2020-06-28Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.18452/21601
Impact of Air Conditioning Systems on the Outdoor Thermal Environment during Summer in Berlin, Germany
This study investigates the effect of anthropogenic heat emissions from air conditioning systems (AC) on air temperature and AC energy consumption in Berlin, Germany. We conduct simulations applying the model system CCLM/DCEP-BEM, a coupled system of the mesoscale climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) and the urban Double Canyon Effect Parameterization scheme with a building energy model (DCEP-BEM), for a summer period of 2018. The DCEP-BEM model is designed to explicitly compute the anthropogenic heat emissions from urban buildings and the heat flux transfer between buildings and the atmosphere. We investigate two locations where the AC outdoor units are installed: either on the wall of a building (VerAC) or on the rooftop of a building (HorAC). AC waste heat emissions considerably increase the near-surface air temperature. Compared to a reference scenario without AC systems, the VerAC scenario with a target indoor temperature of 22 °C results in a temperature increase of up to 0.6 K . The increase is more pronounced during the night and for urban areas. The effect of HorAC on air temperature is overall smaller than in VerAC. With the target indoor temperature of 22 °C , an urban site’s daily average AC energy consumption per floor area of a room is 9.1 W m2 , which is 35% more than that of a suburban site. This energy-saving results from the urban heat island effect and different building parameters between both sits. The maximum AC energy consumption occurs in the afternoon. When the target indoor temperature rises, the AC energy consumption decreases at a rate of about 16% per 2 K change in indoor temperature. The nighttime near-surface temperature in VerAC scenarios shows a declining trend ( 0.06 K per 2 K change) with increasing target indoor temperature. This feature is not obvious in HorAC scenarios which further confirms that HorAC has a smaller impact on near-surface air temperature.
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