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2021-09-14Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/s21186170
Accurate Reference Gas Mixtures Containing Tritiated Molecules: Their Production and Raman-Based Analysis
dc.contributor.authorNiemes, Simon
dc.contributor.authorTelle, Helmut
dc.contributor.authorBornschein , Beate
dc.contributor.authorFasselt, Lucian
dc.contributor.authorGrößle, Robin
dc.contributor.authorPriester, Florian
dc.contributor.authorSchlösser, Magnus
dc.contributor.authorSturm, Michael
dc.contributor.authorWelte, Stefan
dc.contributor.authorZeller, Genrich
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-14T09:37:50Z
dc.date.available2021-10-14T09:37:50Z
dc.date.issued2021-09-14none
dc.date.updated2021-10-01T15:41:08Z
dc.identifier.urihttp://edoc.hu-berlin.de/18452/24200
dc.description.abstractHighly accurate, quantitative analyses of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues—both the stable species, H2, D2, and HD, and the radioactive species, T2, HT, and DT—are of great importance in fields as diverse as deuterium–tritium fusion, neutrino mass measurements using tritium β-decay, or for photonuclear experiments in which hydrogen–deuterium targets are used. In this publication we describe a production, handling, and analysis facility capable of fabricating well-defined gas samples, which may contain any of the stable and radioactive hydrogen isotopologues, with sub-percent accuracy for the relative species concentrations. The production is based on precise manometric gas mixing of H2, D2, and T2. The heteronuclear isotopologues HD, HT, and DT are generated via controlled, in-line catalytic reaction or by β-induced self-equilibration, respectively. The analysis was carried out using an in-line intensity- and wavelength-calibrated Raman spectroscopy system. This allows for continuous monitoring of the composition of the circulating gas during the self-equilibration or catalytic evolution phases. During all procedures, effects, such as exchange reactions with wall materials, were considered with care. Together with measurement statistics, these and other systematic effects were included in the determination of composition uncertainties of the generated reference gas samples. Measurement and calibration accuracy at the level of 1% was achieved.eng
dc.language.isoengnone
dc.publisherHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin
dc.rights(CC BY 4.0) Attribution 4.0 Internationalger
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectRaman spectroscopyeng
dc.subjecttritiated moleculeseng
dc.subjectgas mixingeng
dc.subjectβ-induced self-equilibrationeng
dc.subjecttritiated reference sampleseng
dc.subject.ddc620 Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeitennone
dc.titleAccurate Reference Gas Mixtures Containing Tritiated Molecules: Their Production and Raman-Based Analysisnone
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnurn:nbn:de:kobv:11-110-18452/24200-3
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/s21186170none
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.18452/23542
dc.type.versionpublishedVersionnone
local.edoc.container-titleSensorsnone
local.edoc.pages27none
local.edoc.type-nameZeitschriftenartikel
local.edoc.institutionMathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultätnone
local.edoc.container-typeperiodical
local.edoc.container-type-nameZeitschrift
local.edoc.container-publisher-nameMDPInone
local.edoc.container-publisher-placeBaselnone
local.edoc.container-volume21none
local.edoc.container-issue18none
dc.description.versionPeer Reviewednone
local.edoc.container-articlenumber6170none
dc.identifier.eissn1424-8220
local.edoc.affiliationNiemes, Simon; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none
local.edoc.affiliationTelle, Helmut H.; 2Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spainnone
local.edoc.affiliationBornschein, Beate; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none
local.edoc.affiliationFasselt, Lucian; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none
local.edoc.affiliationGrößle, Robin; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none
local.edoc.affiliationPriester, Florian; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none
local.edoc.affiliationSchlösser, Magnus; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none
local.edoc.affiliationSturm, Michael; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none
local.edoc.affiliationWelte, Stefan; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none
local.edoc.affiliationZeller, Genrich; 1Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; beate.bornschein@kit.edu (B.B.); lucian.fasselt@freenet.de (L.F.); robin.groessle@kit.edu (R.G.); florian.priester@kit.edu (F.P.); magnus.schloesser@kit.edu (M.S.); Michael.sturm@kit.edu (M.S.); stefan.welte@kit.edu (S.W.); genrich.zeller@kit.edu (G.Z.)none

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