2023-01-09Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/nu15020325
Oral Bioavailability and Metabolism of Hydroxytyrosol from Food Supplements
Table olives and olive oils are the main dietary sources of hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant compound that has emerged as a potential aid in protection against cardiovascular risk. Bioavailability studies with olive oils showed that HT is bioavailable from its free form and from conjugated forms such as oleuropein and its aglycone. Still, its low dietary intake, poor bioavailability, and high inter-individual variability after absorption through the gastrointestinal tract hamper its full benefits. In a randomized, controlled, blinded, cross-over study, we investigated the impact of HT metabolism and bioavailability by comparing two olive-derived watery supplements containing different doses of HT (30.58 and 61.48 mg of HT/dosage). Additionally, HT-fortified olive oil was used in the control group. To this aim, plasma and urine samples were evaluated in 12 healthy volunteers following the intake of a single dose of the supplements or fortified olive oil. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, and 12 h after intake. HT and its metabolites were analyzed using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic results showed that dietary HT administered through the food supplements is bioavailable and bioavailability increases with the administered dose. After intake, homovanillic acid, HT-3-O-sulphate, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid are the main metabolites found both in plasma and urine. The maximum concentrations in plasma peaked 30 min after intake. As bioavailability of a compound is a fundamental prerequisite for its effect, these results promise a good potential of both food supplements for protection against oxidative stress and the consequent cardiovascular risk.
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