2015-04-22Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.1039/c5dt00914f
The non-aqueous fluorolytic sol–gel synthesis of nanoscaled metal fluorides
This review article focuses on the mechanism of the non-aqueous fluorolytic sol gel-synthesis of nanoscopic metal fluorides and hydroxide fluorides. Based on MAS-NMR, XRD, WAXS and SAXS investigations in combination with computational calculations, it is shown that a stepwise replacement of alkoxide by F-ions takes place resulting in the formation of a large variety of metal alkoxide fluoride clusters, some of them being isolated and structurally characterised. It is shown that these nanoscopic metal fluorides obtained via this new synthesis approach exhibit distinctly different properties compared with their classically prepared homologues. Thus, extremely strong solid Lewis acids are available which give access to new catalytic reactions with sometimes unexpectedly high conversion degrees and selectivity. Even more interestingly, metal hydroxide fluorides can be obtained via this synthesis route that are not accessible via any other approach for which the hydroxide to fluoride ratios can be adjusted over a wide range. Optically fully transparent sols obtained in this way can be used for the first time to manufacture antireflective coatings, corundum ceramics with drastically improved properties as well as novel metal fluoride based organic–inorganic composites. The properties of these new fluoride based materials are presented and discussed in context with the above mentioned new fields of application.
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