2023-02-28Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/fishes8030144
Two Probiotic Candidates of the Genus Psychrobacter Modulate the Immune Response and Disease Resistance after Experimental Infection in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, Linnaeus 1758)
Probiotic bacteria are a recognized alternative to classical methods of disease prophylaxis and therapy. We tested the effects of their application on the immune reaction in juvenile turbot. To prevent digestion of the probiotics, rectal administration was applied to maximise colonization, by-passing digestion in the stomach. The application of Psychrobacter nivimaris and Psychrobacter faecalis showed beneficial effects on the inflammatory response and disease resistance after infection with the common pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Treatment with P. nivimaris and P. faecalis resulted in 0% and 8% mortalities post-infection, while in the treatment control, an elevated mortality of 20% was observed. In the challenge controls (no infection), no mortalities were observed during the entire experimental period. After an experimental infection, mRNA expression of selected immune markers (mhc II α, il-1β, tcr, tgf β and tnf α) were determined by RT-QPCR at 0, 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). At 0 dpi, gene expression was comparable between the treatments and the treatment control, suggesting that probiotics did not act via immune stimulation of the host. At 1 dpi, all genes were up-regulated in the treatment control but not in the probiotic groups, indicating that the infection in probiotic-treated fish developed at a less severe level. At 5 dpi, mRNA expression returned to baseline levels. As a conclusion, the native probiotic candidates P. nivimaris and P. faecalis improved survival, whereas, in the control, mortality increased and expression of the immune markers was up-regulated post infection. This highlights a potential application of P. nivimaris and P. faecalis in disease prophylaxis, but further research is needed.