2020-06-24Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.1177/0042098020925374
Neighbourhoods, networks and unemployment: The role of neighbourhood disadvantage and local networks in taking up work
Kultur-, Sozial- und Bildungswissenschaftliche Fakultät
We bring together research on social networks and neighbourhood disadvantage to examine how they jointly affect unemployed individuals’ probability of re-entering employment. Data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study ‘Understanding Society’ provide information on the proportion of friends who live in the same neighbourhood, and are linked with small-scale administrative information on neighborhood employment deprivation. Results indicate that neighbourhood employment deprivation prolongs unemployment, but only for individuals who report that all of their friends live in the same neighbourhood. Living in an advantaged neighbourhood with all of one’s friends in the neighbourhood increases the chances of exiting unemployment. In contrast, neighbourhood location is not associated with unemployment exit if one’s friends do not live in the same neighbourhood. We conclude that neighbourhood effects on exiting unemployment critically depend on individuals’ social embeddedness in the neighbourhood. Not just residing in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, but actually living there with all one’s friends, prevents individuals from re-entering employment. This opens new avenues for theorising neighbourhood effects as social rather than geographic phenomena, and highlights that the effects of neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics are conditional on the level of interaction residents have within their neighbourhood.我们将对社交网络和街区贫困的研究相结合，研究它们如何共同影响失业人员再就业的可能性。来自英国家庭纵向研究“理解社会”的数据提供了关于生活在同一街区的朋友比例的信息，并且与关于街区就业剥夺的小规模行政管理信息相关联。结果表明，街区就业剥夺延长了失业时间，但这仅适用于那些所有朋友都住在同一街区的个人。如果所有的朋友都生活在同一个富裕街区，这有助于提高终止失业状态的可能性。相比之下，如果一个人的朋友不都是住在同一个街区，他的街区位置与终止失业状态之间没有关联。我们的结论是，街区效应对终止失业状态的影响关键取决于个人在街区中的社交嵌入性。不仅仅是居住在一个贫困街区，而是所有朋友都住在这样一个街区的事实，会妨碍人们重新就业。这为将街区效应理论化为社会现象而非地理现象开辟了新的途径，并强调街区社会经济特征的影响取决于居民在街区内部与其他居民之间的互动程度。
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