2020-02-12Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/plants9020237
Physiological and Anatomical Mechanisms in Wheat to Cope with Salt Stress Induced by Seawater
Two pot experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to examine 14C fixation and its distribution in biochemical leaf components, as well as the physiological and anatomical adaptability responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown with seawater diluted to 0.2, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 dS m−1. The results showed significant reductions in chlorophyll content, 14C fixation (photosynthesis), plant height, main stem diameter, total leaf area per plant, and total dry weight at 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 dS m−1 seawater salt stress. The 14C loss was very high at 12.0 ds m−1 after 120 h. 14C in lipids (ether extract) showed significant changes at 12.0 dS m−1 at 96 and 120 h. The findings indicated the leaf and stem anatomical feature change of wheat plants resulting from adaptation to salinity stress. A reduction in the anatomical traits of stem and leaf diameter, wall thickness, diameter of the hollow pith cavity, total number of vascular bundles, number of large and small vascular bundles, bundle length and width, thickness of phloem tissue, and diameter of the metaxylem vessel of wheat plants was found. In conclusion, salt stress induces both anatomical and physiological changes in the stem and leaf cells of wheat, as well as the tissues and organs, and these changes in turn make it possible for the plants to adapt successfully to a saline environment.
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