menschlichen Thymusdrüsen. Teil I: Das normale Organ. Zugleich eine kritische Beleuchtung der Lehre des "Status thymicus". Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch 1926; 6 [Suppl]: 11-73, 459-489, 502

88. Harvey AM. Some preliminary observations on the clinical course of myasthenia gravis before and after thymectomy. Bull NY Acad Med 1948; 24: 505-522

89. Hatton PD. Transsternal radical thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: a 15-years review. Ann Thorac Surg 1989; 47: 838-840

90. Henson RA, Stern GM, Thompson VC. Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Brain 1965; 88: 11-28

91. Henze A, Biberfeld P, Christensson B, Matell G, Pirskanen R. Failing transcervical thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1984; 18: 235-238

92. Hertel G, Mertens HG, and Reuther P. The treament of myasthenia gravis with azathioprine. In Dau PC Plasmapheresis and the immunobiology of myasthenia gravis, 315-328. 1978

93. Hewitt PM, Ip SM, Kwok SPY, Somers SS, Li K, Leung KL, Li AKC. Laparoscopic-assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. Comparative study of immune effects. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41: 901-909

94. Hirokawa K, McClure JE, Goldstein AL. Age-related changes in localization of thymosin in the human thymus. Thymus 1982; 4: 19-29

95. Hirokawa K, Sato K, Makinodan T. Influences of age of thymic grafts on the differentiation of T cells in nude mice. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1982; 24: 251-262

96. Hokkanen E, Toivakka E. Electroencephalographic findings in myasthenia gravis. 180 EEG recordings of 109 patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1969; 45: 556-567

97. Hsu CP. Subxiphoid approach for thoracoscopic thymectomy. Surg Endosc 2002; 16: 1105

98. Huber J, Cholnoky P, Zoethout HE. Congenital aplasia of parathyroid glands and thymus. Arch Dis Child 1967; 42: 190-192

99. Husain F, Ryan NJ, Hogan GR, Gonzalez E. Occurence of invasive thymoma after thymectomy for myasthenia gravis - report of a case. Neurology 1990; 40: 170-171

100. Hutter J, Junger W, Miller K, Moritz E. Subxiphoidal videomediastinoscopy for diagnostic access to the anterior mediastinum. Ann Thorac Surg 1998; 66: 1427-1428

101. Inderbitzi R. Die transsternale Thymektomie bei der MG. Chirurg 1991; 62: 474-478

102. Ip MS, So SY, Lam WK. Respiratory problems in myasthenia gravis. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1985; 14: 442-445

103. Jacobeus HC. The practical importance of thoracoscopy in surgery of the chest. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1922; 34: 289-296

104. Jaretzki A III. Injury in the phrenic and recurrent nerves needs to be avoided in the performance of thymectomy for

[Seite 128↓]

myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 2002; 74: 632-635

105. Jaretzki III A. Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: analysis of the controversies regarding technique and results. Neurology 1997; 48: S52-S63

106. Jaretzki III A, Barohn RJ, Ernstoff RM, Kaminski HJ, Keesey J, Penn AS, Sanders DB, MGFA. Myasthenia gravis: recommendations for clinical research standards. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70: 327-334

107. Jaretzki III A, Barohn RJ, King Engel W, Ernstoff RM, Kaminski HJ, Penn AS, Sanders DB. Thymectomy Task Force Formed by the Medical Advisory Board of the Myastenia Gravis Foundation of America. Ann Thorac Surg 1997; 64: 1852-1854

108. Jaretzki III A, Kaminski HJ, Phillips LH, Sanders DB. Problems in the evaluation of thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 2002; 73: 1027-1028

109. Jaretzki III A, Penn AS, Younger DS, Wolff M, Olarte MR, Lovelace RE, Rowland LP. "Maximal" thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. results. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1988; 95: 747-757

110. Jaretzki III A, Wolf M. "Maximal" thymectomy for MG. Surgical anatomy and operative technique. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1988; 96: 711-716

111. Jobin N, Garrel D, Bernier J. Increased serum-soluble interleukin-2 receptor in burn patients:characterization and effects on the immune system. Hum Immunol 2000; 61: 233-246

112. Jonas J, Kaissling G, Druschky KF, Bähr R. Die transsternale Thymektomie: Operationsindikation und perioperatives Management. Zentralbl Chir 2000; 125: 671-677

113. Kaiser D, Oerter R. Erweiterte transsternale Thymektomie bei Myasthenie. Akt Neurologie 1998; 25: S68-S69

114. Kalso E, Mennander S, Tasmuth T, Nilsson E. Chronic post-sternotomy pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2001; 45: 935-939

115. Kao I, Drachman DB. Thymic muscle cells bear acetylcholin receptors: possible relation to myasthenia gravis. Science 1977; 195: 74-75

116. Kao MC. Video endoscopic sympathectomy using a fiberoptic CO2 laser to treat palmar hyperhidrosis. Neurosurgery 1996; 30: 131-135

117. Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observation. J Am Stat Assoc 1958; 53: 457-481

118. Kark AE, Kirschner PA. Total thymectomy by the transcervical approach. Br J Surg 1971; 58: 321-326

119. Kark AE, Papatestas AE. Some anatomic features of the transcervical approach for thymectomy. Mt Sinai J Med 1971; 38: 580-585

120. Kas J, Kiss D, Simon V, Svastics E, Major L, Szobor A. Decade-long experience with surgical therapy of myasthenia gravis: early complications of 324 transsternal thymectomies. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 72: 1691-1697

121. Kaseda S, Aoki T, Hangai N, Shimizu K. Better pulmonary function and prognosis with video-assisted surgery than with thoracotomy. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70: 1644-1646

122. Kavanagh BP, Katz J, Sandler AN. Pain control after thoracic surgery. Anesthesiology 1994; 81: 737-759

123. Kay RLC. Response to thymectomy in Chinese patients with myasthenia gravis. J Neurol Sci 1994; 126: 84-87

124. Keesey J. Contemporary opinions about Mary Walker. Neurology 1998; 51: 1433-1439

125. Kendall MD, Johnson HRM, Singh J. The weight of the human thymus gland at necropsy. J Anat 1980; 131: 485-497

[Seite 129↓]

126. Keynes G. The surgery of the thymus gland. Br J Surg 1946; 33: 201-214

127. Keynes G. The results of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Br Med J 1949; 2: 611-616

128. Keynes G. Surgery of the thymus gland. The Lancet 1954; 12: 1197-1202

129. Keynes G. History of myasthenia gravis. Med Hist 1961; 5: 213-226

130. Kido T, Utsumi T, Fukui S, Hamanaka Y, Nakahara M. Hand-assisted thoracoscopic resection for anterior mediastinal masses. Surg Endosc 2001; 15: 1228

131. Kirby TJ, Mack MJ, Landreneau RJ, Rice TW. Lobectomy: video-assisted thoracic surgery versus muscle-sparing thoracotomy: a randomized trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995; 109: 997-1002

132. Kirchner T. Thymuspathologie. Akt Neurologie 1998; 25: S63-S65

133. Kirchner T, Schalke B, Melms A, von Kügelen T, Müller-Hermelink HK. Immunhistological patterns of non-neoplastic changes in the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Virchows Arch 1986; 52: 237-257

134. Kirsch JR, Diringer MN, Borel CO, Hanley DF, Merritt WT, Bulkley GB. Preoperative lumbar epidural morphine improves postoperative analgesia and ventilatory function after transsternal thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis. Crit Care Med 1991; 19: 1474-1479

135. Kirschner PA. Alfred Blalock and thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 1987; 43: 348-349

136. Kirschner PA. Reoperation for thymoma: report of 23 cases. Ann Thorac Surg 1990; 49: 550-555

137. Kirschner PA. Myasthenia gravis and other parathymic syndroms. Chest Surg Clin N Am 1992; 2: 183-201

138. Kirschner PA. The history of surgery of the thymus gland. Chest Surg Clin N Am 2000; 10: 153-165

139. Kishimoto T. The biology of Interleukin-6. Blood 1989; 74: 1-10

140. Klein M, Granetzny A, Dauben HP, Schulte HD, Gams E. Early and late results after thymectomy in myasthenia gravis: a retrospective analysis. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 47: 170-173

141. Kodama H, Yoshida I, Iijima T, Ishikawa S, Ohtaki A, Ohtani Y, Ichikawa H, Takahashi T, Aizaki M, Morishita Y. Effect of extended thymectomy in myasthenia gravis of pure ocular type. Kyobu Geka 1993; 46: 1017-1020

142. Köhler W, Bucka C, Hertel G. Immunadsorption bei Myasthenia gravis. Akt Neurologie 1998; 25: S57-S61

143. Köhler W, Bucka C, Sokolowski P, Blattner R, Hertel G. Azathioprin und andere Immunsuppressiva bei Myasthenia gravis. Akt Neurologie 1998; 25: S48-S51

144. Kornfeld P, Merav A, Fox S, Maier K. How reliable are imaging procedures in detecting residual thymus after previous thymectomy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 681: 575-576

145. Krucylak PE, Naunheim KS. Preoperative preparation and anesthetic management of patients with myasthenia gravis. Sem Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 11: 47-53

146. Kuks JBM, Djojoatmodjo S, Oosterhuis HJGH. Azathioprine in myasthenia gravis: observations in 41 patients and a review of literature. Neuromuscul Disord 1991; 1: 423-431

147. Kurtzke JF and Kurland LT. The epidemiology of neurologic disease. In Joynt RJ Clinical neurology, 80-88. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott 1992

148. Landreneau RJ. Persönliche Mitteilung. 2002.

[Seite 130↓]

149. Landreneau RJ, Dowling RD, Castillo W, Ferson PF. Thoracoscopic resection of an anterior mediastinal tumor. Ann Thorac Surg 1992; 54: 142-144

150. Landreneau RJ, Hazelrigg SR, Mack MJ, Dowling RD, Burke D, Gavlick J, Perrino MK, Ritter PS, Bowers CM, DeFino J, Nunchuck SK, Freeman J, Keenan RJ, Ferson PF. Postoperative pain-related morbidity: video-assisted thoracic surgery versus thoracotomy. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 56: 1285-1289

151. Landreneau RJ, Mack MJ, Hazelrigg SR, Naunheim K, Dowling RD, Ritter P, Magee MJ, Nunchuck SK, Keenan RJ, Ferson PF. Prevalence of chronic pain after pulmonary resection by thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1994; 107: 1079-1085

152. Le Brigand H, Levasseur P, Miranda AR, Gaud C, Wojakowski I. Resultats du traitement chirurgical de la myasthenie. Semin Hop Paris 1980; 56: 1502-1505

153. Leger R, Ohlmer A, Scheiderer U, Dohrmann P, Böhle A, Wulf H. Schmerztherapie nach thorakoskopischen Eingriffen. Chirurg 1999; 70: 682-689

154. Lennquist S, Andaker L, Lindvall B, Smeds S. Combined cervicothoracic approach in thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Acta Chir Scand 1990; 156: 53-61

155. Leung KL, Lai PBS, Ho RLK, Meng WSC, Yiu RYC, Lee JFY, Lau WY. Systemic cytokine response after laparoscopic-assisted resection of rectosigmoid carcinoma. Ann Surg 2000; 231: 506-511

156. Levasseur P. Thymectomy for MG: long-term results in 74 cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1972; 64: 1-5

157. Lewis RJ. The role of video-assisted thoracic surgery for carcinoma of the lung: wedge resection to lobectomy by simultaneous individual stapling. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 56: 762-768

158. Lin CC. A new method of thoracoscopic sympathectomy in hyperhidrosis palmaris. Surg Endosc 1990; 4: 224-226

159. Lin E, Calvano SE, Lowry SF. Inflammatory cytokines and cell response in surgery. Surgery 2000; 127: 117-126

160. Liu HP, Chang CH, Lin PJ, Hsieh HC, Chang JP, Hsieh MJ. Thoracoscopic management of effusive pericardial disease: indications and technique. Ann Thorac Surg 1994; 58: 1695-1697

161. Liu W, Tong T, Ji Z, Zhang Z. Long-term prognostic analysis of thymectomized patients with myasthenia gravis. Chin Med J (Engl) 2002; 115: 235-237

162. LoCicero III J. The combined cervical and partial sternotomy approach for thymectomy. Techn Mediast Surg 1996; 6: 85-93

163. Loscertales J, Jimenez Merchan R, Arenas Linares CJ, Garcia Diaz F, Giron Arjona JC, Congregado Loscertales M, Martinez Parra C, Izquierdo Ayuso G. The treatment of myasthenia gravis by video-thoracoscopic thymectomy. The technique and the initial results. Arch Bronconeumol 1999; 35: 9-14

164. Machens, Busch, Emskötter, Izbicki. Morbidity after transsternal thymectomy for mysthenia gravis: a changing perspective? Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 46: 37-40

165. Mack MJ. Reply to the letter:Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy: from the right or the left? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 114: 517

166. Mack MJ. Video-assisted thoracic surgery: has technology found its place? Ann Thorac Surg 1997; 64: 211-215

167. Mack MJ. Video-assisted thoracoscopy thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Chest Surg Clin N Am 2001; 11: 389-405

168. Mack MJ, Landreneau RJ, Yim APC, Hazelrigg SR, Scruggs GR. Results of

[Seite 131↓]

video-assisted thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 112: 1352-1359

169. Maggi G, Casadio CA, Cianci R, Molinatti M, Ruffini E. Thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Results of 662 cases operated upon in 15 years. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1989; 3: 504-509

170. Mantegazza R, Confalonieri P, Antozzi C, Novellino L, Ferro MT, Porta M, Pezzuoli G, Cornelio F. Video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy (VATET) in myasthenia gravis. Two-year follow-up in 101 patients and comparison with the transsternal approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998; 841: 749-752

171. Marino M, Müller-Hermelink HK. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Relation of thymoma epithelial cells to the cortical and medullary differentiation of thymus. Virchows Arch 1985; 407: 119-149

172. Markert ML, Boeck A, Hale LP, Kloster AL, McLaughlin TM, Batchvarova MB, Douek DC, Koup RA, Kostyu DD, Ward FE, Rice HE, Mahaffey SM. Transplantation of thymus tissue in complete DiGeorge Syndrome. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1180-1189

173. Marx A. Immunpathologie der Myasthenia gravis. Z Herz Thorax Gefäßchir 1998; 12: 245-249

174. Marx A, Wilisch A, Schultz A, Gattenlöhner S, Nenninger R, Müller-Hermelink HK. Pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Virchows Arch 1997; 430: 355-364

175. Masaoka A. Reoperation after transcervical thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Neurology 1982; 32: 83-85

176. Masaoka A, Monden Y. Comparison of the results of transsternal simple, transcervical simple, and extended thymectomy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1981; 377: 755-765

177. Masaoka A, Monden Y, Nakahara K, Tanioka T. Follow-up study of thymomas with special reference to their clinical stages. Cancer 1981; 48: 2485-2492

178. Masaoka A, Nagaoka Y, Kotake Y. Distribution of thymic tissue at the anterior mediastinum. Current procedures in thymectomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1975; 70: 747-754

179. Masaoka A, Yamakawa Y, Niwa H, Fukai I, Kondo S, Kobayashi M, Fujii Y, Monden Y. Extended thymectomy for myasthenia gravis patients: 20-year review. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 62: 853-859

180. Matell G. Follow-up comparison of suprasternal versus transsternal method for thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1981; 377: 844-845

181. Meisner M, Rauschmayer C, Schmidt J, Feyrer R, Cesnjevar R, Bredle D, Tschaikowsky K. Early increase of procalcitonin after cardiovascular surgery in patients with postoperative complications. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 1094-1102

182. Mertens HG, Balzereit M, Leipert M. The treatment of severe myasthenia gravis with immunosuppressive agents. Eur Neurol 1969; 2: 321-339

183. Mertens HG, Hertel G. Immunosuppressive Behandlung der Myasthenie. Med Welt 1973; 24: 955-963

184. Metcalf D. The effect of thymectomy on the lymphoid tissues of the mouse. Br J Haematol 1960; 6: 324-333

185. Miller J, Mansour KA, Hatcher CR. Median T sternotomy incision for thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 1981; 34: 473-474

186. Miller JFAP. Immunological function of the thymus. Lancet 1961; 2: 748-749

187. Miller RG, Filler-Katz A, Kiprov D, Roan R. Repeat thymectomy in chronic

[Seite 132↓]

refractory myasthenia gravis. Neurology 1991; 41: 923-924

188. Milton H. Mediastinal surgery. The Lancet 1897; 2: 872-875

189. Mimoz O, Benoist JF, Edouard AR, Assicot M, Bohuon C, Samrii K. Procalcitonin and c-reactive protein during the early posttraumatic systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Intensive Care Med 1998; 24: 185-188

190. Mineo TC, Pompeo E, Ambrogi V. To the editor: Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy: from the right or from the left? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 114: 516-517

191. Mineo TC, Pompeo E, Ambrogi V, Sabato AF, Bernardi G, Casciani CU. Adjuvant pneumomediastinum in thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 62: 1210-1212

192. Mineo TC, Pompeo E, Lerut TE, Bernardi G, Coosemans W, Nofroni I. Thoracoscopic thymectomy in autoimmune myasthesia: results of left-sided approach. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 69: 1537-1541

193. Monden Y, Nakahara K, Fujii Y, Hashimoto J, Ohno K, Masaoka A, Kawashima Y. Myasthenia gravis in elderly patients. Ann Thorac Surg 1985; 39: 433-436

194. Mönig SP, Türler A, Raab M. Transsternale Thymektomie bei Myasthenia gravis und Thymom. Zentralbl Chir 1995; 120: 963-968

195. Mountz JD. Significance of increased circulating proteasome in autoimmune disease. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 2027-2030

196. Mulder DG. Effect of thymectomy in patients with MG: a 16-years experience. Am J Surg 1974; 128: 202-206

197. Mulder DG. Extended transsternal thymectomy. Techn Mediast Surg 1996; 6: 95-103

198. Mulder DG, Graves M, Herrman C. Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: recent observations and comparisons with past experience. Ann Thorac Surg 1989; 48: 551-555

199. Mulder DG, Herrman C, Keesey J, Edwards H. Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Am J Surg 1983; 146: 61-66

200. Mullen B, Richardson J. Primary anterior mediastinal tumors in children and adults. Ann Thorac Surg 1986; 42: 388-345

201. Müller-Hermelink HK, Marino M, Palestro G. Pathology of thymic epithelial tumors. Curr Top Pathol 1986; 75: 207-268

202. Müller-Hermelink HK, Marx A, and Kirchner T. Thymus. In Damjanov I and Lindner J Anderson Pathology, 1218-1243. St. Louis: 1996

203. Myasthenia gravis clinical study group. A randomised clinical trials comparing prednisone and azathioprine in myasthenia gravis. Results of the second interim analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1993; 56: 1157-1163

204. Nakajima J, Shindo G, Miyairi T, Murakami R, Kohno T, Morizuki O, Furuse A. Respiratory failure after thymectomy in myasthenia gravis: evaluation of preoperative influencing factors and preventive managements against postoperative respiratory dysfunction. Kyobu Geka 1989; 42: 737-741

205. Newsom-Davis J, Pinching AJ, Vincent A. Function of circulating antibody to acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis: investigation by plasma exchange. Neurology 1987; 28: 266-272

206. Ng JWT, Yeung GHC, Cheng DPW. To the Editor: Video-assisted thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis: lateral versus supine position. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 115: 265

207. Nieto IP, Robledo JP, Pajuelo MC, Montes JAR, Giron JG, Alonso JG, Sancho LG. Prognostic factors for

[Seite 133↓]

myasthenia gravis treated by thymectomy: review of 61 cases. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 67: 1568-1571

208. Nilsson E, Perttuneb K, Kalso E. Intrathecal morphine for post-sternotomy pain in patients with myasthenia gravis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41: 549-556

209. Nix HWA, Große-Höötmann, Kirchner T, and Marx A. Management of thymectomised myasthenic patients. In Marx A and Müller-Hermelink HK Epithelial Tumors of the Thymus. Pathology, Biology, Treatment., 351-356. New York and London: Plenum Press 1997

210. Novellino L, Longoni M, Spinelli L, Andretta M, Cozzi M, Faillace G, Vitellaro M, De Benedetti D, Pezzuoli G. "Extended" thymectomy without sternotomy, performed by cervicotomy and thoracoscopic technique in the treatment of MG. Int Surg 1994; 79: 378-381

211. Nussbaum M. Management of MG by extended thymectomy with anterior mediastinal dissection. Surgery 1992; 112: 681-688

212. Obiditsch RA. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Thymusgeschwülste, im besonderen derjenigen bei Myasthenie. Virch Arch Path Anat Physiol 1937; 300: 319-341

213. Ohzato H, Yoshizaki K, Nishimoto N, Ogata A, Tagoh H, Monden M. Interleukin-6 as a new indicator of inflammatory status: detection of serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein after surgery. Surgery 1992; 111: 201-209

214. Okumura M, Miyoshi S, Fujii Y. Clinical and functional significance of WHO classification on human thymic epithelial neoplasms: a study od consecutive 146 tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25: 103-110

215. Okumura M, Ohta M, Tateyama H. The World Health Organization histologic classification system reflects the oncological behaviour of thymoma: a clinical study of 273 patients. Cancer 2002; 94: 624-632

216. Olanow CW. Thymectomy as primary therapy in MG. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1987; 505: 595-606

217. Olanow CW, Wechsler AS, Roses AD. A prospective study of thymectomy and serum acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Ann Surg 1982; 196: 113-121

218. Oosterhuis HJGH. The natural course of mysthenia gravis: a long term follow up study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1989; 52: 1121-1127

219. Oppenheim H. Weiterer Beitrag zur Lehre von der Acuten Nicht-Eitrigen Encephalitis und der Polioencephalitis. Deutsche Zeitschr f Nervenheilkunde 1899; 15: 1-27

220. Ortega AE, Peters JH, Incarbone R, Estrada L, Ehsan A, Kwan Y, Spencer CJ, Moore-Jeffries E, Kuchta K, Nicoloff JT. A prospective randomized comparison of the metabolic and stress hormonal responses of laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy. J Am Coll Surg 1996; 183: 249-256

221. Osorio A, Vara-Thorbeck R, Rosell J, Osorio C, Ortega E, Ruiz-Requena E. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and growth axis hormones in patients after surgery. World J Surg 2002; 26: 1079-1082

222. Osserman KE, Genkins G. Studies in myasthenia gravis: review of a twenty-year experience in over 1200 patients. Mt Sinai J Med 1971; 38: 497-537

223. Otto H. Pathologie des Thymus. 106-115. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1984

224. Padua L, Evoli A, Aprile I, Caliandro P, Mazza S, Padua R, Tonali P. Health-related quality of life in patients with myasthenia gravis and the relationship between patient-oriented assessment and conventional measurements. Neurol Sci 2001; 22: 363-369

[Seite 134↓]

225. Pairolero PC. Invited commentary to: Thoracoscpic resection of an anterior mediastinal tumor. Ann Thorac Surg 1992; 54: 142-144

226. Pairolero PC. Reply to the letter: Thoracoscopic thymoma resection. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 55: 561-568

227. Palace J, Newsom-Davis J, Lecky B, FRCP, Myasthenia Gravis Study Group. A randomized double-blind trial of prednisolon alone or with azathioprine in myasthenia gravis. Neurology 1998; 50: 1778-1783

228. Papatestas AE. Prognosis in occult thymomas in MG following transcervical thymectomy. Arch Surg 1987; 122: 1352-1356

229. Papatestas AE, Cooper JD, Jaretzki A III, Mulder DG. Symposium: thymectomy for mysthenia gravis. Contemp Surg 1989; 34: 65-86

230. Papatestas AE, Gabriel G, Kornfeld P. Comparison of the results of the transcervical and transsternal thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1981; 377: 766-778

231. Papatestas AE, Genkins G, Kornfeld P, Eisenkraft JB, Fagerstrom RP, Pozner J, Aufses AH. Effects of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Ann Surg 1987; 206: 79-88

232. Papatestas AE, Osserman KE, Kark AE. The relationship between thymus and oncogenesis. A study of the incidence of non thymic malignancy in myasthenia gravis. Br J Cancer 1971; 25: 635-645

233. Parker CA. Surgery of the thymus gland. Thymectomy report of fifty operated cases. Am J Dis Child 1913; 5: 89-122

234. Penn AS, Jaretzki A III, Wolff M, Chang HW, Tennyson V. Thymic abnormalities: antigen or antibody? Response to thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1981; 377: 789-791

235. Perlo S, Amason B, Castleman B. The thymus gland in elderly patients with myasthenia gravis. Neurology 1975; 25: 294-295

236. Perlo VP, Poskanzer DC, Schwab RS, Viets HR, Osserman KE, Genkins G. Myasthenia gravis: evaluation of treatment in 1355 patients. Neurology 1965; 16: 431-439

237. Pirskanen R. Genetic aspects in myasthenia gravis. A family study of 264 Finnish patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1977; 56: 365-388

238. Platter F. Observationum in hominis affectibus plerisque.... In König L Book I, 172. 1614

239. Pompeo E, Nofroni I, Iavicoli N, Mineo TC. Thoracoscopic completion thymectomy in refractory nonthymomatous myasthenia. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70: 918-923

240. Ponseti JM, Espin E, Fort JM, Vicens C, and Armengol M. Our approach in the preparation for thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. In Marx A and Müller-Hermelink HK 305-314. New York: Plenum Press 1997

241. Popescu I, Tomulescu V, Ion V, Tulbure D. Thymectomy by thoracoscopic approach in myasthenia gravis. Surg Endosc 2002; 16: 679-684

242. Putman MT, Wise RA. Myasthenia gravis and upper airway obstruction. Chest 1996; 109: 400-404

243. Radwan L, Koziorowski A, Zoltowski M. Effect of thymectomy on pulmonary function in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis. Pneumonol Pol 1986; 54: 358-362

244. Redmond HP, Watson RW, Houghton T, Condron C, Watson RG, Bouchier-Hayes D. Immune function in patients undergoing open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Surg 1994; 129: 1240-1246

245. Regan JJ, McAfee PC, and Mack MJ. Atlas of Endoscopic Spine Surgery. 215-232. Quality Medical Publishing, St. Louis 1995

[Seite 135↓]

246. Rehn L. Compression from the thymus gland and resultant death (excerpts from the transaction of the German Congress of Surgery, April 1906). Ann Surg 1906; 44: 760-768

247. Remes-Troche JM, Téllez-Zenteno JF, Estanol B, Garduno-Espinoza J, García-Ramos G. Thymectomy in myasthenia gravis: response, complications, and associated conditions. Arch Med Res 2002; 33: 545-551

248. Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Shah R. Post-thoracotomy spirometric lung function: the effect of analgesia. J Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 40: 445-456

249. Riem L. Symptomatisch und kausal: zwei Eckpfeiler der Myasthenietherapie - Expertenmeeting, veranstaltet von der ICN Pharmaceuticals Germany GmbH, Frankfurt2002. Nervenheilkunde 2002; 21 (Verlagsbeilage): 7-8

250. Ringelstein EB, Scheld HH, Semik M. Myasthenia gravis: eine interdiziplinäre Herausforderung. Z Herz Thorax Gefäßchir 1998; 12: 241-242

251. Robertson NP, Deans J, Compston DAS. Myasthenia gravis: a population based epidemiological study in Cambridgeshire, England. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1998; 65: 492-496

252. Rodriguez JM, Gomez MR, Howard FM jr, Taylor WF. Myasthenia gravis in children: long-term follow-up. Ann Neurol 1983; 13: 504-510

253. Rosai J and Levine GD. Tumors of the thymus: atlas of tumor pathology. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC 1976

254. Rosai J and Sobin LH. Histological typing of tumors of the thymus: international histological classification of tumours. Springer, New York 1999

255. Rosenberg M, Jaregui WO, DeVega ME, Errera MR, Roncoroni AJ. Recurrence of thymic hyperplasia after thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Am J Med 1983; 74: 78-82

256. Roviaro G, Rebuffat C, Varoli F, Vergani C, Maciocco M, Scalambra SM. Videothorascopic excision of mediastinal masses: indications and technique. Ann Thorac Surg 1994; 58: 1679-1684

257. Roviaro G, Varoli F, Nucca O, Vergani C, Maciocco M. Videothoracoscopic approach to primary mediastinal pathology. Chest 2000; 117: 1179-1183

258. Rückert JC. Die Technik der thorakoskopischen Thymektomie. VIDEO 30500-001 DV, DVD 30500-001 DD; Mediathek der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie 2002. mediathek@aesculap-akademie.de

259. Rückert JC, Czyzewski D, Pest S, Müller JM. Radicality of thoracoscopic thymectomy - an anatomical study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2000; 18: 735-736

260. Rückert JC, Gellert K, Einhäupl KM, Müller JM. Die thorakoskopische Thymektomie zur Behandlung der Myasthenia gravis. Zentralbl Chir 1998; 123: 506-511

261. Rückert JC, Gellert K, Müller JM. Operative technique for thoracoscopic thymectomy. Surg Endosc 1999; 13: 943-946

262. Rückert JC, Gellert K, Rudolph B, Einhäupl KM, Müller JM. Thorakoskopische Thymektomie wegen Myasthenie bei Thymom. Akt Chir 1996; 31: 55-57

263. Rückert JC, Sobel HK, Göring S, Einhäupl KM, Müller JM. Matched-pair comparison of three different approaches for thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Surg Endosc 2003; 17: 711-715

264. Rückert JC, Walter M, Müller JM. Pulmonary function after thoracoscopic thymectomy versus median sternotomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70: 1656-1661

265. Sabanathan S, Eng J, Mearns AJ. Alterations in respiratory mechanics following thoracotomy. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1990; 35: 144-150

[Seite 136↓]

266. Sabbagh MN, Garza JS, Patten B. Thoracoscopic thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve 1995; 18: 1475-1477

267. Sacco M, Valenti G, Corvi Mora P, Wu FC, Ray DW. DHEA, a selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist: its role in human system regulation and metabolism. J Endocrinol Invest 2002; 25: 81-82

268. Sauerland S, Rodriguez-Fischer E, Stock S, Lempa M, Neugebauer E. Pain as outcome variable in clinical trials - what reduction in pain is relevant to the patient? Langenbeck's Arch Surg 1999; Suppl. 1: 657-660

269. Savcenko M, Wendt GK, Prince SL, Mack MJ. Video-assisted thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: an update of a single institute experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002; 22: 978-983

270. Scadding GK, Thomas HC, Havard CWH. The immunological effects of thymecomy in myasthenia gravis. Clin Exp Immunol 1979; 36: 205-213

271. Scadding GK, Vincent A, Newsom-Davis J, Henry K. Acetylcholin receptor antibody synthesis by thymic lympocytes: correlation with thymic histology. Neurology 1981; 31: 935-943

272. Schulze W, Laczkovics A, Richter J, Sindern E. Thymectomy in myasthenia gravis - the status quo. Chirurg 1999; 69: 1345-1351

273. Schumacher E, Roth J. Thymektomie bei einem Fall von Morbus Basedowi mit Myasthenie. Grenzgeb d Med u Chir 1912; 25: 746-765

274. Schumm F, Wiethölter H, Fateh-Moghadam A, Dichgans J. Thymectomy in myasthenia gravis with pure ocular symptoms. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1985; 48: 332-337

275. Schumpelick V. Thymektomie bei Myasthenia gravis: Indikation-Technik-Ergebnisse. Akt Chirurgie 1982; 17: 175

276. Schuurman HJ, van de Wijngaert FP, Delvoye L, McClure JE, Goldstein AL, Kater L. Heterogeneity and age dependency of human thymus reticulo-epithelium in production of thymosin components. Thymus 1985; 7: 13-23

277. Schwab RS, Leland CC. Sex and age in myasthenia gravis as critical factors in incidence and remission (spontaneous and following thymectomy). J Amer Med Ass 1953; 153: 1270

278. Schwenk W, Böhm B, Witt CH, Junghans T, Gründel K, Müller JM. Pulmonary function following laparoscopic or conventional colorectal resection. A randomized controlled evaluation. Arch Surg 1999; 134: 6-12

279. Schwenk W, Jacobi C, Mansmann U, Böhm B, Müller JM. Inflammatory response after laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection - results of a prospective randomizued trial. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 2000; 385: 2-9

280. Schwenk W, Mall JW, Neudecker J, Müller JM. One visual analogue pain score is sufficient after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Br J Surg 2002; 89: 114-115

281. Semik M, Christiansen S, Tian TDT, Scheld HH. Surgical aspects of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Z Herz Thorax Gefäßchir 1998; 12: 262-270

282. Sempowski GD, Thomasch JR, Gooding ME, Hale LP, Edwards LJ, Ciafaloni E, Sanders DB, Massey JM, Douek DC, Koup RA, Haynes B. Effect of thymectomy on human peripheral blood T cell pools in myasthenia gravis. J Immunol 2001; 166: 2808-2817

283. Seybold ME. Thymectomy in childhood myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998; 841: 731-741

284. Shibuya N, Sato T, Osame M, Takegami T, Doi S, Kawanami S. Immunoadsorption therapy for myasthenia gravis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1994; 57: 578-581

[Seite 137↓]

285. Shields TW. Primary tumors and cysts of the mediastinum. In Shields TW, LoCicero III J, and Ponn RB General Thoracic Surgery, 2181-2205. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams&Wilkins 1989

286. Sietses C, Wiezer MJ, Eijsbouts QAJ, Beelen RHJ, van Leeuwen PAM, vom Blomberg BME, Meijer S, Cuesta MA. A prospective randomized study of the systemic immune response after laparoscopic and conventional Nissen fundoplication. Surgery 1999; 126: 5-9

287. Simpson JA. An evaluation of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Brain 1958; 81: 112-144

288. Simpson JA, Behan PO, Dick HM. Studies on the nature of autoimmunity in mysthenia gravis. Evidence for an immunodeficiency type. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1976; 274: 382-389

289. Slater G, Papatestas AE, Genkins G, Kornfeld P, Horowitz SH, Bender A. Thymomas in patients with myasthenia gravis. Ann Surg 1978; 188: 171-174

290. Sloan HE. The thymus in myasthenia gravis. Surgery 1943; 13: 154-174

291. Sommer N, Willcox N, Harcourt GC, Newsom-Davis J. Myasthenic thymus and thymoma are selectively enriched in acetylcholine receptor-reactive T cells. Ann Neurol 1990; 28: 312-319

292. Späth G. Thymome - eine retrospektive Studie über 48 Fälle. Chirurg 1987; 58: 529-536

293. Steinmann GG, Müller-Hermelink HK. Lymphocyte differentiation and its microenvironment in the human thymus during aging. Monogr Dev Biol 1984; 17: 142-155

294. Stubhaug A and Breivik H. Postoperative analgesic trials: some important issues. In Breivik H Postoperative Pain Management, 555-584. London: Baillière Tindall 1995

295. Sugarbaker DJ. Thoracoscopy in the management of anterior mediastinal masses. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 56: 653-656

296. Takeo S, Sakada T, Yano T. Video-assisted extended thymectomy in patients with thymoma by lifting the sternum. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 71: 1721-1723

297. Tilg H, Trehu E, Atkins MB. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an antiinflammatory cytokine: induction of circulating IL-1 receptor antagonist and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55. Blood 1994; 83: 113-118

298. Tindall RSA, Rollins JA, Phillips JT. Preliminary results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cyclosporine in myasthenia gravis. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 719-724

299. Tonali P, Padua L, Padua R, Sanguinetti C, Romanini E, Amadio P. Outcome research and patient-oriented in the multiperspective assessment of neurological nand musculoskeletal disorders. Ital J Neurol Sci 1999; 20: 139-140

300. Trastek VF. Thmectomy. In Kaiser LR, Kron IL, and Spray TL Mastery of cardiothoracic surgery, 105-111. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven 1998

301. Tripathi M, Srivastava K, Misra SK, Puri GD. Peri-operative management of patients for video assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. J Postgrad Med 2001; 47: 258-261

302. Tsuchida M, Yamato Y, Souma T, Yoshiya K, Watanabe T, Aoki T, Hayashi J. Efficacy and safety of extended thymectomy for elderly patients with myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 67: 1563-1567

303. Uchiyama A, Shimizu S, Murai H, Kuroki S, Okido M, Tanaka M. Infrasternal mediastinoscopic thymectomy in myasthenia gravis: surgical results in 23 patients. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 72: 1902-1905

304. Veau V. Ablation du thymus: technique-resultats. Presse Med 1910; 29: 257-260

[Seite 138↓]

305. Veau V. Rapport sur la Chirurgie du Thymus. Comptes Rendu, Association Francaise de Pediatrie 1910; 1: 77-126

306. Venuta F, Rendina EA, De Giacomo T, Della Rocca G, Antonini G, Ciccone AM, Ricci C, Coloni GF. Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: a 27-year experience. Eur J Cardio-thorac Surg 1999; 15: 621-625

307. Vesalius A. De Humani Corporis Fabrica. In Sanders JB and O'Malley CD Illustrations from the works of Andreas Versalius of Brussels, book 6, Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Co 1543

308. Viets HR. Thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Br Med J 1950; 1: 139-147

309. von Haberer H. Zur klinischen Bedeutung der Thymusdrüse. Arch Klin Chir 1917; 109: 193-248

310. Walker MB. Treatment of myasthenia gravis with physostigmine. Lancet 1934; 1: 1200-1201

311. Waller DA, Forty J, Morritt GN. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery versus thoracotomy for spontaneous pneumothorax. Ann Thorac Surg 1994; 58: 372-376

312. Ware JE, Sherbourne C. The MOS 36-item short-form survey (SF-36): I: Conceptual framework and items selection. Med Care 1992; 30: 473-483

313. Weigert C. Pathologisch-anatomischer Beitrag zur Erb´schen Krankheit (Myasthenia gravis). Neurol Centralbl 1901; 20: 597-601

314. Weinberg A, Gelijns A, Moskowitz A, Jaretzki III A. Myasthenia gravis: outcome analysis. www.neurology.org 2000;

315. Wekerle H, Ketelsen UP. Intrathymic pathogenesis and dual genetic control of myasthenia gravis (hypothesis). Lancet 1977; 1: 678-680

316. Wekerle H, Müller-Hermelink HK. The thymus in myasthenia gravis. Curr Top Pathol 1986; 75: 179-206

317. Wekerle H, Paterson B, Ketelsen UP, Feldman M. Striated muscle fibres differential in monolayer cultures of adult thymus reticulum. Nature 1975; 256: 493-494

318. Whyte RI, Kaplan DK, Deegan SP, Donnely RJ. Cervical thymectomy in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1989; 34: 74-78

319. Wilkins KB, Bulkley GB. Thymectomy in the integrated managment of myasthenia gravis. Adv Surg 1999; 32: 105-133

320. Willcox N. Myasthenia gravis. Curr Opin Immunol 1993; 5: 910-917

321. Wolfe GI, Herbelin L, Nations SP, Foster B, Bryan WW, Barohn RJ. Myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile. Neurology 1999; 52: 1487-1489

322. Wolff H, Naundorf M. Spätergebnisse nach Thymektomie bei Myasthenia gravis - Erfahrungsbericht von 130 Fällen. Z Herz Thorax Gefäßchir 1987; 1: 97-102

323. Wright GM, Barnett S, Clarke CP. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Intern Med J 2002; 32: 367-371

324. Xing Z, Gauldie J, Cox G, Baumann H, Jordana M, Lei XF. IL-6 is an antiinflammatory cytokine required for controlling local or systemic acute inflammatory response. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 311-320

325. Yamada T, Hisanaga M, Nakajima Y, Kanehiro H, Watanabe A, Ohyama T, Nishio K, Sho M, Nagao M, Harada A, Matsushima K, Nakano H. Serum Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, hepatocyte growth factor, and nitric oxide changes during thoracic surgery. World J Surg 1998; 22: 783-790

[Seite 139↓]

326. Yamazaki Z, Fujimori Y, Takahara T. Efficiency and biocompability of a new immunosorbent. Trans Am Soc Artificial Organs 1982; 28: 318-323

327. Yim APC. To the editor: Thoracoscopic thymectomy: which side to approach? Ann Thorac Surg 1997; 64: 584-585

328. Yim APC. Paradigm shift in surgical approaches to thymectomy. ANZ J Surg 2002; 72: 40-45

329. Yim APC, Chan TC, Lee TW, Wan YP, Ho JKS. Thopracoscopic talc insufflation versus talc slurry in the treatment of symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 62: 1655

330. Yim APC, Ho JKS. Video-assisted subxiphoid pericardiectomy. J Laparoendosc Surg 1995; 193

331. Yim APC, Ho JKS, Lee TW, Chung SS. Thoracoscopic management of pleural effusion revisited. Aust N Z J Surg 1995; 65: 308

332. Yim APC, Izzat MB, Lee TW, Wan S. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 5: 18-20

333. Yim APC, Izzat MB, Wan S, International VATS study group. Video-assisted thoracic surgery: its role in current thoracic surgical practice worldwide. Chest 1998; 114: S390

334. Yim APC, Kay RLC, Ho JKS. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Chest 1995; 108: 1440-1443

335. Yim APC, Kay RLC, Izzat MB, Ng SK. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Sem Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 11: 65-73

336. Yim APC, Lee TW, Izzat MB, Wan S. Place of video-thorascopy in thoracic surgical practice. World J Surg 2001; 25: 157-161

337. Yim APC, Liu HP. Complications and failures from video-assisted thoracic surgery: experience from two centers in Asia. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 61: 538

338. Yim APC, Wan S, Lee TW, Arifi AA. VATS lobectomy reduces cytokine responses compared with conventional surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70: 243-247

339. Yoshino I, Hashizume M, Shimada M, Tomikawa M, Sugimachi K. Video-ssisted thoracoscopic extirpation of a posterior mediastinal mass using the da Vinci computer enhanced surgical system. Ann Thorac Surg 2002; 74: 1235-1237

340. Yoshino I, Hashizume M, Shimada M, Tomikawa M, Tomiyasu M, Suemitsu R, Sugimachi K. Thoracoscopic thymomectomy with the da Vinci computer-enhanced surgical system. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 122: 783-785

341. Yoshino I, Hashizume M, Shimada M, Tomikawa M, Tomiyasu M, Suemitsu R, Sugimachi K. Thoracoscopic thymomectomy with the da Vinci computer-enhanced surgical system. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 122: 783-785

342. Younger DS, Braun NM, Jaretzki A III, Penn AS, Lovelace RE. Myasthenia gravis: determinants for independent ventilation after transsternal thymectomy. Neurology 1984; 34: 336-340

343. Younger DS, Worrall BB, Penn AS. Myasthenia gravis: historical perspective and overview. Neurology 1997; 48: S1-S7

344. Zambudio AR, Lanzas JT, Calvo MJR, Barba EM, Paricio PP. Thymolipomas in association with myasthenia gravis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 122: 825-826

345. Zeldowicz LR, Saxton GD. Myasthenia gravis: comparative evaluation of medical and surgical treatment. Canad Med Ass 1969; 101: 609-614

[Seite 140↓]

346. Zeng LQ. The changing patterns of occurrence and management in primary mediastinal tumors and cysts in the People's Republic of China. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1988; 166: 55-59

© Die inhaltliche Zusammenstellung und Aufmachung dieser Publikation sowie die elektronische Verarbeitung sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung. Das gilt insbesondere für die Vervielfältigung, die Bearbeitung und Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronische Systeme.
DiML DTD Version 3.0Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
HTML-Version erstellt am: