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2020-10-08Dissertation DOI: 10.18452/21989
Die Architekturornamentik des Jupitertempels in Baalbek
dc.contributor.authorWienholz, Holger
dc.date.accessioned2020-10-08T12:05:54Z
dc.date.available2020-10-08T12:05:54Z
dc.date.issued2020-10-08none
dc.identifier.urihttp://edoc.hu-berlin.de/18452/22709
dc.description.abstractDer Bauschmuck des Jupitertempels in Baalbek ist durch sechs noch stehende Säulen mitsamt Gebälk sowie durch zahlreiche im Gelände verstreute Fragmente bezeugt. Durch die hier vorliegenden Untersuchungen konnten nun erstmals auch Fragmente nachgewiesen werden, die zum Aufbau der ansonsten verlorenen Tempelcella gehörten. Über eine möglichst umfassende Katalogisierung konnte der Materialbestand weit über das bisher bekannte Maße gesichert werden, so daß zum Beispiel mit 23 statt der in der Forschung bisher üblichen 2 Kapitelle gearbeitet werden konnte. Der Fokus der Arbeit liegt zunächst auf der Darstellung und Beschreibung des Tempels sowie seiner kulturellen und bauhistorischen Verortung in Baalbek selbst. Als feste Referenzpunkte außerhalb der Stadt wurden der Mars-Ultor- Tempel in Rom sowie der Bel-Tempel von Palmyra gewählt. Durch diese Vergleiche und durch einen erstmals in der Forschungsgeschichte vorgenommenen Vergleich der einzelnen Ornamentzonen untereinander konnte eine neue Datierung vorgenommen werden, wodurch der Aufbau und die Fertigstellung des Baus in die 2. Hälfte des 1. Jhs. n. Chr. zu rücken sind. Die Interpretation der Architekturornamentik führte zu mehreren, zum Teil völlig neuen Ergebnisse. Der große und schon vielfach bemerkte Reichtum in der Ausarbeitung des Bauschmucks zeigt das große Können, ein umfangreiches Repertoire und vor allem eine große Freiheit der ausführenden Steinmetzen, die wohl eher lokaler Abstammung waren. Darüber hinaus ist der extra für den Tempel entworfene Fries eine politische Aussage der Colonia Beirut/Heliopolis, mit dem die neu erworbene Stellung im Machtgefüge der levantinischen Städte demonstriert werden soll. Die immer wieder auftretende Unfertigkeit bei der Fertigstellung der Ornamentik ist systematisch und läßt sich mit den umfassenden finanziellen Problemen im römischen Steuerwesen beim Übergang zwischen der neronischen und der flavischen Epoche begründen.ger
dc.description.abstractThe architectural decoration of the temple of Jupiter in Baalbek is testified by six still standing columns with their entablature and numerous fragments in the area around. This study presents for the first time also fragments from the construction of the otherwise lost cella of the temple. By building a nearly complete catalog of the fragments it was possible to secure the material stock far beyond it was known by now, so for example it was possible to work with 23 instead of the 2 capitals that had been used in former research. The mainly focus of the work is on the representation and description of the temple and its cultural and architectural location in the city of Baalbek. The temple of Mars-Ultor in Rome and the temple of Bel in Palmyra were chosen as fixed reference points. Through these comparisons and through a comparison of the individual ornamental zones with each other for the first time in the history of research, a new dating could be established, which places the construction and completion of the building in the 2nd half of the 1st century AD. The interpretation of architectural ornamentation led to several completely new results. The great and already noticed wealth in the elaboration of architectural ornamentation shows the great skill, an extensive repertoire and above all a great freedom of the executing stonemasons, who were probably of more local origin. Furthermore the frieze was specially designed for the temple and is a political statement of the Colonia Beirut/Heliopolis, which is intended to demonstrate the newly acquired position in the administratic structure of the Levantine cities. The recurrent incompleteness in the ornamentation is systematic and can be explained by the financial problems in the roman state finances during the transition between the Neronic and Flavian eras.The architectural decoration of the temple of Jupiter in Baalbek is testified by six still standing columns with their entablature and numerous fragments in the area around. This study presents for the first time also fragments from the construction of the otherwise lost cella of the temple. By building a nearly complete catalog of the fragments it was possible to secure the material stock far beyond it was known by now, so for example it was possible to work with 23 instead of the 2 capitals that had been used in former research. The mainly focus of the work is on the representation and description of the temple and its cultural and architectural location in the city of Baalbek. The temple of Mars-Ultor in Rome and the temple of Bel in Palmyra were chosen as fixed reference points. Through these comparisons and through a comparison of the individual ornamental zones with each other for the first time in the history of research, a new dating could be established, which places the construction and completion of the building in the 2nd half of the 1st century AD. The interpretation of architectural ornamentation led to several completely new results. The great and already noticed wealth in the elaboration of architectural ornamentation shows the great skill, an extensive repertoire and above all a great freedom of the executing stonemasons, who were probably of more local origin. Furthermore the frieze was specially designed for the temple and is a political statement of the Colonia Beirut/Heliopolis, which is intended to demonstrate the newly acquired position in the administratic structure of the Levantine cities. The recurrent incompleteness in the ornamentation is systematic and can be explained by the financial problems in the roman state finances during the transition between the Neronic and Flavian eras.eng
dc.language.isogernone
dc.publisherHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin
dc.rights(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationalger
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subjectArchäologieger
dc.subjectRömische Architekturger
dc.subjectBaalbekger
dc.subjectBauornamentikger
dc.subjectArcheologyeng
dc.subjectRoman architectureeng
dc.subjectLebanoneng
dc.subjectArchitectural decorationeng
dc.subject.ddc930 Geschichte des Altertums bis ca. 499none
dc.titleDie Architekturornamentik des Jupitertempels in Baalbeknone
dc.typedoctoralThesis
dc.identifier.urnurn:nbn:de:kobv:11-110-18452/22709-5
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.18452/21989
dc.date.accepted2017-05-04
dc.contributor.refereeSchmid, Stephan
dc.contributor.refereeHitzl, Konrad
dc.subject.rvkNH 7985
dc.subject.rvkLF 1400
local.edoc.pages567none
local.edoc.type-nameDissertation
local.edoc.institutionKultur-, Sozial- und Bildungswissenschaftliche Fakultätnone

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