2019-10-11Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/rs11202356
Linking Remote Sensing and Geodiversity and Their Traits Relevant to Biodiversity—Part I: Soil Characteristics
In the face of rapid global change it is imperative to preserve geodiversity for the overallconservation of biodiversity. Geodiversity is important for understanding complex biogeochemicaland physical processes and is directly and indirectly linked to biodiversity on all scales of ecosystemorganization. Despite the great importance of geodiversity, there is a lack of suitable monitoringmethods. Compared to conventional in-situ techniques, remote sensing (RS) techniques providea pathway towards cost-effective, increasingly more available, comprehensive, and repeatable, aswell as standardized monitoring of continuous geodiversity on the local to global scale. This papergives an overview of the state-of-the-art approaches for monitoring soil characteristics and soilmoisture with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and air- and spaceborne remote sensing techniques.Initially, the definitions for geodiversity along with its five essential characteristics are provided,with an explanation for the latter. Then, the approaches of spectral traits (ST) and spectral traitvariations (STV) to record geodiversity using RS are defined. LiDAR (light detection and ranging),thermal and microwave sensors, multispectral, and hyperspectral RS technologies to monitor soilcharacteristics and soil moisture are also presented. Furthermore, the paper discusses current andfuture satellite-borne sensors and missions as well as existing data products. Due to the prospectsand limitations of the characteristics of different RS sensors, only specific geotraits and geodiversitycharacteristics can be recorded. The paper provides an overview of those geotraits.
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