2019-07-12Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/cells8070713
Discovery and Validation of Novel Biomarkers for Detection of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) poses a critical medical challenge. However, novel biomarkers for diagnosis remain to be discovered. Therefore, innovative approaches are of the utmost importance for patient outcome. Here, we present a concept for blood-based biomarker discovery, investigating both epithelial and specifically stromal compartments, which have been neglected in search for novel candidates. We queried gene expression profiles of EOC including microdissected epithelium and adjacent stroma from benign and malignant tumours. Genes significantly differentially expressed within either the epithelial or the stromal compartments were retrieved. The expression of genes whose products are secreted yet absent in the blood of healthy donors were validated in tissue and blood from patients with pelvic mass by NanoString analysis. Results were confirmed by the comprehensive gene expression database, CSIOVDB (Ovarian cancer database of Cancer Science Institute Singapore). The top 25% of candidate genes were explored for their biomarker potential, and twelve were able to discriminate between benign and malignant tumours on transcript levels (p < 0.05). Among them T-cell differentiation protein myelin and lymphocyte (MAL), aurora kinase A (AURKA), stroma-derived candidates versican (VCAN), and syndecan-3 (SDC), which performed significantly better than the recently reported biomarker fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) to discern malignant from benign conditions. Furthermore, elevated MAL and AURKA expression levels correlated significantly with a poor prognosis. We identified promising novel candidates and found the stroma of EOC to be a suitable compartment for biomarker discovery.
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