2021-01-21Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/su13031103
Institutional Performance of Collective Irrigation Systems: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis in the Nile Delta of Egypt
Egypt, akin to many countries in the global South, has striven to promote collectivemanagement to overcome the challenges of irrigation management since the 1990s. Establishingshared pumping stations (SPSs) has been one of the cornerstones helping farmers better managewater for irrigation. Operating SPSs successfully poses collective action problems, for which there isno single set of solutions. This paper utilizes fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) toidentify which conditions or configurations are sufficient or necessary for well-operated SPSs. Thestudy draws on empirical data gathered through semi-structured interviews from 45 cases, locatedin Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate in Egypt’s Nile Delta. Results show that three different paths aresufficient to ensure well-operated SPSs. These are: (1) the condition of effective rules related toallocation, monitoring, and sanctions; (2) the configuration of small group size of SPSs and largeirrigated sizes of SPSs; or (3) the configuration of adequate water supply and appropriate location ofthe SPS command area. The paper concludes that neither group size nor resource size alone explainsthe outcome of collective action, while a combination of both factors does. Similarly, an adequatewater supply is essential to enhance users’ engagement in collective actions only when resourcelocation characteristics do not provide alternative water sources for irrigation.
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This article was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Open Access Publication Fund of Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.