2021-10-01Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2021.732608
Mutation of the ALBOSTRIANS Ohnologous Gene HvCMF3 Impairs Chloroplast Development and Thylakoid Architecture in Barley
Gene pairs resulting from whole genome duplication (WGD), so-called ohnologous genes, are retained if at least one member of the pair undergoes neo- or sub-functionalization. Phylogenetic analyses of the ohnologous genes ALBOSTRIANS (HvAST/HvCMF7) and ALBOSTRIANS-LIKE (HvASL/HvCMF3) of barley (Hordeum vulgare) revealed them as members of a subfamily of genes coding for CCT motif (CONSTANS, CONSTANS-LIKE and TIMING OF CAB1) proteins characterized by a single CCT domain and a putative N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide. Recently, we showed that HvCMF7 is needed for chloroplast ribosome biogenesis. Here we demonstrate that mutations in HvCMF3 lead to seedlings delayed in development. They exhibit a yellowish/light green – xantha – phenotype and successively develop pale green leaves. Compared to wild type, plastids of mutant seedlings show a decreased PSII efficiency, impaired processing and reduced amounts of ribosomal RNAs; they contain less thylakoids and grana with a higher number of more loosely stacked thylakoid membranes. Site-directed mutagenesis of HvCMF3 identified a previously unknown functional domain, which is highly conserved within this subfamily of CCT domain containing proteins. HvCMF3:GFP fusion constructs were localized to plastids and nucleus. Hvcmf3Hvcmf7 double mutants exhibited a xantha-albino or albino phenotype depending on the strength of molecular lesion of the HvCMF7 allele. The chloroplast ribosome deficiency is discussed as the primary observed defect of the Hvcmf3 mutants. Based on our observations, the genes HvCMF3 and HvCMF7 have similar but not identical functions in chloroplast development of barley supporting our hypothesis of neo-/sub-functionalization between both ohnologous genes.