2022-06-14Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/s22124506
QADI as a New Method and Alternative to Kappa for Accuracy Assessment of Remote Sensing-Based Image Classification
Classification is a very common image processing task. The accuracy of the classified map is typically assessed through a comparison with real-world situations or with available reference data to estimate the reliability of the classification results. Common accuracy assessment approaches are based on an error matrix and provide a measure for the overall accuracy. A frequently used index is the Kappa index. As the Kappa index has increasingly been criticized, various alternative measures have been investigated with minimal success in practice. In this article, we introduce a novel index that overcomes the limitations. Unlike Kappa, it is not sensitive to asymmetric distributions. The quantity and allocation disagreement index (QADI) index computes the degree of disagreement between the classification results and reference maps by counting wrongly labeled pixels as A and quantifying the difference in the pixel count for each class between the classified map and reference data as Q. These values are then used to determine a quantitative QADI index value, which indicates the value of disagreement and difference between a classification result and training data. It can also be used to generate a graph that indicates the degree to which each factor contributes to the disagreement. The efficiency of Kappa and QADI were compared in six use cases. The results indicate that the QADI index generates more reliable classification accuracy assessments than the traditional Kappa can do. We also developed a toolbox in a GIS software environment.
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