2023-05-28Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.3390/jcm12113725
Predictive Value of Total Metabolic Tumor Burden Prior to Treatment in NSCLC Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibition
Objectives: We aimed to assess the predictive value of the total metabolic tumor burden prior to treatment in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Methods: Pre-treatment 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans performed in two consecutive years for staging in adult patients with confirmed NSCLC were considered. Volume, maximum/mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax/SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were assessed per delineated malignant lesion (including primary tumor, regional lymph nodes and distant metastases) in addition to the morphology of the primary tumor and clinical data. Total metabolic tumor burden was captured by totalMTV and totalTLG. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and clinical benefit (CB) were used as endpoints for response to treatment. Results: A total of 125 NSCLC patients were included. Osseous metastases were the most frequent distant metastases (n = 17), followed by thoracal distant metastases (pulmonal = 14 and pleural = 13). Total metabolic tumor burden prior to treatment was significantly higher in patients treated with ICIs (mean totalMTV ± standard deviation (SD) 72.2 ± 78.7; mean totalTLG ± SD 462.2 ± 538.9) compared to those without ICI treatment (mean totalMTV ± SD 58.1 ± 233.8; mean totalTLG ± SD 290.0 ± 784.2). Among the patients who received ICIs, a solid morphology of the primary tumor on imaging prior to treatment was the strongest outcome predictor for OS (Hazard ratio HR 28.04, p < 0.01), PFS (HR 30.89, p < 0.01) and CB (parameter estimation PE 3.46, p < 0.01), followed by the metabolic features of the primary tumor. Interestingly, total metabolic tumor burden prior to immunotherapy showed a negligible impact on OS (p = 0.04) and PFS (p = 0.01) after treatment given the hazard ratios of 1.00, but also on CB (p = 0.01) given the PE < 0.01. Overall, biomarkers on pre-treatment PET/CT scans showed greater predictive power in patients receiving ICIs, compared to patients without ICI treatment. Conclusions: Morphological and metabolic properties of the primary tumors prior to treatment in advanced NSCLC patients treated with ICI showed great outcome prediction performances, as opposed to the pre-treatment total metabolic tumor burdens, captured by totalMTV and totalTLG, both with negligible impact on OS, PFS and CB. However, the outcome prediction performance of the total metabolic tumor burden might be influenced by the value itself (e.g., poorer prediction performance at very high or very low values of total metabolic tumor burden). Further studies including subgroup analysis with regards to different values of total metabolic tumor burden and their respective outcome prediction performances might be needed.