2018-06-17Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.18452/20029
Subtle distinctions in the construction of ‘reference societies’: the conflict-laden introduction of compulsory schooling and universal conscription in Chile (1885–1920)
Kultur-, Sozial- und Bildungswissenschaftliche Fakultät
This article combines the perspective of transnational transfer with contributions from social theory and historical sociology – specifically the Luhmannian concept of social ‘inclusion’. In doing so, this article reconstructs a historical case regarding the conflicting implementation of universal conscription and compulsory schooling in Chile in the context of a reform process that took place at the turn of the twentieth century and was oriented towards the German Reich. The article aims to trace both the structural correspondence between compulsory schooling and universal conscription and the statutory implementation of both versions of ‘inclusion’ by analysing the lines of argument set forth by the warring liberal and conservative groups of actors and, in particular, their discursive references to the German Reich and Prussia. The main arguments are, firstly, that the German Reich was extremely attractive to broad and even opposing coalitions because of its ambiguity. Secondly, a contradictory conception of citizenship prevailed. Thirdly, a social mobilisation process led by professionalised teachers and officers finally made the introduction of compulsory schooling possible. The article ultimately confirms the fundamental role of ‘reference societies’ in the context of nation-building and modernisation processes in Chile.
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This article was supported by the Open Access Publication Fund of Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.