2001-06-15Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.18452/7773
Außerparlamentarische Opposition gegen die EU in Skandinavien
Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes are widely regarded as reluctant Europeans. However, students of European integration have not hitherto been able to give a comprehensive explanation of the relative strength of political opposition to the European Union in Scandinavia. Although political scientists have made considerable efforts to investigate the European issue during the 1990s, a review of recent academic literature on the subject from Scandinavia reveals that they have dedicated little attention to the real key actors among the anti-integrationist opposition, i.e. the extra-parliamentary “people's movements” against the EU. This article offers an overview of the Scandinavian “No to the EU” movements which have played a key role in all domestic conflicts over Europe since the 1960s. It is argued that, viewed from a historical perspective, these extra-parliamentary movements can be interpreted by contrasting them to post-war federalist movements. On a theoretical level, it is suggested that the concept of federalism could be used in order to analyse the processes of mobilisation and the relative political success of the Scandinavian opposition to the European integration.
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