2022-03-29Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/su14074064
Fish Feeds in Aquaponics and Beyond: A Novel Concept to Evaluate Protein Sources in Diets for Circular Multitrophic Food Production Systems
With the general objective of optimizing internal nutrient recycling, circular multitrophic food production systems, e.g., combining fish, plant, and insect larvae production, rely on the quality and composition of sustainable nutritional inputs. Therefore, differences in dissolved and solid nutrient excretion patterns produced by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with 5% daily water exchange and fed black soldier fly meal (BSFM), poultry by-product meal (PM), poultry blood meal (PBM) and fish meal (FM) as single protein sources were investigated to evaluate the potential for creating specific fish meal-free diets. Fish fed the FM and PM diet showed the significantly best (p < 0.05) and among each other similar (p > 0.05) growth performance (specific growth rate (SGR): 2.12 ± 0.04/2.05 ± 0.11; feed conversion ratio (FCR): 0.86 ± 0.03/0.92 ± 0.01), whereas the PBM diet caused significantly reduced performance (SGR: 1.30 ± 0.02; FCR: 1.79 ± 0.05) in comparison to the FM/PM diet as well as the BSF diet (SGR: 1.76 ± 0.07; FCR: 1.11 ± 0.05). The FM and PM diet resulted in a faster increase and significantly higher dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus levels, while the BSF diet caused faster accumulation and significantly elevated levels of dissolved potassium, magnesium, and copper. The PBM diet resulted in the feces with the significantly highest nutrient density (gross energy, crude protein, and amino acids) but overall much lower dissolved nutrient levels in the water. Results are discussed with regard to implications for developing circular multitrophic food production systems.
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