2016-12-05Dissertation DOI: 10.18452/17650
The role of interneuronal networks in hippocampal ripple oscillations
frequency dynamics and response to GABA modulators
Hippokampale Sharp Wave-Ripples (SWRs) sind elektrografische Ereignisse, die für die Konsolidierung von Erinnerungen eine Rolle spielen. Eine SWR ist durch eine schnelle Oszillation (>90 Hz, ''ripple'') charakterisiert, die sich mit der langsameren ''sharp wave'' (Hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) are electrographic events that have been implicated in memory consolidation. A SWR is characterized by a fast (> 90 Hz) oscillation, the ripple, superimposed on a slow (< 30 Hz) sharp wave. In vivo, the fast component can express frequencies either in the ripple range (140-200 Hz) or fast-gamma range (90-140 Hz). Episodes in both bands exhibit intra-ripple frequency accommodation (IFA). In vitro, ripples are frequency-resistant to GABA modulators. These features constrain the type of mechanisms underlying the generation of the fast component. A prominent hypothesis proposes that a recurrent network of parvalbumin-immunoreactive basket cells (PV+BC) is responsible of setting the ripple frequency. The focus of the present thesis is on testing to which extent the PV+BC network can account for the aforementioned features of SWRs, which remain unexplained. Here, I simulated and analyzed a physiologically constrained in silico model of the PV+BC network in CA1 under different conditions of excitatory drive. The response of the network to transient excitation exhibits both IFA in the ripple band and frequency resistance to GABA modulators. The expression of IFA in the fast gamma band requires the involvement of pyramidal cells in a closed loop with the PV+BC network. The model predicts a peculiar relationship between the instantaneous frequency of ripples and the time course of the excitatory input to CA1. This prediction was confirmed in an in vitro model of SWRs. Additionally, I study the involvement of oriens lacunosum-moleculare interneurons (O-LM) during SWRs in vitro. I characterize the excitatory currents received by O-LM cells during SWRs and investigate the factors that determine their recruitment.